Aquaponics Projects For Beginners

Aquaponics 4 You

Aquaponics is a complete beginners guide to learn how to harness the power of both fish and plants. The waste products that fish produce are food for the plants, so that your plants can grow twice as fast as normal plants. Not only will the grow faster, they will also produce 10 times more than the average garden will ever dream of. And you don't ever have to weed! This is a 100% organic way to grow your own food. The Aquaponics guide comes in PDF format and gives you access to easy step-by-step videos to learn to set up your own garden. The book gives you the tools to build a small home garden or a multi-acre farming operation. What you do with the information is up to you! Not only does the complete instruction course come with everything you need to get started, it includes six extra books that cover organic gardening, flower gardening, organic farming, worm farms, cooking organically, and eating healthy. Don't waste your time on a small garden that needs weeding and constant care. Use Aquaponics to grow your best garden every. Continue reading...

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Shrimp Aquaculture From Extensive to Intensive Rearing the Relationship with the Environment and The Key to

Abstract In this study, we analyze the main characteristics of the different kinds of marine shrimp aquaculture with regards to their potential impact on the surrounding environment and to its sustainability. In order to evaluate the importance of the main features of the impact, we consider parameters related to rearing practices and zootechnical aspects, such as stocking density, as well as the main characteristics of the ecosystem hosting the rearing activities and the receipt of wastes. Two main features, the ecological characteristics of the surrounding environment and the presence or absence of mangroves, are emphasized. At least, based on ecological considerations, we propose a theoretical scheme allowing determination of the best position of the different kinds of aquaculture within an ecosystem in order to minimize the impact and to insure the sustainability of the activity.

Multidisciplinary Approach for Anticipating the Presence of Genetically Modified Fish in France

Abstract Transgenic aquaculture species with improved growth rates are at the premarket stage in the United States and may be produced in countries with less drastic regulations for environmental protection. The French market is widely supplied by imports from all over the world. Regarding the crisis provoked by plant GMO (genetically modified organisms)

Technological Reality

Since the first publication in 1987, more than 1,400 articles have been published dealing with transgenic fish. The first technique employed was micro-injection into one-cell-stage embryos. It is operant, but lacks efficiency the first generation is mosaic neither the copy number nor the genomic location of the transgene is controlled. This leads to (1) the inevitable production of two generations before the transgenic line can be stabilized, (2) the lack of control of transgene expression, and (3) the selection of an integration event. This technique is still the easiest and most employed, and transgenesis has been carried out on the main aquaculture species and model fish. For most of the cases, transgenic aquaculture species are initially produced in research laboratories to study the main functions (growth, reproduction, disease resistance). The number of transgenic model fish lines produced has largely increased in recent years because of gene function and regulation studies....

Risk of Fortuitous Presence and Effects on the Market

World aquaculture production is growing tremendously (from 1 Mt in the 1950s to 63 Mt in 2005, including plants) and within 5 years will probably comprise 50 of the seafood consumed. The European Union imports 50 of the consumed aquatic products, and half comes from non-European countries. Analyzing the import statistics of fish in France and Europe, we try to point out the trade flows likely affected by GM species at the premarket stage and estimate the possible risk of finding GM fish this analysis requires a good knowledge of the organization of the European supply chain and of the aquaculture sector in the countries of origin, as the production mode (capture or culture fisheries) is not mentioned, nor the species for some taxa like tila-pia, in the foreign trade statistics

Results and Discussions

The impact of organic wastes released from shrimp aquaculture on the surrounding environment has been shown (Biao et al. 2004 Das et al. 2004 Sara 2007). It depends not only on the level of its confinement, but also on the quantity of wastes introduced within this environment. This quantity of wastes depends mainly on the intensification of the rearing system. As suggested by Fuchs et al. 1998 there are three possible ways to increase the waste fluxes 1. The size of the shrimp aquaculture farm The impact on an ecosystem increases when an important surface of rearing ponds is located near the same ecosystem. The relationship between aquaculture and environment is not only related to the level of confinement of the environment hosting the activity, and to the quantity of wastes introduced within this hosting environment, but also to the presence or not of mangroves. Needing warm water, shrimp aquaculture is mainly located within or near the tropical or equatorial areas. Furthermore, the...

