Np Np

The determination of APEO in effluents by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection 23 . OPExC and also NPExC and NPE2C have all been synthesised from OP and a commercial mixture of NPEOn (n 1,2), by respectively, oxidation with Jones reagent and further purification 3,6,9,12,24-27 . Another approach involves the reaction of NP with chloroacetic acid in alkaline aqueous solution or in a sodium hydride-dimethyl sulfoxide solution to obtain NPE1C 18,28 . Accordingly, NPE2C can also be...

Esims

Application ranges of different LC-MS interfaces (adapted from Ref. 3 ). Fig. 2.4.2. Application ranges of different LC-MS interfaces (adapted from Ref. 3 ). be obtained. Even if the extent and type of fragmentation are different from and less extensive than conventional electron impact techniques, as is usually the case, in-source CID can be a very valuable tool in identifying unknown compounds. The suitability of each interface for a particular analysis is determined by the...

References

Matthijs and H. de Henau, Tenside Surf. Det., 24 (1987) 193. 2 M.S. Holt, E. Matthijs and J. Waters, Water Res., 23 (1989) 749. 3 M.S. Holt and S.L. Bernstein, Water Res., 26 (1992) 613. 4 R.A. Rapaport and W.S. Eckhoff, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 9 (1990) 1245. 5 A. Marcomini and W. Giger, Anal. Chem., 59 (1987) 1715. 6 T. K chler and W. Schnaak, Chemosphere, 35 (1997) 153. 7 L. Comellas, J.L. Portillo and M.T. Vaquero, J. Chromatogr. A, 657 (1993) 25. 8 J. McEvoy and W. Giger,...

Info

2 00 4 00 6 00 8 00 10 00 12 00 14 00 16 00 18 00 20 00 2 00 4 00 6 00 8 00 10 00 12 00 14 00 16 00 18 00 20 00 Fig. 2.9.36. (bottom) ESI-LC-MS(+) RIC and selected mass traces (b)-(e) (m z 436, 464, 492 and 520 4 m z 28) of fatty acid amido polyethoxylate blend as in Fig. 2.9.35 and (a) averaged ESI-MS(+) spectrum of peak 1 as in (f). Gradient elution separated on that differ from the FAMA compounds because of their hydrophilic chain of a varying number of ethoxylate units. As...

Ch3

Chemical structure of different classes of cationic surfactants (a) quaternary ammonium surfactants (quats) (b) dialkylcarboxyethyl hydroxyethyl methyl ammonium surfactants (esterquats) (c) alkyl polyglycol amine surfactants (d) quaternary perfluoro-alkyl ammonium surfactants (e) N, N, N', N-tetramethyl-N, dibromide (cationic gemini surfactant). R alkyl or benzyl group. mixtures and are strong polar compounds. The majority of the cationic surfactants are not detectable with...

Volumes In The Series

Inorganic Qualitative Analysis Organic Qualitative Analysis Inorganic Gravimetric Analysis Inorganic Titrimetric Analysis Organic Quantitative Analysis Analytical Chemistry of the Elements Electrochemical Analysis Electrodeposition Potentiometric Titrations Conductometric Titrations High-Frequency Titrations Liquid Chromatography in Columns Gas Chromatography Ion Exchangers Distillation Paper and Thin Layer Chromatography Radiochemical Methods Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Electron Spin...

Acute toxicity of surfactants

A broad range of information pertaining to the toxicity of several classes of surfactants including anionic (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), alkylether sulfates (AES), alkyl sulfates (AS), non-ionic (alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEO)), cationic (ditallow dimethyl ammonium chloride (DTDMAC) a group of quaternary ammonium salts of distearyl ammonium chloride (DSDMAC)) and amphoteric surfactants (alkyl-betaines) is available. Several reviews of the scientific literature have been published...

Nonionic surfactants in saline waters

Alkylphenol derivatives in the Mediterranean Sea The behaviour of lipophilic metabolites of A9PEO in the Venice lagoon, Italy, was studied in detail by Marcomini et al. 2,3 . Salinity in this estuary is in the range of 25-35 c, and both industrial and domestic wastewater is discharged into the lagoon. Water samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FL) 2 . In an early study, rather high APEO concentrations have been found 0.20, 0.73,1.1...

