Make Fuel for Homesteading Needs

Free Power Secrets

Free Power Secrets is a step-by-step guide that will teach you the art of producing fuel at your place. You'll learn how to make your fuel generator through this product. This program will give you a PDF blueprint as well as video guides so that you can achieve what you want. This program was designed by Reggie Hamel. He was able to produce a system that helped him to make gasoline. The program has various components, including a fuel generator, PDF blueprint, video guide, list of tools, instructions, and strategies. The working of this incredible product is simple. On the purchasing, you'll get instructions to build a system that will help you produce fuel. You'll need some tools to get your fuel-generating machine ready. You can save a lot of cash with the support of this product. Also, The program has no harm to the environment, which is another reason to try it. The only disadvantage of this program is that it is an eBook, which means that you can only use it on devices that support the format. Continue reading...

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Fossil Fuel Combustion

In general, fossil fuel combustion results in the dispersion of a wide range of heavy metals, which can include Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, As, Sb, Se, Ba, Cu, Mn, U, and V, over a very large area, although not all these elements are present in significant concentrations in all types of coal and petroleum. The metals accumulate in the coal and petroleum deposits as they formed and are either emitted into the environment as airborne particles during combustion or accumulated in the ash which may itself be transported and contaminate soils or waters or may be leached in situ. The combustion of petrol (gasoline) containing Pb additives has been the largest source of this metal in this environment and has affected soils over a high proportion of the earth's terrestrial surface. Pb is emitted in the exhaust of vehicles running on Pb containing petrol as aerosol particles 0.01-0.1 mm in diameter, but these primary particles can cluster to form large particles (0.3-1 mm). These particles comprise mainly...

Natural Gas and Propane Fuels

In the developed world, natural gas is used extensively as a fuel. It consists mainly of methane but contains small amounts of ethane and propane. Normally the gas is transported by pipelines from its source to domestic consumers, who use it for cooking and heating, and to some utilities, which burn it instead of coal or oil in power plants to produce electricity. Unfortunately, where pipelines do not exist, the natural gas that is produced as a by-product of petroleum production at oil wells, etc. is simply wasted by venting or flaring it off, thereby adding to the atmospheric burden of greenhouse gases. Highly compressed natural gas (CNG) is used to power some vehicles, especially in Canada, Italy, Argentina, the United States, New Zealand, and Russia. Due to the cost of converting a gasoline engine to accept natural gas as the fuel, the current use of CNG in vehicles is mainly restricted to taxis and commercial trucks that are in almost constant service. For such vehicles, the...

Current and Future Outlook for Biofuels

The demand for biofuels is increasing as the supply of crude oil diminishes. The pollution generated from the conventional gasoline is far greater than that of bio-derived fuels, and this is clearly observable when visiting Brazil, a pioneer in bioethanol production and infrastructure. As biofuels are renewable, the greenhouse gas emissions are significantly reduced compared to crude oil derived fuels. The volatility in the price of crude oil has become a problem for many countries and with the price set to rise over the years, many countries could shift to higher targets of biofuel blending.

Separation of Natural Gas Liquids

Natural gas liquids (NGLs) are saturated with propane, butane, and other hydrocarbons. NGLs have a higher value as separate products. This is one reason why NGLs are separated from the natural gas stream. Moreover, reducing the concentration of higher hydrocarbons and water in the gas is necessary to prevent formation of hydrocarbon liquids and hydrates in the natural gas pipeline. The removal of NGLs is usually done in a centralized processing plant by processes similar to those used to dehydrate natural gas. There are two common techniques for removing NGLs from the natural gas stream the absorption and cryogenic expander processes.

Problems in Natural Gas Processing

Conventional natural gas processing consists of applications of various types of synthetic chemicals and polymeric membranes. Thecom-mon chemicals used to remove water, C02, and H2S are Diethylene glycol (DEG), Triethylene glycol (TEG), Monoethanolamines (MEA), Diethanolamines (DEA), and Triethanolamine (TEA). These synthetic chemicals are considered to have health and environmental impacts during their life cycle from production to end uses. The pathway analysis and their impacts are discussed in the following sections.

Current Myths Regarding Biofuel

Increasing uncertainty in global energy production and supply, environmental concerns due to the use of fossil fuels, and high prices of petroleum products are considered to be the major reasons to search for alternatives to petrodiesel. For instance, Lean (2007) claimed that the global supply of oil and natural gas from the conventional sources is unlikely to meet the growth in energy demand over the next 25 years. As a result of this cognition, biofuels are considered to be sustainable alternatives to petroleum products. Because few are accustomed to questioning the first premise of any of these conclusions, even the ardent supporters of the petroleum industry find merit in this conclusion. Considerable funds have been spent in developing biofuel technology, and even the mention of negative impacts of food (e.g., corn) being converted into fuel was considered to be anti-civilization. It is assumed that biodiesel fuels are environmentally beneficial (Demirbas 2003). The argument put...

Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel

The use of alternative fuels in the transportation sector is the best short- and medium-term options to lower urban pollution and our current dependence on oil. From the currently available alternatives, natural gas (NG) is clearly the more advantageous one due to its environmental friendly behavior, and because it is a truly and effective alternative to oil-derived fuels 1 . Cheaper than gasoline and diesel fuels. Although there is no uniform price list for natural gas in the transportation sector across Europe, the experience in countries where natural gas vehicles (NGV) are well spread has shown that the price of NG is, at least, half of the equivalent price of gasoline. TABLE 1. Estimated number of natural gas vehicles and NG refueling stations in several countries. These numbers are continuously increasing, propelled by policies of energy savings and environmental protection. TABLE 1. Estimated number of natural gas vehicles and NG refueling stations in several countries. These...

Biorefining A Green Tribological Perspective

Abstract As a developing country, South Africa is in a unique position with regard to establishing, maintaining and expanding infrastructure to ensure compliance with international trends with respect to environmental regulations, while at the same time establishing the means to provide access to affordable energy to all its citizens to share the potential of its resources. In many respects, tribology plays an important role in saving of energy as well as ensuring that requirements with regard to protecting the environment are complied with. Green tribology can rightly be regarded as an approach which is timely and which has an impact on many activities like electricity generation, production of synthetic fuels and lubricants, mining operations and protection of the environment and its resources. Focusing on the interface between Tribology and Biorefining, several interesting possibilities open up. With the constant rise in the price of oil, alternatives to crude oil as primary energy...

Effect of Natural Gas Composition

Besides methane, which is the main component in a proportion usually above 90 , natural gas contains small amounts of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and decreasing volumetric percentages of other hydrocarbons with an increasing number of carbon atoms ethane, propane, butane, pentane, etc. (Table 4). TABLE 4. Chemical composition ( -vol) of natural gas that Portugal imports from the Algerian Hassi R'Mel well. (Gas de Portugal.) In order to solve this problem, it is necessary an efficient and economic means of controlling the contaminants that are introduced into the reservoir during charge. The most economical solution is to install a purification system for natural gas at the refueling station 13 . The filter is quite simply a carbon bed because, as has been referred, it preferentially retains the higher hydrocarbons over methane.

Analytical Environmental Chemistry Experiments in the Literature

Integrating Service Learning in the Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, 225th. Am. Chem. Soc. National Meeting, New Orleans, LA, March 23-27,2003. Chem. Ed. Division Paper 87. Crisp, G. T. Williamson, N. M. Separation of Pol-yaromatic Hydrocarbons Using 2-Dimensional Thin-Layer Chromatography An Environmental Chemistry Experiment, J. Chem. Educ. 1999,76, 1691-1692. Simple UV Experiment of Environmental Significance, J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 83. De Bruyn, W. J. Incorporating Hands-on Environmental Chemistry Research Projects into General Education Science Courses, 225th. Am. Chem. Soc. National Meeting, New Orleans, LA, March 23-27, 2003. Chem. Ed. Division Paper 84. Draper, A. J. Integrating Project-Based Service-Learning into an Advanced Environmental Chemistry Course, J. Chem. Educ. 2004, 81, 221-224. Dunnivant, F. M. Environmental Laboratory Exercises for Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry Wiley-Interscience New York, 2004. Jenkins, J....

Alternative Fuels Alcohols Ethers and Esters

For environmental and supply reasons, attention is turning to the development of cleaner-burning alternatives to hydrocarbon fuels, especially to power vehicles. Some of these alternatives are, at least in principle, renewable in the sense that their production could be sustained indefinitely into the future without resulting in the accumulation of additional carbon dioxide. In the material that follows, we discuss the nature and properties of the major contenders for alternative fuels. In a later section, we take a longer-range viewpoint and consider hydrogen, the ultimate fuel of the future. The organic fuels considered here have the inherent advantage over hydrogen and even over natural gas that they are liquids under normal temperatures and pressures that bum easily in air to produce considerable heat like the gasoline and diesel fuels with which they can be blended or which they can replace, they are energy-dense fuels. Since they all contain carbon, however, their combustion...