Other European and UK Regulations on Chemicals

OSPAR introduced a decision in 2002 on a Harmonised Mandatory Control System for the Use and Reduction of the Discharge of Offshore Chemicals, which are administered in the UK under the Offshore Chemical Regulations (OCR) 200230 which came into force on 15 May 2002. The Department for Trade and Industry administers the OCR with technical support from Defra's Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS).

Application Of Benefit Cost Analysis To Biotechnology In Mariculture

There are a number of applications for benefit cost analysis in environmental marine biotechnology. One example is the analysis of maricul-ture of genetically modified marine species (Hite and Gutrich 1998). I present some of the basic concept of that paper here. Central to the analysis is the idea that a number of the issues addressed here should be viewed as increments to costs and benefits that already exist in the marine aquaculture industry. It should be noted that genetic modification is a relatively minor player in biotechnology, and the following analysis is meant only to illustrate the significance of the economic concepts of spillovers and externalities.

Neoclassical Economic Benefits and Costs

The primary costs that accrue to such an enterprise are related to regulatory and containment costs to prevent accidental releases. Included in containment costs are costs of increasing the strength of cages and securing facilities beyond that already experienced in conventional mari-culture. Forster (1996) reports the cost of aquaculture cages ranges from 10 to 100 m3, with the most expensive cages providing the most containment protection, but suggests that aquaculture would become unprofitable with cage prices above 50 m3. The cost of monitoring to avoid accidental releases would potentially be extremely high and could be particularly difficult to implement in 1995, expenditures for enforcing all environmental regulations amounted to approximately 115 billion.

The Geosystem An Entry for the Integrated Management of Coastal Zone

Human knowledge about marine exploitation has long been underpinned by the existence of the submarine Eldorado. It is a vision now largely anachronistic, even though some developers continue more or less skillfully to use the exhibit. Learning to manage global maritime space, for example, by ground restoration of the coastal areas to develop their biodiversity and increase the productivity of fisheries, is part of a heritage, and therefore included in the duration of ocean space by coastal communities. It is important to remember when trying to respond positively to the needs for aquaculture products and also to the communities desires to have areas available for underwater recreation, artificial habitat development includes the issue of territory. The approach presented here is based on a geo-systemic approach, which is tantamount to a study of the relation between societies and nature (Scheibling 1994). This spatial unit, formed by more or less balanced elements of climate, soil,...

Biological Invasion The Thau Lagoon a Japanese Biological Island in the Mediterranean

Abstract Shellfish aquaculture represents one of the major vectors of marine macrophyte introductions. In the 1970s through at least the 1990s, massive imports of Japanese oysters, Crassostrea gigas, from the Pacific (mainly from Japan) to Europe were carried out. As a result, a large number of exotic species have been introduced to European shores. In the Mediterranean Sea, the Thau Lagoon (south-western France) has become a hot-spot of introduction of marine macrophytes. A total of 58 species of macrophytes have been labeled as introduced. They currently represent 32 of the species diversity and 48-99 of the macrophyte biomass on hard substrates. Most of them are native to the northwestern Pacific, including Japan. These figures do not take into account cryptogenic and cryptic introduced species and could therefore prove to be underestimates. The Thau Lagoon could therefore be the harbinger of the next century globalized world ocean.