Stma

Lauryl Alcohol Ethoxylates Mass Spectrum

Chromatogram of quaternary alkylammonium compounds. Columna, Shodex Asahipak GF-310 HQ (100 X 4.6 mm2) mobile-phase, 0.4 mM 4,4'bipyridyl, 0.8 mM HCl, 27 (m v) acetonitrile flow rate 0.6 ml min-1 analyte concentration 1.0 mM injection loop, 50 mL. Reprinted with permission from Ref. 56 1999 Elsevier. surfactants produced at the industrial scale have large numbers of impurities, and represent a polydisperse mixture of compounds with different lengths of ethylene oxide chains...

Raw Materials

Surfactants can be produced from both petrochemical resources and or renewable, mostly oleochemical, feedstocks. Crude oil and natural gas make up the first class while palm oil (+kernel oil), tallow and coconut oil are the most relevant representatives of the group of renewable resources. Though the worldwide supplies of crude oil and natural gas are limited estimated in 1996 at 131 X 1091 and 77 X 109 m3, respectively 28 it is not expected that this will cause concern in the coming decades or...

Anionic surfactants

Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs) GC and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have been used for the determination of LASs in the environment, and for those studies involving information about the distribution of alkyl homologues and Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry XL T.P. Knepper, D. Barcelo and P. de Voogt (Eds) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved phenyl positional isomers, which are almost completely resolved. Thus, capillary GC of derivatised (or desulfonated) LAS allows...

Atmospheric Pressure Ionisation Mass

FLOW INJECTION ANALYSIS MASS AND TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY IN THE ANALYSIS OF SURFACTANTS ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES The space of time from the first MS-MS (tandem mass spectrometer) instrument built by Thomson 1 to the coupling of liquid chromatography with mass (MS) and MS-MS spectrometers lasted about 60 years. The initial step in liquid chromatography coupled with MS (LC-MS) in the early 1970s, the introduction of liquids and liquid mixtures through a narrow capillary into...

And their biodegradability under laboratory conditions

Among the first analytical methods proposed for the determination of LAS in sludge-amended soil was the one developed by Matthijs and de Henau 1,19 . Samples of dried soil were extracted with methanol under reflux for 2 h. To remove soil matrix components the extracts were subjected to a clean-up procedure consisting of an anion exchange column (SAX) followed by a reversed-phase (RP)-C8 column. Quantitative measurements performed by RP-high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet...

Anaerobio Biodegradation Of Surfactants

Le n, Jose Luis Berna and Abelardo Gomez-Parra The major part of the biosphere is aerobic and consequently priority has been given to the study and assessment of biodegradability under aerobic conditions. Nevertheless, there are environmental compartments that can be permanently (e.g. anaerobic digesters) or temporarily anaerobic (e.g. river sediments and soils) and surfactants do reach these. The majority of surfactants entering the environment is exposed to and...

Carboxylated degradation products

The aerobic biodegradation of LAS that occurs in wastewater treatment plants and surface waters leads to the formation of carboxylated Fig. 2.10.3. (-)-LC-ES-MS spectrum of Cu-DATS. The distribution of the alkyl chain Fig. 2.10.3. (-)-LC-ES-MS spectrum of Cu-DATS. The distribution of the alkyl chain intermediates of which sulfophenyl carboxylates (SPC) are major components. It is generally recognised that these polar intermediates are formed through v-oxidation of LAS followed by successive...

Lcesms

At a depth of 3.6 m no LAS surfactant was detectable (LOD not specified). In the near groundwater LAS was likewise absent. Overall, the authors concluded from their outcomes that biodegradation was the principal factor limiting the accumulation of LAS in soil and groundwater compartments. Field and co-workers 72 identified persistent anionic surfactant-derived chemicals in groundwater contaminated by rapid infiltration of secondary effluents through sand beds....

Toxicity of surfactants and risk assessment

The fate of surfactants under environmental conditions merits special attention not only because of their widespread use, but also the possible exposure of water organisms to these relatively highly toxic compounds. Although the toxicity of intact surfactant molecules is substance-specific, with cationics even performing in some cases as disinfectants, the inherent surface-active properties of surfactants in general contributes to noxious interactions such as disruption of biomembranes and...