Methane Oxidation over Noble Metal Catalysts as Related to Controlling Natural Gas Vehicle Exhaust Emissions

Noble Metal Catalysis

Natural gas has considerable potential as an alternative automotive fuel. Methane, the principal hydrocarbon species in natural-gas engine exhaust, has extremely low photochemical reactivity but is a powerful greenhouse gas. Therefore, exhaust emissions of unburned methane from natural-gas vehicles are of particular concern. This laboratory reactor study evaluates noble metal catalysts for their potential in the catalytic removal of methane from natural-gas vehicle exhaust. Temperature run-up experiments show that the methane oxidation activity decreases in the order Pd Al203 RI1 AI2O3 Pt A C . Also, for all the noble metal catalysts studied, methane conversion can be maximized by controlling the O2 concentration of the feedstream at a point somewhat rich (reducing) of stoichiometry. '-g In recent years natural gas has received increased attention as an g alternative fuel for motor vehicles because of its potential g technical, economic and environmental advantages. Natural gas, which...

Problems with Biodiesel Sources

The main feedstocks of biodiesel are vegetable oils, animal fats, and waste cooking oil. These are the mono alkyl esters of fatty acids derived from vegetable oil or animal fat. The fuels derived may be alcohols, ethers, esters, and other chemicals made from cellulosic biomass and waste products, such as agricultural and forestry residues, aquatic plants (microalgae), fast growing trees and grasses, and municipal and industrial wastes. Subramanyam et al. (2005) reported that there are more than 300 oil-bearing crops identified that can be utilized to make biodiesel. Beef and sheep tallow, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, canola oil, coconut oil, olive oil, soybean oil, cottonseed oil, mustard oil, hemp oil, linseed oil, microalgae oil, peanut oil, and waste cooking oil are considered potential alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production (Demirba 2003). However, the main sources of biodiesel are rapeseed oil, soybean oil, and, to a certain extent, animal fat, with rapeseed accounting...

Pathways of Natural Gas Processing

Gas Processing Schematic

Natural gas is a mixture of methane, ethane, propane, butane and other hydrocarbons, water vapor, oil and condensates, hydrogen sulfides, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, other gases, and solid particles. The free water and water vapors are corrosive to the transportation equipment. Hydrates can plug the gas accessories creating several flow problems. Other gas mixtures such as hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide are known to lower the heating value of natural gas by reducing its overall fuel efficiency. This makes mandatory that natural gas is purified before it is sent to transportation pipelines. Gas processing is aimed at preventing corrosion, an environmental and safety hazard associated with the transport of natural gas. In order to extract the natural gas found in the natural reservoirs, onshore and offshore drilling activities are carried out. Production and processing are carried out after the extraction, which includes Figure 12.5 Generalized natural gas processing schematic...

Natural Gas Processing

Natural gas found in natural gas reservoirs are complex mixtures of hundreds of different compounds. A typical natural gas stream consists of a mixture of methane, ethane, propane, butane and other hydrocarbons, water vapors, oil and condensates, hydrogen sulfides, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, other gases, and solid particles (Table 12.2). Even though these compounds are characterized as contaminants, they are not removed because of environmental concerns. It is obvious that water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, sulfur components, etc., from a natural source are not a threat to the environment. The main reasons for their removal from a gas stream are the following 1) the heating value of the gas is decreased in the presence of these gases. Consequently, suppliers are required to remove any levels of these gases beyond a desired value, depending on the standard set by the regulatory board. 2) The presence of water vapor, sulfur compounds, etc., increases the possibility of corrosion in...

Example Alkenes from Petroleum Fractions and from Bioethanol

The method outlined in Section 5.3.2 is used in the following to assess the economic perspective for producing low- boiling alkenes from bioethanol instead of from petroleum fractions. Biomass-based ethanol can be used in this way as raw material for chemical products, especially to produce polymers. The current world production of ethene and propene is mainly covered by the petrochemical route based on steam cracking, that is, thermal pyrolysis of petroleum liquids (naphtha, gas oils) and natural gas condensates, that is, ethane, propane, etc. 13-15 . A schematic stoichiometry is given in Eq. (5.2). As an alternative, ethanol can be converted via catalytic dehydration to ethene, as shown in Eq. (5.3) 16 . For steam cracking of naphtha, the reaction stoichiometry gives a maximum product yield of nearly 100 wt. , whereas ethanol conversion can lead only to maximum yields of 61 wt. . The procedure outlined should be helpful for identifying advantageous situations to replace naphtha...

Hydrogen Production Methods

While hydrogen is the most plentiful element in the universe, making up about three-quarters of all matter, free hydrogen is scarce. The atmosphere contains trace amounts of it (0.07 ), and it is usually found in small amounts mixed with natural gas in crustal reservoirs. A few wells, however, have been found to contain large amounts of hydrogen, such as some wells in Kansas that contain 40 hydrogen, 60 nitrogen, and trace amounts of hydrocarbons (Goebel et al. 1984). The earth's surface contains about 0.14 hydrogen (10th most abundant element), most of which resides in chemical combination with oxygen as water. Hydrogen, therefore, must be produced. Logical sources of hydrogen are hydrocarbon (fossil) fuels (CXHY) and water (H20). Presently, hydrogen is mostly being produced from fossil fuels (natural gas, oil, and coal). However, except for the space program, hydrogen is not being used directly as a fuel or an energy carrier. It is being used in refineries to upgrade crude oil...

Bioethanol and Chemical Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass

Renewable Lignocellulosic Biomass

Lignocellulosic biomass is mainly constituted of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin and is available in various forms. In future, lignocellulose-containing substrates will be an interesting option for the production of ethanol and other chemicals. Energy sources obtained from lignocellulosic sources belong to the so-called second generation of biofuels. In contrast to first-generation biofuels as biodiesel from rape seed oil or ethanol from sugarcane or wheat, second-generation biofuels will not be in direct competition with the production of food or animal feed. Possible sources for lignocellulosic feedstocks (Table 5.8) can be, for example, wood residues, agricultural wastes, fast- growing energy crops like switch grass with high yields per hectare, or even municipal solid wastes. The so - called biorefineries should not only be able to produce biofuels but a broad range of products useful as precursors for bulk and fine chemicals and new industrial polymers. Currently, bioethanol...

The Current Process of Biodiesel Production

Recently (Chhetri and Islam 2008b) detailed the process involved in biodiesel production. Conventionally, biodiesel is produced either in a single-stage or a double-stage batch process or by a continuous flow type transesterification process. These are either acid catalyzed or base catalyzed processes. The acids generally used are sulfonic acid and sulfuric acid. These acids give very high yields in alkyl esters, but these reactions are slow, requiring high temperatures above 100 C and more than three hours to complete the conversion (Schuchardt 1998). Alkali catalyzed transesterification is much faster than acid catalyzed transesterification, and all commercial biodiesel producers prefer to use this process (Ma and Hanna 1999). The alkalis generally used in the process include NaOH, KOH, and sodium methoxide. For an alkali-catalyzed transesterification, the glycerides and alcohol must be anhydrous because water changes the reaction, causing saponification. The soap lowers the yield...

Biorefining in South Africa

Biorefining was first investigated in South Africa as early as 1970 by the CSIR when alternate sources of petroleum-based fuels were of great interest 15 , but was abandoned after 1994 as an active area of research. With recent growing international focus on biorefining and utilization of biomass research in this field has seen a steady growth in South Africa. As far as biomass production goes South Africa is in a very good position to be a competitor in biorefining with its range of climates for diverse agriculture and its established forestry industries. In 2005 South Africa was ranked 9th in the world for its maize (primary source of bio-ethanol production in the USA) production and 12th for its sugarcane (primary source of bio-ethanol in Brazil) production 16 . The forestry industry in South Africa is well established since the government started a plantation after World War 1 and the expansion by the two leading paper manufacturers (Sappi and Mondi) 17 in 1980. Currently South...


Biofuels have been drawing considerable attention recently due to the disadvantages of fossil fuels (e.g., emissions of greenhouse gases, unsustainable supply), which produce large amounts of C02 during a combustion process. Among the liquid biofuels, ethanol has the major contribution in the transportation sector. Lignocellulosic biomass contains 40-60 of cellulose and 20-40 of hemicellulose, two thirds of which are polysaccharides that can be hydrolyzed to sugars and then fermented to ethanol. Ethanol can be easily burned in today's internal combustion engines to substitute gasoline. The worldwide gasoline use in the transportation industry is about 1,200 billion liters year (Martinot 2005). The total ethanol production as of 2004 is approximately 32 billion liters year. Brazil is the leading country in using ethanol as transportation fuel. There is a huge gap between gasoline use and the supply of ethanol as a substitute for gasoline in the current market. Ethanol is being produced...


Considerable attention has been paid to develop biodiesel as a replacement for petrodiesel in order to reduce environmental problems. Despite the fact that renewable resources such as vegetable oil produce biodiesel, the pathway of conventional biodiesel is similar to that of petrodiesel. The use of excessive heat, chemicals, and catalysts adds toxicity to the resulting biodiesel, which makes the process expensive and highly unsustainable and creates adverse impacts on the environment. Various additives used for biodiesel production inhibit the formation of sediments and other insolubles, making the biodiesel even worse. The formation of sediment or gum can result in operational problems with plugging and fouling at the end-use equipment. A recent EPA (2002) report indicates that even though biodiesel has less toxic pollution compared to petroleum diesel, the combustion of biodiesel still produces toxic emissions similar to those of petrodiesel, such as benzene, acetaldehyde, toluene,...