Properties of food matrices

Aquaculture, or fish farming, is a rapidly growing industry. Approximately 80 of the fish and shellfish consumed in the U.S. is imported from other countries, amounting to over 2 billion pounds of harvested seafood imported into the U.S. in 2004. A large percentage (approximately 40 ) of that imported seafood is produced by aquaculture facilities 23 . The use of antibiotics and antifungal drugs in aquaculture has also increased with the expansion of the industry 24 . Fish raised in these high-density environments may experience higher stress and weakened immune systems requiring drugs to stem disease outbreaks. Methods for residue extraction and isolation in aquatic organisms are similar to those used for other animal tissues. The fat content of fish can vary significantly depending on the species and even the specific environmental growing conditions.

Opportunities For Biotechnology Genetics

The first, most obvious area providing an opportunity for the development and application of a biotechnological approach is that of the genetics of corals. For coral restoration, the first consideration is to be able to produce a source of coral recruits for out-planting into the reef environment and outgrowth in an aquaculture setting for production of young corals for the aquarium trade. In recent years, there has been mass destruction of reefs, particularly in the Pacific, because of indiscriminate acquisition of fish and corals to supply the huge demand of the worldwide aquarium trade. An important consideration when developing a plan for out-planting of new recruits to the reef is the genetic makeup of existing populations of corals, which is still an open question. Recent ecological evidence predicts that most recruitment occurs locally. Sam-marco and Andrews (1988) found that the number of recruited larvae significantly decreased with distance from the source of larvae after a...

Restoration Technology

To restore corals to damaged reefs, it will be necessary to produce coral larvae in an aquaculture setting, raise them to metamorphic competence, induce larvae to metamorphosis on suitable substrates, and outplant the young recruits onto the reef. To accomplish this objective, we must develop reliable technologies to predict and control gametogenesis, spawning and larval production, induction of larval settlement and metamorphosis, and successful out-planting. There is a critical need to especially address the first and last of these we already have the beginning of the technological base for controlling metamorphosis. For restoration purposes, we will be relying on the viability of adult corals brought in from the field as brood stock. In the wake of recent bleaching events, it is clear that the reproductive capacity of corals is negatively affected not only by loss of reproductive mass (Fisk and Done 1985 McField 1999) but also by interference with reproductive physiological...

List of Abbreviations

India has a coastline of about 7,555 km, of which about 5,400 km belong to peninsular India and the remaining to the Andaman, Nicobar and Lakshadweep Island. With less than 0.25 of the world coastline, India houses 63 million people, approximately 11 of global population living in low lying coastal areas. The coast also includes 77 cities, including some of the largest and most dense urban agglomerations - Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Kochi and Visakhapatnam (Fig. 10.1). India's coastal zone is endowed with a wide range of mangroves, coral reefs, sea grasses, salt marshes, sand dunes, estuaries, lagoons, and unique marine and terrestrial wildlife. The abundant coastal and offshore marine ecosystems include 6,740 km of mangrove belts, including part of the Sundarban (West Bengal) and the Bhitarkanika (Orissa), which are among the largest mangroves in the world. Rapid urban-industrialization, maritime transport, marine fishing, tourism, coastal and sea bed mining, offshore oil and natural...

Learning from the Past

It is reasonable to hypothesize that similar to introductions of exotic microorganisms in the terrestrial environment, exotic marine microorganisms introduced into a new site could have beneficial, innocuous, or negative effects on that site's environment. If an organism were introduced deliberately, the assumed intent would be to achieve a benefit. However, the opposite possibility cannot be ignored. An illustrative example has been reported in a study by the Joint Subcommittee on Aquaculture Shrimp Virus Work Group (1997), which discussed the aftermath of the transportation of shrimp seed stocks from Asia to Central America and the United States. The imported seed stocks did improve the stocks of shrimp being aquacultured in the importing countries however, the imports were contaminated with pathogenic viruses. As a result of these importations, some of the diseases that had devastated the shrimp aquaculture industry in several Asian nations were imported for the first time to...