Stability Of Surfactants In Postsampling Storage

Environmental monitoring programmes often require the analysis of numerous samplfes that cannot be analysed immediately after sampling. The stability of target compounds in water samples during their transport and storage is the key issue as regards quality assurance parameters. Loss of sample integrity for some compounds during transportation, because of hydrolysis and adverse shipping conditions (high temperature and or humidity), may bring into question the reliability of the results...

Synthesis Of Surfactants

Various chemical reactions are utilised in the preparation of surfactants and an extensive description of them is not feasible within the limited scope of this book. Only the most important ones in this industry, sulfonation-sulfation and ethoxylation, used to generate a broad variety of sulfonated, sulfated and ethoxysulfated surfactants, will be described here. These key processes provide the fundamental change in the chemical structure of the molecule to convert it into a surface-active...

Anal Chem 72 2401 2000

Ventura and D. Barcelo, Anal. Chem., 73 (2001) 5886. 2 H.Q. Li and H.F. Schroeder, J. Chromatogr. A, 889 (2000) 155. 3 H.F. Schroeder and K. Fytianos, Chromatographia, 50 (1999) 583. 4 M. Castillo, M.C. Alonso, J. Riu and D. Barcelo, Environ. Sci. Technol., 33 (1999) 1300. 5 M. Castillo, E. Martinez, A. Ginebreda, L. Tirapu and D. Barcelo, Analyst, 125 (2000) 1733. 6 M. Castillo, G. Penuela and D. Barcelo, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem., 369 (2001) 620. 7 M. Petrovic and D....

Interlaboratory Studies For The Determination Of Surfactants

Pim de Voogt, Mira Petrovic and Thomas P. Knepper The ability to provide accurate and reliable data is central to the role of analytical chemists, not only in areas like the development and manufacture of drugs, food control or drinking water analysis, but also in the field of environmental chemistry, where there is an increasing need for certified laboratories (ISO 9000 standards). The quality of analytical data is a key factor in successfully identifying and monitoring contamination of...

Sampling And Sample Treatment For Surfactant Analysis In Water

Knepper, Francesa Ventura and Pim de Voogt The complex composition of aqueous environmental sample matrices, especially sewage and marine water samples, and the low concentrations in which the surfactants are generally found, have made it necessary to perform an initial stage of concentration and purification of the analytes prior to its analysis. Traditionally, such steps were carried out off-line with procedures based on liquid-liquid extraction (LLE),...

Analyses of anionic surfactants

Alkane- and alkene sulfonates presented with their general structural formulas in Fig. 2.11.1 belong to the group of anionic surfactants. In contrast to aromatic sulfonates, the aliphatic linear alkane sulfonates (general formula CnH2n+1-SO3H structural formula see Fig. 2.11.1(Ia)) and secondary alkane sulfonates (SASs structural formula see Fig. 2.11.1(II)) with the modified formula CH3-(CH2)n-CH(SO-)-(CH2)x-CH3 (n + x 10-15) are detected nearly exclusively in the inflows of WWTPs 22,41,44 ....

Co J

Lauryl Alcohol Ethoxylates Mass Spectrum

CID-spectra together with the characteristic fragmentation scheme of PEG molecules are presented in Fig. 2.9.5 34 . When an industrial blend of C13-AE surfactants CnH2n+1O-(CH2-CH2-O)xH was biodegraded with different biocoenoses in lab scale reactors, different degradation pathways were observed applying biocoenoses of different WWTPs. Besides a mixture of precursor compounds reduced in concentration, metabolites were also observed by APCI and ESI-MS(+) as M + NH4 + ions, which...

Ionic surfactants

Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs) and their by-products and metabolites. The first application of HPLC in the analysis of LAS started in the mid-1970s. Its principal advantage over other techniques (e.g. GC) is that it allows direct analysis without any necessity to derivatise the surfactant. The technique was first applied by Kunihiro et al. 4 using silica gel as the stationary phase and acidified hexane ethanol (80 20) as the mobile phase. The chromatogram thus obtained presented a single...