Fossil Fuels Coal

The main fossil-fuel reserve is coal, which is available in abundance in many regions of the world, including developing countries, and which is cheap to mine and transport. Five countries the United States, Russia, China, India, and Australia have 75 of the world's coal reserves. At today's rate of consumption, coal reserves are estimated to last another 200 years, much longer than oil or gas (see below). Indeed, some observers believe the world will return to a greater reliance on coal as the major fossil fuel later in this century. The 2100 coal-fired power plants in the world are collectively responsible for about a third of all anthropogenic C02 emissions. Currently, coal produces about half the electric power in the United States and 80 of that in China. The heat produced in the combustion of the fossil fuel is used to generate high-pressure steam, which in turn is used to turn turbines and thereby produce electricity. As discussed below, however, the ratio of C02 to energy...


Carriers The World

Driven by the boost of biofuels worldwide, a large number of LCA studies has been carried out on this group of biobased products. Biobased fuels are generally assessed in comparison to petrochemical fuels, where the reference products are gasoline, diesel, and natural gas. In addition, process chains for several biofuels are compared to each other, differing in technology and raw materials. Results are reported for fuel production only ( well-to-tank analysis ), or including fuel efficiency and emissions for vehicle use ( tank-to-wheel analysis ) -the first resulting in a functional unit per energy content of the fuel, whereas the latter is specified per distance of transportation. Also a functional unit per area of land used is reported frequently. Results of studies on biofuels are of interest also beyond the scope of the transportation sector, as compounds like ethanol or plant oils may also serve as intermediates to be used in future green chemistry. Biofuels comprise so-called...

Biodiesel Toxicity

Samurai 1575

The toxicity of biodiesel is measured by the fuel toxicity to the human body and by the health and environmental impacts due to exhaust emission. Tests conducted for acute oral toxicity of a pure biodiesel fuel and a 20 blend (B20) in a single-dose study on rats reported that the LD50 of pure biodiesel, as well as B20, was found to be greater than 5000 mg kg (Chhetri et al. 2008). Hair loss was found on one of the test samples in the B20. The acute dermal toxicity of neat biodiesel tested for LD50 was greater than 2000 mg kg. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (2002) studied the biodiesel effects on gaseous toxics and listed 21 Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATs) based on that study. MSATs are significant contributors to the toxic emissions and are known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects. Of the 21 MSATs listed, six are metals. Of the remaining 14 MSATs, the emission measurements were performed for the eleven components, namely, acetaldehyde,...

Removing C02 from the Atmosphere

In another proposal, carbon dioxide from a power plant would be used to grow vast amounts of algae, which then could be used as fuel for combustion. Several prototype facilities of this kind have been constructed. The exhaust from small power plants is led through clear tubes in which fast-growing algae are produced in an aqueous environment using sunlight to drive photosynthesis. The algae harvested from the process are dried for combustion or converted into biodiesel and ethanol fuels (see Chapter 8).

Energy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the Future Growth in Energy

Since the Industrial Revolution, the rate of emission of C02 to the atmosphere has climbed hand-in-hand with the expansion of commercial energy use, since so much of the latter (currently 78 ) is obtained from fossil-fuel sources. Barring an unforeseen, massive development of nuclear energy or renewable fuels or carbon sequestration, CO, emission rates are expected to match commercial energy production rate increases as the developing world undergoes industrialization and as the economies of developed countries continue to expand. Indeed, a 2003 assessment by the European Union predicts that, over the first three decades of this century, carbon dioxide emissions will rise globally by an annual average of 2.1 , due to a 1.8 annual increase in energy usage. The fraction of fossil-fuel energy obtained from coal is expected to increase over this period due to higher and higher prices for oil and natural gas as they become more scarce thereby increasing the carbon intensity of the fuel...

Anthropogenic effects on ocean chemistry

The activities of humans have had some impacts on both the major and minor element chemistry of the modern oceans. For example, seawater major ion budgets mostly assume the estimated riverwater input to seawater is that of the pristine (pre-human) system. However, anthropogenic processes have altered some of these fluxes. For example, the riverine Cl- flux may have increased by more than 40 as a result of human activity and the SO4- flux may have doubled, due mainly to fossil fuel combustion and oxidation of pollution-derived H2S.

The sulphur cycle and climate

It is difficult to estimate the size of the effect since it depends not only on the total aerosol mass loading in the atmosphere, but also on the chemical composition and size distribution of the particles. However, the effect seems to be significant in terms of climate changes induced by human consumption of fossil fuels. Data in the 2001 report on 'Radiative Forcing of Climate Change' by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are instructive here. The globally averaged assessment of direct radiative forcing effect of SO4- aerosols from fossil fuel burning relative to 1750 (pre-industrial times) is -0.4 (range 0.2 to -0.8) Wm-2. Similarly the globally averaged figure for biomass burning over the same period is -0.2 (range -0.1 to -0.6) Wm-2. These numbers can be compared with radiative forcing attributed to greenhouse gas emissions since pre-industrial times of +2.4 (range +2.2 to +2.7) Wm-2. Four important things should be noted from the comparison. Firstly, the direct...

Electric Cars Powered by Batteries

Even electric vehicles are not really pollution-free if a fossil fuel is burned to generate the electricity to charge the battery, since the fossil fuel's combustion in any power plant yields NOx that is released into the atmosphere. The first wave of consumer products powered by fuel cells will likely be on the market in the next year or two. Laptop computers will be powered by fuel cells rather than rechargeable batteries. These fuel cells will use methanol rather than hydrogen directly as fuel and will contain removable cartridges containing the alcohol. The advantage for the user of fuel cells over battery power is a much longer working time before the power runs out. Using methanol or natural gas rather than H2 directly as the fuel in fuel cells does avoid the problem of the generation and storage of hydrogen. One problem with methanol is the generation of by-product carbon monoxide, which poisons the catalyst, as discussed previously. Diluting the methanol with water lessens...

The Chemistry Of Natural Waters

Pressure Enthalpy Diagram R22 Dupont

River or lake water that has been artificially warmed can be considered to have undergone thermal pollution in the sense that, at equilibrium, it will contain less oxygen than colder water because of the decrease in gas solubility with increasing temperature. To sustain their lives, most fish species require water containing at least 5 ppm of dissolved oxygen consequently, their survival in warmed water can be problematic. Thermal pollution often occurs in the region of electric power plants (whether fossil fuel, nuclear, or solar), since they draw cold water from a river or lake, use it for cooling purposes, and then return the warmed water to its source. FIGURE 13-4 ThepE-pH diagram for the iron system at 10 5 M concentration. Source Adapted from S. E. Manahan, Environmental Chemistry4th ed. (Boston, MA Wi I lard Grant Press PVVS Publishers, 1984).J FIGURE 13-4 ThepE-pH diagram for the iron system at 10 5 M concentration. Source Adapted from S. E. Manahan, Environmental Chemistry4th...

Additional Problems

The replacement by natural gas of oil or coal used in power plants has been proposed as a mechanism by which C02 emissions can be reduced. However, much of the advantage of switching to gas can be offset since methane escaping into the atmosphere from gas pipelines is 23 times as effective, on a molecule-per-molecule basis, in causing global warming as is carbon dioxide. Calculate the maximum percentage of CH4 that can escape if replacement of oil by natural gas is to reduce the rate of global warming. Hint Recall that the heat energy outputs of the fuels are proportional to 4. Canada has massive supplies of heavy oil in tar sands, which are being used to make gasoline by combining them with natural gas. Assume that the empirical formulas of these three fuels are CH, CH2, and CH4, respectively, and that gasoline is made by hydrogenating the tar with hydrogen produced from natural gas in its reaction with water to produce C02 and H2. Combine the hydrogenation and hydrogen production...

Universidad De Antioquia Riri lOTFfiA Central

Is devoted to exploring this problem and its possible solutions, as well as to the nature and properties of fossil fuels, namely coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Carbon dioxide is produced when any carbon-containing substance undergoes complete combustion Developed countries have accounted for about three-quarters of all carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement manufacture since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. The emissions from these sources from various countries in the more recent period (1980-2004) are illustrated by the bands in Figure 7-1. Notice that FIGURE 7-1 C02 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion for different countries and regions since 1 980. Source M. Raupach et a I., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (2007) 10288. Almost all the increase in C02 emissions discussed above arose from increases in usage of energy derived from fossil fuels. However, the ratio of carbon dioxide to energy varies among countries and over...

The global budget of natural and anthropogenic carbon dioxide

We now synthesize much of the knowledge outlined in previous sections on the global budget of CO2. Firstly, the relative sizes of the natural reservoirs are considered and then the natural flows between them, followed by how anthropogenic CO2 partitions between the boxes. Finally, likely future levels of atmospheric CO2 are discussed in terms of possible scenarios of fossil fuel consumption. Fig. 7.8 Fossil-fuel emissions and the rate of increase of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. Vertical arrows define El Ni o events (see text for discussion). Data from IPCC (2001). With permission of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Fossil fuels and shales Section 7.2.2. The reservoir of carbon in fossil fuels and mudrocks is also substantial and a major portion of the latter is thought to be recoverable and thus available for burning. The smallest reservoirs are the land biosphere (2000 GtC) and the atmosphere (749 GtC, equivalent to an atmospheric concentration of about 354...