Future Perspectives

Decomposition methods of keratinic waste like incineration or chemical treatments (Onifade et al. 1998) are rather expensive or environment-polluting. In contrast, Present day biotechnology offered an environmentally sound two stage fermentation system for conversion of keratinic waste into a useful product, biohydrogen (Balint et al. 2005). A keratin-degrading Bacillus strain (Perei et al. 2000) was used to obtain fermentation product which was rich in amino acids and peptides and subsequently used as major nutrient source for an anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon, Thermococcus litoralis, which produced hydrogen gas as a physiological byproduct. Besides T. litoralis, E. coli and Caldicellusiruptor saccharolyticus capable of producing hydrogen were also examined but neither of them could utilize the keratin hydrolysate for biohydrogen production (Balint 2006) . The application of keratinase as a detergent additive has also been suggested (Gupta and Ramnani 2006). Another field of...

Impact of Mussel Consumption to Human Health 9441 Beneficial Effects If Mussel Consumption

By 2002, fish fisheries and aquaculture products contributed 12 to the total protein for human consumption, although there are no detailed global statistics on the provision of other essential minerals and components, FAO (2006). The total content of minerals in raw marine fish and invertebrates is in the range of 0.6-1.5 wet weight, Ozden et al. (2010). An epidemiological study in Japan showed that seafood was the largest source of vitamin B6 (16-23 of the total intake) and B12 (77-84 ) in the diet, Yoshino et al. (2005) . Many species of fish and shellfish are rich sources of Omega 3 fatty acids, Ackman et al. (2000) and the health benefits associated with the consumption of seafood products are particularly important for the prevention of heart-related diseases and for many vulnerable groups, such as infants and children, and pregnant and lactating women, Cozzolino et al. (2001), Christophoridis et al. (2009) and the positive impact of seafood consumption on bone mineral density...

The Japanese Management Experience with the Service of a Strategy Type ICAM

For Mariojouls (2004), the originality of Japan is the integration of fisheries and aquaculture in an overall project management of the coastal strip to increase marine production. In 70 years, actions taken cover several areas in addition to the development of the fisheries sector supported by a network of research and development organizations and a professional and highly efficient administration, operations are carried out large-scale release of juveniles of many species This policy is based on a network of important players, such as the Fisheries Research Agency, university research centers, prefectural (departmental) depar-ments, and private enterprises. The Fisheries Research Agency, created in 2001, brings together the nine research institutes of the Fisheries of Japan. University research is very active. Japan currently has 34 research departments specializing in fishing or aquaculture distributed in different universities. The prefectural (departmental) centers are real...

Levels of DDT and HCH in Sediments

Sundarban India

According to Strandberg et al. (1998), the ratio of pp'-DDT pp'-DDE provides a useful index to know whether the DDT input at a given site is recent or happened in the past, a value < 0.33 generally indicates an aged input and an overall value of > 0.33 was found in majority of sediment samples along the east coast of India, indicates recent inputs of DDT. The contribution of pp'-DDT over 50 of the total DDT along the coast seems to be associated with vegetable growing activities. The use of pesticides in agriculture and aquaculture has generally been increasing due to rising population and demand for more agrochemicals at these sites. The Hugli (Ganga) River passes through relatively dense industrial and residential areas (Fig. 10.2) where pesticides are sprayed during the public health campaign against malaria and also for other purposes. The relative concentration of the parent DDT compared to its biological metabolites, DDD and DDE can be used as indicative indices for...

What is the EU Legislative Framework

A similar approached to that described for human medicines is employed to assess the environmental risk posed by veterinary medicinal products. However, in addition to environmental release via excretory products, the risk assessment for veterinary medicines also considers direct release of the product into the environment during its use (e.g. fish medicines, sheep dips, fumigation). The Phase I trigger values for veterinary medicines are an 'environmental introduction concentration' (e.g. concentration applied or in effluent) in water of 1 g L-1 and a predicted environmental concentration in soil of 100 g kg-1 the exception being parasiticides administered to aquatic or pasture animals which, if enter the environment, automatically proceed to Phase II.47 The Phase I environmental concentration is predicted using information on use (non-food animals and treatment of small flocks herds are exempt), metabolism by treated animal (metabolised products are exempt), dosage and treatment...