Classical methods

The majority of methods published in the literature for extraction of biological samples comprises classical methods such as solid liquid Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry XL T.P. Knepper, D. Barcelo and P. de Voogt (Eds) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved extraction (including Soxhlet extraction) or liquid liquid (L L) extraction. After such extractions, samples are either directly injected into the chromatographic system, or further cleaned by partitioning or conventional column...

Apha

Selenastrum capricornutum, Microcystis aeruginosa, Anabaena flos-aquae, Cyclotella sp. Nitzschia sp. Synedra sp. Thalassiosira pseudonana Skeletonema costatum S. capricornutum and S. subspicatus, similar biomass for others Species-dependent between 103 and 50 X 103 aOrganization for the Economic Cooperation and development. bAmercian Public Health Association. cAmerican Society for Testing and Materials. d5 mg L21 SiO2, 2 mg L 1 NO2 and 17 mg L_1 PO32. freshwater chlorophyceae species, i.e....

Quantification By Liquid Chromatographymass Spectrometry

Pim de Voogt, Mira Petrovic, Niels Jonkers and Thomas P. Knepper For quantitative analysis of organic compounds in general by means of liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS), one should be aware of two major factors, which may strongly impact on the outcomes. These are directly associated with the process of ion generation in the interface. Formation of distinct adducts with ions originating from the buffer, the sample and or the introduction system (e.g....

Cationic surfactants

Due to the lack of volatility of quaternary ammonium salts, GC analysis requires derivatisation or degradation to convert them into volatile compounds 133 . Thus, alkylbenzyl dimethyl ammonium halides (ABDACs) have been derivatised as trichloroethyl carbamates and cyanamides for GC-ECD and GC-NPD 134 analysis and the method was applied to their determination in natural waters 135 . The chain length of the raw material fatty acids of quaternized triethanolamines (esterquats) was determined by GC...

C12

Recently techniques have been developed to further reduce the sample volume required. Perhaps the most promising technique is SPME. This method consists of utilising high capacity adsorbents that are brought into contact directly with the sample (< 10 mL) or indirectly through a headspace above the sample. The occurrence of APECs in water, wastewater, sediments or sludges is well documented. The sample handling methodologies have been gradually changed from solvent sublation, steam...

Biodegradation Of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates In The Marine Environment

Leon and Eduardo Gonz lez-Mazo Although the marine environment can generally be considered the final destination of industrial and urban wastewater effluents, studies of biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) in this compartment have been scarce until recently 1-8 . The removal of LAS from the marine medium seems to be an efficient process, as shown by the low levels of LAS detected in samples of both water and sediment 9-11 . High values have only been found in zones...

Roch2ch2oh

General structural formula of partly fluorinated non-ionic AE compounds. Fig. 2.9.44. ESI-FIA-MS(+) overview spectra of partly fluorinated non-ionic surfactant blend with the general formula CnF2n+1-(CH2-CH2-O)m-H identical with CnF2n+1-CH2-CH2-O-(CH2-CH2-O)m-i-H 16 . Fig. 2.9.44. ESI-FIA-MS(+) overview spectra of partly fluorinated non-ionic surfactant blend with the general formula CnF2n+1-(CH2-CH2-O)m-H identical with CnF2n+1-CH2-CH2-O-(CH2-CH2-O)m-i-H 16 . Castillo et al. 27 ....

Fate Of Organosilicone Surfactants

Bonnington, William Henderson and Jerzy A. Zabkiewicz Ecotoxicological effects have been demonstrated for a number of surfactants or their metabolites, including some still currently in use, such as the nonylphenol ethoxylates 1 , and as such there is a necessity to find more environmentally acceptable alternatives. Whilst the silicones are not the major surfactant type in use to date, the efficient properties and indications of low environmental persistence and toxicity demonstrate...

Surfactants properties production and environmental aspects

Knepper and Jose Luis Berna 1.1 INTRODUCTION FROM SOAP TO MODERN SURFACTANTS Surfactants are a broad group of chemicals that play important and vital roles in a great variety of fields. Applications as diverse as cleaning, food, metallurgy, pharmacy, medicine, paints and varnishes, mining, and many others utilise the characteristic properties provided by the surfactants. The human body with its continuous and complex chemical and biological reactions is also an extraordinary receptor...