London smogprimary pollution

Great Smog 1952 Definition

Urban pollution is largely the product of combustion processes. In ancient times cities such as Imperial Rome experienced pollution problems due to wood smoke. However, it was the transition to fossil fuel burning that caused the rapid development of air pollution problems. The inhabitants of London have burnt coal since the 13 th century. Concern and attempts to regulate coal burning began almost immediately, as there was a perceptible and rather strange smell associated with it. Medieval Londoners thought this smell might be associated with disease. In addition to these problems, contaminants within the fuel can also cause air pollution. The most common and worrisome impurity in fossil fuels is sulphur (S), partly present as the mineral pyrite, FeS2. There may be as much as 6 sulphur in some coals and this is converted to SO2 on combustion Natural gas

Deep Underground Storage of C02

There have been suggestions that the C02 output from power plants could be pumped deep underground into cracks and pores in common alkaline rocks such as calcium aluminosilicates there, the rocks could react with the gas, in microorganism-catalyzed processes, to produce calcium carbonate and thereby store the CO,. Such carbonate minerals are known to be present in deep caves in Hawaii and elsewhere, so the process could well be feasible if the reactions occur quickly enough. Recently, Norway has started to pump concentrated C02 gas into sandstone rocks located a kilometer below the North Sea the pores in the rock were left empty by extraction of natural gas from them in the past. The C02 could react with the rock and thus be immobilized. In the short run, the easiest route to begin sequestration of carbon dioxide is probably to inject it into reservoirs containing crude oil or natural gas. However, the total capacity for carbon dioxide storage by such enhanced oil recovery, labeled...

The sulphur cycle and atmospheric acidity

Trahre Jacques Sulphur Cycle 1991

If CO2 were the only atmospheric gas controlling the acidity of rain, then the pH of rainwater would be close to 5.6 (see Box 3.7). However, most pH measurements of rainwater fall below this value, indicating other sources of acidity. Much of this 'extra' acidity arises from the sulphur cycle, as shown in Fig. 7.18. Only two major routes give rise to the sulphur acidity. One is the burning of fossil fuels to produce the acidic gas SO2. The other is the production of the gas DMS by marine organisms, which then degases to the atmosphere across the air-sea interface (Fig. 7.23). Once in the atmosphere the DMS is oxidized by powerful oxidants, called free radicals (see Section 3.5). The two free radicals important for oxidation of DMS are hydroxyl (OH) and nitrate (NO3). The products of this oxidation are several, but the two most important are SO2 and methane sulphonic acid (MSA or CH3SO3H). The SO2 formed in this way is chemically indistinguishable from that coming from the burning of...

Aerosols and Global Warming

So2 Free Radical

The increase of global S02 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion over the last century and a half is shown in Figure 6-19. Up to 20 more sulfur dioxide is emitted by smelting, etc. Presumably the trend in anthropogenic sulfate aerosol production has approximately followed the pattern of S02 emissions in Figure 6-19. The initial approximately linear time increase of the sulfur dioxide emission rate changed to one with a much steeper slope after World War II, a behavior we saw previously for C02 and CH4. However, the ratio of global S02 to C02 emission rates, expressed as a percentage of sulfur in the carbon of the fuel, fell from about 2.2 in the 1930s and 1940s to a constant 1.1 in recent decades, due presumably to the gradual replacement of coal by oil and natural gas.

The global sulphur cycle and anthropogenic effects

Sulfur Cycle John Evans

There is no evidence that volcanic emissions of sulphur (mainly as sulphur dioxide, SO2) have changed significantly during the last 150 years or so (i.e. the time period between parts (a) and (b) of Fig. 7.17) for either terrestrial or marine volcanoes. Similarly, there is no evidence for significant change in the sea-to-air fluxes of either sea-salt sulphate (coming from sea spray arising from wave breaking and bubble bursting at the sea surface) or volatile sulphur, or of emissions of sulphur gases from the terrestrial biosphere. It is important to note that these gaseous fluxes are major components in the cycling of sulphur. The geochemical budget of the element cannot be balanced without them and the total emissions from marine and terrestrial sources is about 70 of the amount of sulphur put into the atmosphere by fossil-fuel burning. The principal component of the marine emissions of volatile sulphur is a gas called dimethyl sulphide (DMS see also Section 3.4.2 and Fig. 3.4a),...

Conclusions About Solar Energy

In these discussions, some general features concerning the use of solar energy, as opposed to fossil-fuel and nuclear energy, have emerged, and others have also been reached by energy analysts. Many of these conclusions apply to all forms of renewable energy. receives little or no economic (tax) or regulatory credit from governments in recognition of the low amount of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions it causes relative to fossil-fuel usage.

Natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks

There are three main sources and sinks for atmospheric CO2 in near-surface environments the land biosphere (including freshwaters), the oceans, and anthropogenic emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and other industrial activities. In the natural state the land biosphere and the ocean reservoirs exchange CO2 with the atmosphere in an essentially balanced two-way transfer. These reservoirs are also sinks for anthropogenic CO2. Volcanic emissions (see Section 3.4.1) are not considered here since they are thought to be quantitatively unimportant on short timescales. From the above discussion it is apparent that, while human activities in burning fossil fuel are the primary control on the year-to-year increase in atmospheric CO2, it is biologically induced exchanges that determine the observed seasonal pattern. Thus, it is clear that the land biota can strongly affect the levels of atmospheric CO2. This raises the question of whether human activities, for example through change in...

Ways To Make A Wedge

8 Assume 60-mpg cars, 10,000 miles a year, biomass yield of 15 tons a hectare, and negligible fossil-fuel inputs. World cropland is 1,500 million hectares. Oil accounted for 43 percent of global carbon emissions from fossil fuels in 2002, while coal accounted for 37 percent natural gas made up the remainder. More than half the oil was used for transport. So smartening up electricity production alone cannot fill the stabilization triangle transportation, too, must be decarbonized. As with coal-fired electricity, at least a wedge may be available from each of three complementary options reduced use, improved efficiency and decarbonized energy sources. People can take fewer unwanted trips (telecommuting instead of vehicle commuting) and pursue the travel they cherish (adventure, family visits) in fuel-efficient vehicles running on low-carbon fuel. The fuel can

Sequestration of C02

Sequestration Carbon Chemical Structure

In the future, C02 might be removed chemically from the exhaust gases of major point sources that would otherwise release it into the atmosphere, such as power plants that burn fossil fuels and that collectively are responsible for one-quarter to one-third of total emissions. The carbon dioxide gas so recovered would then be sequestered i.e., deposited in an underground or ocean location that would prevent its release into the air. For example, the C02 could be sequestered by burial in the deep oceans, where it would dissolve, or in very deep aquifers under land or the seas, or in empty oil and natural gas wells or coal seams. The total amount of carbon dioxide that will be produced by fossil-fuel combustion over this century will amount to more than one trillion tonnes, so vast amounts of storage would be required (Problem 7-6). Since it is not economically feasible to transport and store emission gases from power plants, the dilute carbon dioxide (usually 12-14 by volume) in the gas...

Co2 h2 CO h2o

Thus the fraction x 3a of the initial amount of H2 from the natural gas that must be converted to CO is 1 9. Some of the massive quantities of C02 that are released annually into the atmosphere could be used as reactants in this process. Indeed, methanol produced in this manner could be considered a renewable fuel provided that the hydrogen is produced without the consumption of a fossil fuel, e.g., by solar energy (see below). Although methanol can be used as a vehicular fuel on its own, there are chemical reactions by which it can be converted to gasoline. Similarly, synthesis gas itself can be converted to gasoline, thereby allowing the production of this fuel from either natural gas or coal (Figure 8-10). Currently, neither of these processes, nor the production of fuel methanol itself, is sufficiently efficient that it can compete economically with gasoline produced from crude oil.


The simplest hydrocarbons are those that contain strings of carbon atoms, each one singly bonded to its closest neighboring carbon atom(s) and to several hydrogen atoms. Such hydrocarbons are called alkanes, of which the simplest are methane, CH4 ethane, C2H6 and propane, C3H8. Commercial supplies of all three are readily available from natural gas wells. Structural formulas for these three alkanes are

Box 35 The pH scale

The volatile organic compounds released through the use of petroleum fuels serve to aid the conversion of NO to NO2. The reactions are quite complicated, but we can simplify them by using a very simple organic molecule such as CH4, to represent the petroleum vapour from vehicles


Methanol, CH3OH, is a colorless liquid that, like ethanol, is somewhat less dense than water. Although methanol was produced in the past from the destructive distillation of wood, giving rise to its historical name wood alcohol, it is now produced mainly from a fossil fuel. The conventional conversion of either coal or natural gas into methanol begins with the reaction of the fossil fuel with steam to produce a mixture of CO and H2, often called synthesis gas The correct 2 1 molar ratio of H2 to CO required for the methanol synthesis reaction above is rarely obtained initially from the raw materials. For example, the reaction of steam with coal instead gives synthesis gas with a 1 1 ratio, and with natural gas a 3 1 ratio is obtained. The ratio can be adjusted to the required 2 1 by subjecting the mixture to the water-gas shift reaction, which is an equilibrium that can be written as

Review Questions

What are the ultimate origins of coal, oil, and natural gas Which fuel is in greatest reserve abundance 12. What is the main component of natural gas Write out the balanced chemical equation illustrating its combustion. 13. Why is natural gas considered to be an environmentally superior fuel to oil or coal What phenomenon involved in its transmission by pipeline might offset this advantage

Can Human Intervention Affect Longterm Sustainability of Nature

It is shown in Chapter 5 that sustainable energy sources can be rendered fully sustainable (including the refining and emission capture), making them even more environmentally appealing in the short-term (long-term being already covered by the fact they meet the sustainability criterion). In order to characterize various energy sources, the concept of global efficiency is introduced. This efficiency automatically shows that the unsustainable technologies are also the least efficient ones. It is shown that crude oil and natural gas are compatible with organic processes that are known to produce no harmful oxidation products.