Environmental Concentrations

The median concentrations were 0.07 mg L-1 for both AHTN and HHCB and the 90th-percentiles were 0.3 and 0.5 mg L-1 for AHTN and HHCB, respectively 10 . Extreme values are found where effluents are discharged to surface waters virtually without dilution. Concentrations in fish caught in the natural environment (i.e. excluding effluent ponds and aquaculture) were reported from Germany, The Netherlands and Italy 1,2,10,15-18 .AHTN and HHCB were detected in all fish samples except in herring caught in the open ocean. When all data were combined, the overall median and 90th-percentile concentrations of 60 fish samples were 0.01 and 0.10 mg kg-1 wet weight (ww) for AHTN as well as for HHCB.

Exploitation of Bacteriophages in Various Water Systems

Naturally occurring, non-engineered bacteriophage virulent for targeted bacteria. The use of bacteriophage therapy in aquaculture seems very promising and practical. Few attempts have been made to use bacteriophages to treat diseases in aquaculture. Wu and Chao (1982) examined the effect of a phage, FET-1, isolated from pond water in Taiwan, on Edwardsiella tarda. In in-vitro experiments, phage killed 25 of 27 E. tarda strains and reduced the bacterial count to less than 0.1 when a bacterial suspension of 1.2 x 10 1 2 cells ml was infected with FET-1 at multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.08 after 8 h.

Mediterranean Mussel as a Seafood 931 World Mussel Production

The population is increasing rapidly, which means simply more food production and more jobs are required. Although, vegetable production is sufficient for the present population and is likely to be for the future population, the intake of animal protein is inadequate in spite of attempts made during the last 60 years. This gap has not yet been closed. For this reason, the world aquaculture production has grown tremendously over the past 50 years from a production of less than one million tonnes in the early 1950s to 48.1 million tonnes in 2005, an average annual growth rate of 8.8 (Fig. 9.3a,b), Subasinghe et al. (2009). Of this production, 32.4 million tonnes (or 67.3 ) was produced in China and 22.3 in the rest of the Asia-Pacific region. Western Europe contributed 4.2 with 2.0 million tonnes, while Central and Eastern Europe contributed 270 000 t or 0.6 . Latin America and the Caribbean, and North America contributed 2.9 and 1.3 , respectively. Finally, production from the Near...

Anthelmintics and antifungals

Triphenylmethane dyes are effective fungicides and are used illegally in food production facilities for that purpose. Malachite green, in particular, is added to the water of aquaculture ponds to treat fungal infections. An analogous compound, crystal violet, has also been reported to have been used for aquaculture as well as in chicken feed to prevent fungal growth.

Effect of Wavelength of Intermittent Light on the Growth and Fatty Acid Profile of the Haptophyte Isochrysis galbana

Abstract The haptophyte Isochrysis galbana is widely used as a food source for bivalve aquaculture as it is rich in fatty acid. In this study, the effect of different colors of intermittent light on the multiplication of cells of I. galbana and their fatty acid composition was investigated. I. galbana was cultivated under conditions of white, blue (dominant wavelength 470 nm), green (525 nm), or red (660 nm) intermittent light (frequency 10,000 Hz, duty ratio 50 , light intensity 52 mmol photons m-2 s-1, water temperature 20 C).

GMF Regulation

Tion (SEC2006 421) concerning the use of alien species in aquaculture, which considers only the environmental risk and excludes the case of GMF. Considering the risk of negative perceptions of GMF by consumers, the complexity, opacity, and international dimension of the market, international trade conflicts can be easily foreseen. We propose developing a method to draw up regulation drafts in connection with public and private stakeholders. It includes the following steps

Physiology

Collection of observations and detailed growth studies in artificial conditions of these larval forms and of the species of small sizes have to be developed if we wish to understand the food chains, the trophic networks and, in other words, the functioning of the local ecosystem established around and inside the immersed artificial structures. In other terms, ecophysiology and ecobiochemistry will be used in this field as well as in aquaculture (Ceccaldi 1982), for the same reason the detailed explanation of the adaptation of living organism to a changing environment.