Gaseous Constituents Of The Atmosphere

Table 2-1 shows the constituents of clean, dry air near sea level. Usually, the atmosphere also contains water vapor and dust, but these occur in amounts that vary widely from place to place and from time to time. Carbon dioxide, the fourth constituent on the list, has, as we shall see, been increasing in concentration during this century, mostly through the burning of fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum products. The concentrations given in Table 2-1 are estimated global averages for 1989 some of the trace constituents, like methane, have also been increasing in concentration, as noted later (see Section 3.3.3 and Figure 3-14). Trace constituents may vary in concentration in different parts of the atmosphere and in different parts of the globe. This is because many of these trace constituents are produced by different human and natural sources in different locations and are then removed from the atmosphere in different ways and by different means. For example, nitrogen oxides may...

How Can We Determine Whether Natural Energy Sources Last Forever

Chapter 12 identifies root causes of unsustainability in refining and gas processing schemes. It is shown that refining, as used in modern times, remains the most important reason behind the toxic outcome of petroleum product utilization for natural gas, liquid petroleum, and solid final products (e.g., plastics). Alternatives are proposed so that refining is done in such a way that the refined products retain real value yet do not lose their original environmental sustainability (as in crude oil).

Introduction to Renewable Resources in the Chemical Industry

Processes in the chemical industry are historically based on fossil resources. During industrial revolution, energy sources like peat and such renewable biomasses as wood were substituted by coal and later on by natural gas and petroleum oil. The latter has been, until now, the main resource for raw materials and the energy supply for the private sector. Due to its very beneficial properties in terms of chemical synthesis processes, only a minor proportion of approximately 10 of this plentiful resource is used for such purposes, whereas 90 is utilized for energy and transport. With regard to the increasing population and energy demand and oil consumption of developing countries, the limited availability of crude oil, and financially motivated trading operations, the price of oil rises steadily and reached a peak of nearly 150 USD per barrel in 2008. It is assumed that most of the known so -called supergiant oil-fields cross the oil-peak, which comes along with a decrease in the...

The Most Serious Problems

In 2005, Jared Diamond published his book 'Collapse How societies choose to fail or succeed' 17 . In this work, Diamond identifies four major issues that lead to the collapse of societies. The first issue comprises destruction and loss of natural resources (e.g. destruction of natural habitats, aquacultures, biodiversity loss, erosion and soil damage), the second ceilings on natural resources (e.g. fossil fuels, water, photosynthesis ceiling), the third harmful things that we produce and move around (e.g. toxic man-made chemicals, alien species, ozone hole) and the fourth comprises population issues (e.g. population growth, impact of population on the environment). We need to go green if we want to sustain ourselves.

Implications of a Knowledgebased Sustainability Analysis

Scientific link between global warming and fossil fuel production and utilization. In solving Equation 3.10, one will encounter a set of non-linear equations. These equations cannot be linearized. Recently, Moussavizadegan et al. (2007) proposed a method for solving non-linear equations. The principle is to cast the governing equation in engineering formulation, as outlined by Abou-Kassem et al. (2006) whose principles were further elaborated in Abou-Kassem (2007). The total energy consumption in 2004 was equivalent to approximately 200 million barrels of oil per day, which is about 14.5 terawatts, over 85 of which comes from fossil fuels (Service 2005). Globally, about 30 billion tons of C02 is produced annually from fossil fuels, which includes oil, coal, and natural gas (EIA 2004). The industrial COz produced from fossil fuel burning is considered solely responsible for the current global warming and climate change problems (Chhetri and Islam 2007). Hence, burning fossil fuels is...

Global Energy Scenario

The global energy consumption share from different sources is shown in Table 5.1. The analysis carried out by EIA (2006a) shows that oil remains the dominant energy source followed by coal and natural gas. It is projected that nuclear energy production will also increase by more than two times by the year 2030. Renewable energy sources, such as biomass, solar, and hydro, will not increase significantly compared to the total energy consumption. Renewable energy sources supply 17 of the world's primary energy. They include traditional biomass, large and small hydropower, wind, solar geothermal, and biofuels (Martinot 2005). Figure 5.6 indicates the similar trend for natural gas reserves. Conventional technology is able to recover lighter gases, which Figure 5.6 Worldwide oil and natural gas resource base (after Stosur 2000). are relatively at lower depths. Recently, more focus is being placed on developing technologies in order to recover the coal-bed methane. There are still large...

Potential Raw Materials

Sources 7 , and the US Department of Energy has performed a thorough evaluation of likely high-value biological chemicals 5 . The key findings of these two research programs are shown in Table 3.1. Direct use of agricultural products as raw materials is rare. The majority of the chemical building blocks identified by these projects are derived from agricultural products using either chemical processes or microbial fermentation. Consequently, the primary raw materials required from agriculture are starch, sugars, and oils. These generic substances can then be used to manufacture a wide variety of more useful chemical products. In some cases, multiple products may be produced from a single agricultural feedstock. For example, glycerol is a by-product of the transesterification of plant oils during biodiesel production.

Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming

Energy production and use are considered major causes of greenhouse gas emissions. The emission of greenhouse gases, particularly C02, is of great concern today. Even though C02 is considered one of the major greenhouse gases, production of natural C02 is essential for maintaining life on Earth. Note that all C02 is not the same and plants do not accept all types of C02 for photosynthesis. There is a clear difference between old C02 from fossil fuels and new C02 produced from renewable biofuels (Dietze 1997). The COz generated from burning fossil fuel is an old and contaminated C02. Because various toxic chemicals and catalysts are used for oil and natural gas refining, the danger of generating C02 with higher isotopes cannot be ignored (Islam 2003 Chhetri et al. 2006a). Hence, it is clear that C02 itself is not a culprit for global warming, but the industrial C02 that is contaminated with catalysts and chemicals likely becomes heavier with higher isotopes and plants cannot accept...

Nuclear Energy and Global Warming

Nuclear energy has also been promoted as one of the clean alternatives to reducing the pressure on fossil fuel resources. A recently held summit of a group of eight industrial nations (G8) has also endorsed nuclear energy as non-carbon. Based on the current trend of nuclear power development, EIA (2006a) indicates that nuclear power will not take the major share of global energy supply during its projected period by 2030. As stated previously, there are several problems with nuclear power very high initial costs for building nuclear power plants, the expensive enrichment process, the environmental impacts during mining, milling, and operations, and it poses a great threat for the safety of the communities close to the power plants. Nuclear power is promoted as a solution to global warming based on the consideration that C02 is not emitted from the power plant. However, considerable fossil fuels are used during mining, milling, fuel enrichment, manufacturing, and plant and equipment...

Energy Demand in Emerging Economies

Asia has emerged as the prospective biggest consumer of energy. In India and China, both characterized by the largest population and highest economic growth rate, the demand of energy is dramatically increasing. According to Kuroda (2006), over the last 10 years China grew at an average annual rate of 9.1 and India at a rate of 6.3 . Most forecasters see continued rapid growth in these countries in the years ahead - likely 8-9 in China and 7-8 in India. The projection of the Asian Development Bank showed an estimated average GDP growth of 6.6 across the developing economies of Asia and the Pacific, which is said to continue in the coming years. In order to maintain this economic growth, the developing countries need large amounts of energy, especially electrical energy to run the industrial operations. Butler (2005) reported that the Chinese economy grew by 49 between 1999 and 2004. China increased its oil import from 2003 by 990,000 barrels a day in 2004. Similar consumption patterns...

Carbon Nanotubes for Energy Storage

Energy is the integral part of human life since ancient time. In recent years, the world energy consumption has been increasing at a much faster rate due to growing population, modern lifestyle and rapid industrialization. Fossil fuels, nuclear power, wind energy, solar energy is some of the primary sources of energy. From the beginning of industrialization, humankind has been consuming natural resources without thinking about the environmental impact and possible consequences of their exhaustion. A major effect of using fossil fuels is global warming, which causes hundreds of deaths in warm climate countries, increasing levels of sea water worldwide which threatens seaside cities and numerous other natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, forest fires and so on. At this point we have to think which way to choose stop the exhaustion of resources, accelerate the transition to renewable energies or continue consuming fossil fuels and accelerate the world toward a disastrous end. We...

Sources of PAHs in the Environment

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of organic compounds consisting of two and more than two fused benzene rings. PAHs are naturally present in the fossil fuel. However, the increased level of PAHs in the environment over the last few decades is due to the huge increment in production and use of petroleum and petroleum products. Point sources of PAHs originate from accidental discharges during production, transportation and disposal of petroleum and its products and industrial processes such as, liquefaction and gasification of coal and waste incineration. Creosote and coal tar, which are by-products of coking, are rich source of PAHs containing 85-90 of it (Cerniglia 1992). At contaminated sites, PAHs are often present along with other contaminants, such as, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylene) compounds, aliphatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals. Depending on the source of contamination, the level of PAHs in soil has been found to range from 1 to 300 lg...

Blast Furnace Superheating

Plasma superheating of the wind to the blast furnace provides a means to significantly reduce the coke required to produce hot metal. To plasma superheat wind, energy is transferred to the air stream via a plasma torch. To maximize the coke reduction due to wind superheating, other fuels such as oil, natural gas, coke oven gas and coal can be considered. To determine economic feasibility of trade-offs between coke and the alternative of fuels plus electricity, a blast furnace model was developed. The model indicates the fuels and electricity requirements with respect to specific coke reductions. Further, it is determined that increased productivity of blast furnace production rates can be obtained using plasma superheating of wind.

Plasma Pyrolysis Of Hydrocarbons

There has been interest in plasma-produced acetylene (from hydrogen or coal sources) as an alternative chemical feedstock to ethylene. The production of acetylene by arc processes offers a unique feature, in that the natural gas, hydrocarbon or coal requirement is utilized only as a raw material since the process energy is predominately electrical. Therefore, the price of acetylene is not totally dependent on the price, market conditions and availability of fossil feedstocks.

Reversing Global Warming The Role of Technology Development

This section discusses a series of techniques used to reduce industrial C02. Besides emitting a toxic C02 when burned, fossil fuels have Billions of people in the world use traditional stoves, fueled by biomass, for their cooking and space-heating requirement. It is widely held that wood burning stoves emit more pollution into the atmosphere compared to oil and natural gas burning stoves. However, a small intervention in wood burning stoves would result in the emission of natural COz, which is essential for natural processes. A new technique has been developed to achieve zero waste in such technologies. This line of development would have a great impact on technological development in industrial sectors and other sectors, as well. incomplete combustion in an oil water mixture. A heat exchanger is designed to trap the heat from the flue gas that is utilized for water heating. As all the particulates are trapped, the C02 emitted is a clean and natural C02 that is an essential feedstock...

Bio and Bioinspired Catalysts

White biotechnology (biotechnology applied to industrial processes) and bioca-talysis are a key element to improving traditional chemical technology. They can, in principle, reduce pollution and waste, decrease the use of energy, raw materials and water, lead to better quality food products, and create new materials and biofuels from waste. In fact, the ability of enzymes to catalyze organic reactions in the moderate pH range of 4-9 at reasonable temperatures (usually 10-50 C), and without extremes in pressure or the addition of metals, can provide an environmentally acceptable method for many reactions that otherwise require highly acidic or alkaline environments, high energy inputs for heating or toxic metal catalysts. However, the drawbacks of biocatalysis are underestimated. These consist of problems of mixing and mass heat transfer (and related energy costs), the cost of separation (even if recent advances in integrating biocatalysis with membranes have reduced these costs), the...

Plans to Reduce Auto Emissions in Urban Centers

Several approaches are available to improve the quality of air in areas of high population density. Reformulated gasolines that have lower volatilities and use additives such as MTBE and ethanol to reduce CO emissions will probably be used. A catalytic converter that catalyzes the degradation of pollutants when the car is first started probably be mandated, as well. Alternative fuels, low-emission fuels such as natural gas, will be used in fleets of cars like taxis that operate in cities. In California in 1998, there was a requirement that 2 of all vehicles sold have zero tailpipe emissions. This percentage is mandated to

Low Emission Automobiles

Introduced ZEVs in the United States in 2000. For the reasons just cited, however, they have not been popular. Vehicles with low and ultralow emissions are also prescribed in the California regulations. These will include hybrids, vehicles mainly powered by electricity but with the capability of also being powered by an internal combustion engine under certain driving conditions, such as steep hills or rapid acceleration. This engine, running in its most efficient mode, is also used to maintain the battery charge. Taxi fleets may be powered by natural gas and buses by fuel cells. Fuel cells generate power by the electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen or hydrocarbons, with up to 80 conversion of the chemical energy to electrical power. Very low emissions of carbon monoxide and NO* are produced in these controlled oxidations (Section 15.9). Two manufacturers have introduced hybrid vehicles in the United States that use gasoline efficiently and generate very low emissions. These hybrids...

Environmental Impacts Issues

From fossil fuels, which are gradually becoming depleted. The production process itself involves energy consumption and further resource depletion. During production, emissions are released into the water, air, or soil. Emissions of concern include heavy metals, chlorofluorocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxides, and dust. Wastewater, bearing solvent residues from separation processes and wet scrubbers, enter in the food chain. The residual monomer in products and small molecules (plasticizers, stabilizers) slowly release into the environment, for example, by leaching slowly into water. These emissions have effects, such as ozone depletion, carcinogenicity, smog, acid rain, etc. Thus, the production of plastic materials can have adverse effects on ecosystems, human health, and the physical environment.

Demand for Integrated Assessment and Planning Methods for Renewable Raw Material Logistic Chains

As a consequence, a wide variety of methodologies come into play for an integrated assessment. Potential analyses for single raw materials or utilization pathways have been carried out with geographic information systems (GIS) (see e.g., 71, 72 ). Basically, these analyses combine statistical data (e.g., rainfall, productivity, land use) with spatial information. As a result potentials of different raw materials are presented on maps. Further studies include aspects of facility location planning, for example, for bioethanol (see 73 ) or BtL plants (see 74 ). GIS-based analyses are also used in facility location planning, for example, for bioethanol plants 73 or BtL plants 74 . Additionally operations research provides a large toolset for the mathematical characterization, formulation, and solution of facility location planning problems and supply chain design. Overviews can be found, for example, in 76, 77 . Examples for applications to the industrial valorization of renewable raw...

Inorganic Gaseous Pollutants

Sulfur oxide emission results from the combustion of sulfur-containing fossil fuels such as coal and oil. The sulfur content of coal ranges from 0.3 to 7 and the sulfur is in both organic and inorganic forms, while in oil the sulfur content ranges from 0.2 to 1.7 and its sulfur is in an organic form. The most important sulfur compound in coal is iron disulfide (FeS2) or pyrite. When heated at high temperatures, pyrite undergoes the following reactions

Examples of Improving Performances of Porous Carbon Materials on Different Applications

At a given pressure, a strong adsorption potential inside the micropores acting on gas molecules significantly increases the density of the adsorbed molecules in relation to the gas-phase density. This phenomenon can be exploited for enhancement of gas storage capacity through adsorption. This has been the main reason for the strong interest in using AC as a medium to reduce the pressure required to store gases such as methane and hydrogen. The search for ACs able to store large amounts of natural gas at a reasonable pressure (3.5-4 MPa), as substitute for natural gas compressed at much higher pressure (e.g. 21 MPa) has been very intense in the last years.23-26

Emissions from Non Traffic Sources

There is a paucity of data concerning emissions of ultrafine nanoparticles from other combustion and high-temperature sources. Shi et al.2 observed enhanced concentrations of nanoparticles in air impacted by emissions from local combustion sources, but atmospheric observations are few, and difficult against the generally high pre-existing background. Chang et al.18 used a pilot combustion plant to study emissions of particles from burning coal, oil and gas in a stationary facility. As with diesel engines, the measured size distributions were sensitive to dilution conditions between the combustor and the analyser. The size distributions stabilised at dilution ratios above 50. The modal size and total number concentrations per unit combustion exhaust appear in Table 2. Whilst the size distributions showed a clear dependence upon aging time prior to sizing, the influence of fuel type was larger. As Table 2 illustrates, the modal particle size increases in the order natural gas coal fuel...

Research and Development Potential

Also the use of mixed cultures, that is, two different species used together in fermentation can increase the resultant ethanol output. In addition to varying and optimizing the microorganism used, process management plays an important role in the ethanol yield. In this context it is possible via vacuum fermentation, in-situ-product-removal (ISPR), or integrated process management, to keep the 5.5 Case Studies Lignocellulose as Raw Material and Intermediates 113 Table 5.10 Limitations and R&D potential in producing bioethanol from lignocellulose. All considerations for the use of lignocelluloses for the production of bioethanol or other platform chemicals should include the overall mass and energy balance as well as the availability through the year and the transportation needed. Regarding a study of IEA OECD 2010 9 , there is no additional land available in the short term and only 10 of global forestry and agricultural residues are assumed to be available for biofuel or platform...

Thailand General Situation

And requirements for switching from two-stroke to three-stroke motorcycle engines. The control program of the Ministry of Industry's Department of Industrial Works, which has jurisdiction for industry control suffers from inadequate enforcement measures, and tends to enforce correction measures only in situations with very severe public complaints. The worst single major air pollution problem in Thai history resulted in massive emissions of SO2 from a major power generating facility (Mae Moh) in northern Thailand, which generates power by burning of peat with high sulfur content, resulting in a major control effort by the Pollution Control Department (assisted by U.S. EPA), but even with this, plentiful public complaints continue. This record has given fossil fuel power production in Thailand a very bad image, and made it difficult to gain acceptance of proposed new plants, even for plants burning clean coal with proper controls. It is the public's belief that these will be more Mae...