Analysis

Phage as disinfectant is now a current field for research. Studies on potential of phages as disinfectant in various water systems have been carried out. Phages have been applied successfully as disinfectants in pond water, swimming pools, industrial water systems, aquaculture system and in the treatment of waste water. Phages could be applied as disinfectant during disinfection step, along with other physico-chemical processes (aeration, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation and filtration). As bacteriophages are host specific, complete understanding of nuisance bacterial community dynamics is essential. Polyvalent or monovalent phage preparation could be employed depending upon nuisance bacterial community dynamics. Application of phages would be rather easy in stagnant water systems, viz., pond, lake, well, groundwater, swimming pool, aquaculture system than in running water like river. In running water systems, applied phage titers may get diluted, therefore may not disinfect...

Critical Review

The seafood industry in India is one of the major food processing industries. India is the fourth country in the world in terms of fish production and second in aquaculture (FAO 2000). The wastes generated by these industries accounts to nearly 48-56 of the total weight (Sachindra et al. 2005) . Presently only a small amount is being utilized in the dry form as animal feed and for the manufacture of chitin and chitosan. But a huge quantity of this waste is unutilized and is wasted causing environmental pollution (Sachindra et al. 2006). In developed countries like Europe, laws are governed by a variety of European Commission (EC) and this regulates the waste management of seafood industries in Europe (Read et al. 2001).

Pigments

Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll which has inherent properties like antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic, as well as Vitamin A precursor (Stepnowski et al. 2004). Due to its outstanding antioxidant activity, astaxanthin has been attributed with extraordinary potential for protecting organisms against a wide range of ailments such as cardiovascular problems, different types of cancer and some diseases of the immu-nological system (Quan and Turner 2009) .This pigment finds wide applications in aquaculture, food colorant and cosmetics (Gimeno et al. 2007 Bhaskar et al. 2007). Recently, Sachindra and Mahendrakar (2010) reported that the carotenoids extracted from shrimp waste could be successfully used as coloring agent in fish sausage. In addition, it also enhanced the flavor of the product.

Organic Acids

It has been shown that the use of shrimp shell for arsenic removal appears to be technically feasible. Shrimp shell, as a natural material, is ideally available with low cost and is environmentally friendly. Moreover, being composed entirely of aquacultural and fishing industry waste, it helps in reduction of waste generation (Lin et al. 2009).

Direct effects

Other drugs are of concern due to possible carcinogenicity. One example is the nitrofuran compounds, which have been used as antibiotics in the poultry industry as well as for the treatment of cattle and pigs. The structure of nitrofurazone is shown in Figure 1. Residues of these drugs also have been found in farm-raised shrimp and honey. Some data suggest that nitrofurans may be carcinogenic 32 therefore, these drugs are not approved for use in any food animal. Another example is malachite green, a triphenylmethane dye used to control fungi in aquaculture ponds (Figure 2). Malachite green undergoes a metabolic reduction to the leuco form in fish tissue. Leucomalachite green is lipophilic and can remain in fatty tissue for extended periods of time. Studies have shown that these compounds may be mutagenic and teratogenic 33 .