Outline of Ongoing Research Activities of the Marine Ecology Research Institute Mainly Regarding Thermal Issues in Japan

Most fossil fuel and all nuclear power plants in Japan are located at the seaside and employ the once-through cooling system. The water pollution control law of Japan lists heat discharge as one of its regulation targets. However, no law, regulation, or guideline for heat discharge has been enacted so far in Japan. Issues concerning the temperature rise of water between the intake and discharge at power plants and the structural design of intake and discharge facilities have been settled by an agreement between power companies and local governments under the guidance of national agencies, including the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency.

Marine Thermal Issues in Which MERI Has Been Involved

Most fossil fuel and all nuclear power plants in Japan are located at the seaside and employ the once-through cooling system. Impacts of thermal discharge (intake and discharge of cooling water) have been a public concern, and several studies, therefore, were conducted to elucidate power plant impacts on marine fishery resources and marine organisms in the 1970s-1990s (Kiyono and Shinshima 1982 Kinoshita 1985 Yamamoto et al. 1991 Marumo et al. 1992 Tsuchida 1995). Since no serious damage to local fishery resources because of power plant operations has been observed or reported so far, recent public concern has focused on impacts on the marine ecosystem and its preservation. With the possible global warming, however, thermal impacts on fishery resources again have become one of the major public issues. The following are the marine thermal and power plant operation issues and the relating ongoing research projects to which MERI has given higher priority

Pathways of Crude Oil Formation

Figure 12.1 Emissions from life cycle of natural gas, from exploration to end use (after Chhetri et al. 2008). Figure 12.1 Emissions from life cycle of natural gas, from exploration to end use (after Chhetri et al. 2008). lengths. It contains mainly four groups of hydrocarbons saturated hydrocarbons, which consist of a straight chain of carbon atoms aromatics, which consist of ring chains asphaltenes, which consist of complex polycyclic hydrocarbons with complicated carbon rings and other compounds mostly consisting of nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen. Crude oil, natural gas, and coal are formed from the remains of zooplankton, algae, terrestrial plants, and other organic matters after exposure to heavy pressure and the temperature of the earth. These organic materials are chemically changed to kero-gen. After more heat, pressure, and bacterial activities, crude oil, natural gas, and coal are formed. Figure 12.2 shows the pathway of the formation of crude oil, natural gas, and coal. These...

Manmade 14C Dilution and Addition

Since the industrial revolution of the early nineteenth century, large amounts of fossil fuels (oil, coal, gas) have been combusted, causing an increase of about 10 in the concentration of atmospheric CO2. This added fossil CO2 was devoid of 14C and, correspondingly, lowered the 14C 12C ratio in the air by about 10 .

Energy Consumption Modeling

Seasonal variation for energy consumption was an important factor in the PAH emission inventory. An approximately five-fold variance for the hottest months in comparison to the coldest months in Asia was assumed by Streets et al. (2003). Similar high seasonal variation was assumed in other emission inventory research (Liousse et al. 1996). Some of the emission sources in China, exhibit wide seasonal variations, such as residential combustion of biofuel and coal, open burning of agricultural wastes, and wildfires. The variations for residential combustion can be attributed primarily to space heating. Because of the need for heating in winter in northern China, energy for residential consumption increases in winter. Open burning of straw was more concentrated in May, June, and July in China, especially in June over the North China Plain (Fu et al. 2007). Wildfires, as natural emission sources of PAHs, are subject to strong influence of seasonal weather conditions. For example, in 2002,...

Water Removal from Gas Streams

Natural gas may contain water molecules in both vapor and liquid states. Water contained in a natural gas stream may cause the formation of hydrates. Gas hydrates are formed when gas containing water molecules reaches a low temperature (usually 1.5MPa) (Koh et al. 2002). Water in natural gas is removed by separation methods at or near the well head. Note that it is impossible to remove all water molecules from a gas stream, and operators have to settle for an economic level of low water content. The water removal process consists of dehydrating natural gas either by absorption, adsorption, gas permeation, or low

The Absorption Method

This process is similar to adsorption by dehydration. The natural gas is passed through an absorption tower and brought into contact with the absorption oil that soaks up a large amount of the NGLs (EIA 2006). The oil containing NGLs exits the absorption tower through the bottom. The rich oil is fed into lean oil stills, and the mixture is heated to a temperature above the boiling point of the NGLs and below that of the oil. The oil is recycled and NGLs are cooled and directed to an absorption tower. This process allows recovery of up to 75 of butanes and 85-90 of pentanes and heavier molecules from the natural gas stream. If the refrigerated oil absorption method is used, propane recovery can reach up to 90 . Extraction of the other, heavier NGLs can reach close to 100 using this process. Alternatively, the fractioning tower can also be used where boiling temperatures vary from the individual hydrocarbons in the natural gas stream. The process occurs in stages as the gas stream rises...

Sulfur and Carbon Dioxide Removal

C02 and H2S present in the natural gas are considered to have no heating value, thus they reduce the heating value of natural gas (Mallinson 2004). The solvent in an absorber chemically absorbs acid gases such as COz and H2S, and natural gas with reduced acid gas content can be obtained. The chemical solvent containing the absorbed acid gases is regenerated to be used again in the absorption process. The hydrogen sulfide is converted to elemental sulfur, and the COz is released to atmosphere. Since C02 is a greenhouse gas, releasing it into the atmosphere will pose environmental threats. With increasing awareness of its environmental impact and the ratification of the Kyoto protocol by most of the member countries, it is expected that the release of C02 into the atmosphere will be limited. Sulfur exists in natural gas as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is corrosive. H2S is called a sour gas in the natural gas industry. To remove H2S and C02 from natural gas, amine solutions are...

Application in Phytoremediation

Mycorrhiza in association with fast growing trees is a very useful tool in phytoremediation which has been proposed as an environmentally beneficial and cost-efficient treatment technique for the remediation of heavy metal (HM)-contaminated sites in recent years. Such phytoextraction strategies necessitate tolerance and high HM accumulation of the mycorrhiza, because the aim is uptake and concentration of metals from the contaminated environment into harvestable plant biomass. In contrast, phytostabilization may profit from using metal-tolerant mycorrhiza with low HM accumulation, thus focusing on long-term stabilization and containment of the pollutant, without introduction into harvestable biomass. Such an approach would, e.g., allow for production of lignocelluloses for bioethanol or wood for heat production.

Use of Membrane for Gas Processing

The separation of natural gas by membranes is a dynamic and rapidly growing field, and it has been proven to be technically and economically superior to other emerging technologies (Basu et al. 2004). This superiority is due to certain advantages that membrane technology benefits from, including low capital investment, low weight, space requirement, and high process flexibility. This technology has higher benefits because higher recovery of desired gases are possible. Du et al. (2006) reported that composite membranes comprised of a thin cationic poly (N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate PDMAEMA) layer and a microporous polysulfone (PSF) substrate were prepared by coating a layer of PDMAEMA onto the PSF substrate. The membrane showed a high permselectivity to C02. The high C02 N2 permselectivity of the membranes make them suitable to use for removing C02 from natural gas stream and capturing the flue gas from power plants. By low temperature plasma grafting of DMAEMA onto a...

Pathways of Amines and Their Toxicity

Diuresis, salivation, and pupillary dilation (Beard and Noe 1981). Diethanolamine causes mild skin irritation to the rabbit at concentrations above 5 and severe ocular irritation at concentrations above 50 (Beyer et al. 1983). Diethanolamine is a respiratory irritant and, thus, might exacerbate asthma, which has a more severe impact on children than on adults (Chronic Toxicity Summary 2001). The summary reports showed that diethanolamine is corrosive to eyes, mucous membranes, and skin. Also, liquid splashed in the eye causes intense pain and corneal damage, and permanent visual impairment may occur. Prolonged or repeated exposure to vapors at concentrations slightly below the irritant level often results in corneal edema, foggy vision, and the appearance of halos around skin that contacts liquid diethylamine causes blistering and necrosis. Exposure to high vapor concentrations may cause severe coughing, chest pain, and pulmonary edema. Ingestion of diethylamine causes severe...

BTEX Benzene Toluene Ethyl Benzene Xylene

Solubility and toxicity (Coates et al 2002) . Benzene and toluene are released into the environment through gasoline, petroleum fuels, and industrial effluents of metal, paint, textile manufacture, wood processing, chemical production, and tobacco products. On the other hand, ethylbenzene and xylene contamination has been associated with the manufacture of pesticides, chemicals, detergents, varnishes and paints (Coates et al. 2002 Chakraborty and Coates 2004).

Sustainability Strategy

Sustainable Development is generally understood as not impairing the ability of future generations to enjoy the same or a better standard of living than what is currently enjoyed in developed countries. Environmental sustainability means we aspire to replace our use of nonrenewable or scarce materials with materials that are renewable and more abundant, while reducing our dependence on fossil fuels. We also aspire to take from the environment no more than we return, leaving ecosystems in a healthy state. This requires us to take only raw materials that can be relatively quickly renewed by naturally occurring Earth systems processes and leave only waste that serves as raw materials for industrial or Earth systems processes.

Concluding Remarks

The crude oil pathway shows that a natural process drives the formation of crude oil without any impacts on other species in the world. However, the pathway analysis of refined oil shows that its processes create several environmental impacts on the globe. Refining crude oil involves the application of large amounts of synthetic chemicals and catalysts including heavy metals such as lead, chromium, sulfuric acid, hydrofluoric acid, platinum, etc. Moreover, refining the crude oil emits large amounts of VOCs and toxic air pollutants. Refined oils degrade slower and last in the natural environment for a longer duration, affecting the environment in several ways. Because the refining of fossil fuels emits large amounts of C02, it has been linked to global warming and climate change. Hence, a paradigm shift in conventional engineering practices is necessary in order to reduce the emissions and impacts on the natural environment. The review of various natural gas processing techniques and...

Thermodynamic Inhibitors

Many aspects are evaluated before choosing a specific thermodynamic inhibitor. These aspects include capital and operating costs, the physical properties of the natural gas, safety regulations, inhibition of corrosion, the dehydration capacity of the gas, and so on. The most important issue with the selection of the inhibitors, however, is whether or not the chemical used in the process can be completely recovered from the system (the recovered chemicals are later regenerated and re-injected into the system). Methanol is a non-regenerable and comparatively cheaper thermodynamic inhibitor. Its lower price, compared to the higher recovery, regeneration, and re-injection costs, render these processes cost ineffective. Nonetheless, when this inhibitor is used, the unavailability of the three abovementioned processes cause a significant change in the costs associated with the lost methanol. Methanol is used because it has lower viscosity and a lower surface tension, which makes the...

The Carbon Cycle C02 And Carbonates

Estimate of recoverable fossil fuels IPCC estimates of annual perturbations to the natural cycle averaged over the 1980-1989 decade, indicate that a total of 7.1 x 1015 g of C is released by anthropogenic sources 5.5 x 1015g from fossil fuels and cement production, and 1.6 x 1015 g from changes in tropical land use, primarily destruction of forests. Of these emissions, the ocean takes up about 2 x 1015 g of C, Northern Hemisphere forest regrowth takes up another 0.5 x 1015 g, and other terrestrial sinks (increased plant growth from fertilization and other effects) 1.3 x 1015 g. About 3.3 x 1015 g of C is left in the atmosphere. (b) Very deep saline aquifers, where the CO2 would be above critical pressure. About 600,000 metric tons removed from natural gas is being injected into an aquifer under the North Sea. It is estimated that this aquifer alone has the capacity to store 400 years' worth of CO2 production from all the European power stations. 5. Not sequestration, but recycling of...

The Size of Future Biorefineries

It seems likely that we will see the development of both small, localized biorefineries that utilize local biomass to satisfy local needs (but may also produce specialty products for export) and larger scale units that are either based on existing infrastructure (typically petrochemical plants, e.g., Rotterdam) or new large -scale biorefinery plants (e.g., cofiring power station, bioethanol production, etc.).

Problems with the Gasprocessing Chemicals

This section states and explores the problems with chemicals that are being used by the natural gas processing industry. It also looks at the problems with the use of low dosage inhibitors, which are promoted as the replacement of the presently used inhibitors. It Ethylene glycol, methanol, and monoethanolamine (MEA) are three conventional chemicals widely used by the natural gas processing industry. All these chemicals serve the purposes of the natural gas processing industry to a large extent. However, all these are considered toxic and have very harmful effects on human health (ASTDR 1997 Barceloux et al. 1997 Burkhart 1997 Morris 1942). There are considerable limitations of the available data on the exposure and effects of ethylene glycol being oxidized with natural gas. Therefore, researchers have not yet agreed upon a definitive scientific conclusion of whether ethylene glycol is toxic or non-toxic. This is typical because the toxicity level is associated with concentration and...

Pathways of Chemical Additives

It is predicted that the use of natural gas in the coming years will rise sharply. This feature should be considered during the planning of any gas processing unit. The increase in the consumption of natural gas would result in increased quantities of these harmful chemical releases into the atmosphere at the same ratio. Even under the present circumstances, the matter of concern with these chemicals is that they remain in the atmosphere for 36 hours to many days. Also, methanol can never be recovered or 100 regenerated (the approximate system loss is 1 ), thus always leaving residues in the gas stream. The recovery procedures for ethylene glycol and MEA are not perfect, and sometimes large quantities of these chemicals are transferred to the atmosphere, along with the constant discharge into the atmosphere of the chemicals that are not recovered from the natural gas. The components that are released into the atmosphere are oxidized, and they further produce other toxic chemicals. The...

Overview of Different Models of Biorefinery Industry

The global model is characterized by large-scale production, based on massive investments in countries endowed with natural resources (e.g., Latin America for bioethanol). Raw materials are shipped to industrialized countries, where they are processed by biorefineries and converted into biofuel or ethanol. The existence of relevant economies of scale and the massive investments in agricultural inputs in developing countries is the basis of the large scale of biorefineries and blending companies. The final output is traded to industrialized countries. Both the United Nations Environment Program and the EU Energy Policy assert that producer countries could benefit from the creation of new jobs in this sector. However, whether such development will actually happen strongly depends on which type of agrofuel development will be promoted, which detains its control. Decisions concerning the use of natural resources, or infrastructure developments, have the potential to damage a community's...

Sustainable Alternatives to Conventional Techniques for Hydrate Prevention

So far, the natural gas transportation industry has been employing different mechanical (e.g., injection of hot oil or glycol, jacketing), electrical (e.g., electric heaters), and chemical methods (e.g., injection of alcohols) to deal with this problem (Carroll 2003). The first two methods, mechanical and electrical, are more desirable in a sense that they are more environmentally friendly as compared to the In the chemical hydrate inhibition methods, different chemicals are used, e.g., alcohols, glycols etc. The concentrations and the volumes used of these chemicals are not fixed and are dependant upon the conditions of the environment (Weast 1978). These chemicals are divided into different groups (e.g., thermodynamic inhibitors, kinetic inhibitors, and specifically the low-dose hydrate inhibitors) on the basis of their functioning mechanisms (e.g., thermodynamic inhibitors consist of methanol and glycols). Therefore, these inhibitors are used alternately in varied circumstances and...

Potential Effects of the Global Model

Phenomenon by considering two sectors the booming sector (e.g., the extraction of oil or natural gas, but can also be the mining of gold, copper, diamonds, or bauxite or the production of crops) and the lagging sector (e.g., manufacturing or agriculture). questions. On the one hand, there is some evidence supporting the existence of public benefits (such as avoiding carbon emissions, ensuring environmental protection, and security of energy supply at national level). On the other hand, there are strong concerns about the negative implications associated with large- scale production of agrofuels and bioenergy. In this respect, bioenergy has often been associated with overexploitation of natural resources and health hazards. An example of this analysis is presented in Costa and Foley 24 in which it is claimed that while the Brazilian biofuel industry has provided numerous socioeconomic benefits, it has also contributed to agriculture-induced environmental degradation. This study...

Potential Effects of the Local Model

Social Aspects Environment and health issues can be considered as a primary importance for local communities. Usually, small-scale biomass production systems result in local health benefits, either as a result of better wood stove design for people living in rural areas, as a consequence of avoiding emissions of sulfur dioxide or particles when biomass replaces coal in modern power plants, or, even more, as a result of reduced pollution by using biofuels for those living in the many urban centers 23 .

Multinational Agreements

Success of the Montreal Protocol, environmentally conscious leaders soon sought a similar agreement for controlling global warming gases, especially carbon dioxide. Extensive scientific evidence has led to near-consensus on the fact that humans are rapidly contributing to global warming by their unrestricted use of fossil fuels. Important data sets include the CO2 monitoring data from Mauna Loa and long-term (tens of thousands of years) data from the Vostok ice core monitoring project. Even the U.S. Department of Defense recognizes climate change as a threat to national security (Environmental Science and Technology, 2004b). Among the numerous voices calling for action, perhaps one of the most convincing groups is the usually conservative insurance companies, who realize the future potential for economic disaster. Predictions of not acting soon include increased ocean levels, shifting ocean currents, warmer atmospheric temperatures (especially at the poles), more dramatic and...

Effects of Environmental Particles

The adverse health effects of air pollution have been recognised throughout much of recorded time (Table 1). Burning of fossil fuels in towns and cities, where there is little mixing of air, during periods of cold weather has been associated with the generation of smogs consisting mainly of sulfur dioxide and particles. Particles or particulate matter (PM) represent a part of the air pollution cocktail present in ambient air, which also comprises gases such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, etc. Particulate material in ambient air is measured as the mass of particles collected using the PM10 or PM25 sampling conventions.5 The adverse health effects of PM10 are seen at the levels that pertain in the UK

Crude Oil And Refined Products

Crude oil is a fossil fuel, the result of the burial, diagenesis, and catagenesis of ancient biomass (63, 159). The average age of commercially important crude oils is about 100 million years (71 was laid down between 180 and 85 million years ago 159 , during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods). It is generally accepted that aquatic algae, albeit usually with some terrestrial material, gave rise to petroleum, while terrestrial plants gave rise to the great coal reserves of the world. The oldest commercially valuable oils are from source rocks from the Ordovician period (486 million years old), while others are as young as the late Tertiary period (a few million years old). Unusual conditions, such as those at the Guaymas hydrothermal vent site, can even result in the formation of petroleum from biomass that is only approximately 1,000 years old (146), but they do not seem to give rise to commercially significant amounts of oil. ins, and NSO (see references 63 and 159). Tis-sot and...

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