Coral Cultivation

Restoration of damaged reefs and supply of young corals for the aquarium trade are the two main targets in coral cultivation. The few attempts at stony coral aquaculture (in the Florida Keys) were unsuccessful as viable enterprises. They appear to have failed because of lack of hard scientific data to guide their approach. This situation is very similar to the early history of shellfish aquaculture, particularly that of abalone. The approach was based on anecdotal evidence rather than on scientific fact. Only after funding by the California Sea Grant Program of basic research into the physiology and molecular mechanisms that control reproduction, metamorphosis and grow-out did this industry begin to grow and succeed. There have been prior experimental attempts in Hawaii to reattach coral fragments to small posts, but the lack of success precluded this approach from developing to the commercial stage. Before aquaculture can be considered we will need to develop core technologies for...

Musk Levels in Fish

In the 1990s extensive studies of synthetic musks in wild fish from the European rivers, aquaculture produced fish as well as in sea fish were conducted in Germany (for references see, e.g. 1,3,49-51 . Later on investigations concerning musk levels in fish were also presented from Italy 52 , Czech republic 53 and Sweden 54 . A comparison of the nitro and polycyclic musk levels in Canadian and European fish and marine foods were presented by Gatermann et al. 55 .

Regulations

Most European countries have environmental quality standards, EQS, for marine aquaculture, mainly in relation to water quality and nutrient output and in the most European countries, marine aquaculture is monitored but the type and extent of seafood monitoring varies from country to country, Smaal (2002). Mussel culture is regulated by EU directives with regard to quality for the consumer in terms of pathogenic bacteria, biotoxins and chemical contaminants. The water quality of shellfish culture areas is under EU regulation contaminant levels, EU directive 79 923 EEC biotoxins and pathogenic bacteria, EU directive 91 492 EEC. In all European production areas, there are EU and national standards for product quality and for the environment where seafood is cultured or fished, Smaal (2002) and Prou and Goulletquer (2002). The sanitary quality and level of contaminants are monitored according to national rules, based on EU directives, but not in all countries. EU classifications of...

Existing Regulations

We appear to have many regulations that govern activities in the marine environment. A short time ago I read an article about mariculture (i.e., aquaculture in the marine environment) in which it was stated that mariculture is the most regulated industrial activity in the United States, even more regulated than the nuclear power industry. Although I have no way to judge the accuracy of this statement (especially since someone who wanted more freedom for the aquaculture industry wrote it), there are in fact many regulations for putting anything new into the marine environment, possibly involving the federal government, regional boards and agencies and, at times, international agreements (Stenquist 1998).

Antibiotics

Tetracyclines are broad-spectrum antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis in bacterial cell walls. They consist of a substituted 2-napthacenecarboxamide molecule. These antibiotics were originally isolated from Streptomyces. The most common tetracyclines with animal health applications are tetracycline, oxyte-tracycline and chlortetracycline 6 . In the U.S., these drugs have been approved for beef cattle, calves, swine, sheep, chickens and turkeys. Oxytetracycline has been specifically approved for use in dairy cattle and aquacultured catfish, salmon and lobster. This drug has not been approved by the U.S. for shrimp aquaculture, although it is believed to be used widely in shrimp production in other parts of the world. Quinolones are pyridone carboxylic acid derivatives that are effective against gram-negative bacteria. Examples of quinolone drugs include oxolinic, nalidixic and piromidic acids. Quinolones have been found to be effective as a prophylactic treatment for aquacultured...

Occurrence In Food

The EU conducts an extensive residue-monitoring program the results from the 2004 program have been posted 211 . This report includes residue-monitoring data from 25 countries (member states). In 2004, approximately 807,000 targeted samples and 64,000 suspect samples were tested. In addition to antibiotics testing, samples were also monitored for hormones and other veterinary drugs. Many types of food matrices were part of this program, including milk, eggs, honey, aquaculture and meat products. Residues of prohibited substances such as chloramphenicol and nitrofurans were found to be violative at a rate of approximately 0.11 . Residues of malachite green were found in aquaculture products from many of the member states. The violation rate for antibiotics was 0.22 . There were a few violative results for other drugs such as tranquilizers and NSAIDs and the incidence of coccidiostat residues in eggs was highlighted as a continuing problem.

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