Aquatic Environment

Cationic surfactants

Images Cationic Surfactants

Due to the lack of volatility of quaternary ammonium salts, GC analysis requires derivatisation or degradation to convert them into volatile compounds 133 . Thus, alkylbenzyl dimethyl ammonium halides (ABDACs) have been derivatised as trichloroethyl carbamates and cyanamides for GC-ECD and GC-NPD 134 analysis and the method was applied to their determination in natural waters 135 . The chain length of the raw material fatty acids of quaternized triethanolamines (esterquats) was determined by GC...

Acute toxicity of surfactants

Aquatic Toxicity Lc50 Ec50

A broad range of information pertaining to the toxicity of several classes of surfactants including anionic (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), alkylether sulfates (AES), alkyl sulfates (AS), non-ionic (alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEO)), cationic (ditallow dimethyl ammonium chloride (DTDMAC) a group of quaternary ammonium salts of distearyl ammonium chloride (DSDMAC)) and amphoteric surfactants (alkyl-betaines) is available. Several reviews of the scientific literature have been published...

Carboxylated degradation products

The aerobic biodegradation of LAS that occurs in wastewater treatment plants and surface waters leads to the formation of carboxylated Fig. 2.10.3. (-)-LC-ES-MS spectrum of Cu-DATS. The distribution of the alkyl chain Fig. 2.10.3. (-)-LC-ES-MS spectrum of Cu-DATS. The distribution of the alkyl chain intermediates of which sulfophenyl carboxylates (SPC) are major components. It is generally recognised that these polar intermediates are formed through v-oxidation of LAS followed by successive...

References

Barcelo (Ed.), Sample Handling and Trace Analysis of Pollutants Techniques, Applications and Quality Assurance, Elsevier, New York, 2000, Ch. 17. 2 K. Heining, C. Vogt and G. Werner, Anal. Chem., 70 (1998) 1885. 3 P.L. Desbene, C. Rony, B. Desmazieres and J.C. Jacquier, J. Chromatogr., 608 (1992) 375. 4 K. Heinig, C. Vogt and G. Werner, Analyst, 123 (1998) 349. 5 C. Vogt, K. Heinig, B. Langer, J. Mattusch and G. Werner, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem., 352 (1995) 508. 6...

Anal Chem 72 2401 2000

Ventura and D. Barcelo, Anal. Chem., 73 (2001) 5886. 2 H.Q. Li and H.F. Schroeder, J. Chromatogr. A, 889 (2000) 155. 3 H.F. Schroeder and K. Fytianos, Chromatographia, 50 (1999) 583. 4 M. Castillo, M.C. Alonso, J. Riu and D. Barcelo, Environ. Sci. Technol., 33 (1999) 1300. 5 M. Castillo, E. Martinez, A. Ginebreda, L. Tirapu and D. Barcelo, Analyst, 125 (2000) 1733. 6 M. Castillo, G. Penuela and D. Barcelo, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem., 369 (2001) 620. 7 M. Petrovic and D....

Classical methods

The majority of methods published in the literature for extraction of biological samples comprises classical methods such as solid liquid Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry XL T.P. Knepper, D. Barcelo and P. de Voogt (Eds) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved extraction (including Soxhlet extraction) or liquid liquid (L L) extraction. After such extractions, samples are either directly injected into the chromatographic system, or further cleaned by partitioning or conventional column...

Stability Of Surfactants In Postsampling Storage

Environmental monitoring programmes often require the analysis of numerous samplfes that cannot be analysed immediately after sampling. The stability of target compounds in water samples during their transport and storage is the key issue as regards quality assurance parameters. Loss of sample integrity for some compounds during transportation, because of hydrolysis and adverse shipping conditions (high temperature and or humidity), may bring into question the reliability of the results...

Analysis Of Surfactants And Their Degradation Products

Despite the large amounts of surfactants discharged into wastewater, the qualitative and quantitative determination in water or sludge samples according to the compound groups causes problems to the analysts even today. The property of surface activity, which imparts to surfactant molecules non-volatility, high polarity and therefore an excellent water-solubility, poses the analyst considerable problems. The application of sum or group-specific parameters to quantify low amounts of surfactants...

Toxicity of surfactants and risk assessment

The fate of surfactants under environmental conditions merits special attention not only because of their widespread use, but also the possible exposure of water organisms to these relatively highly toxic compounds. Although the toxicity of intact surfactant molecules is substance-specific, with cationics even performing in some cases as disinfectants, the inherent surface-active properties of surfactants in general contributes to noxious interactions such as disruption of biomembranes and...

Atmospheric Pressure Ionisation Mass

Cid Fragmentation Esi Mass

NON-IONIC SURFACTANTS LC-MS AND LC-MS-MS OF ALKYLPHENOL ETHOXYLATES AND THEIR DEGRADATION PRODUCTS Mira Petrovic, Horst Fr. Schr der and Damia Barcelo 2.6.1 Alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs) Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of APEOs has been attempted using both normal-phase (NP) and reversed-phase (RP) systems. Using NP-LC, the APEOs are separated according to the increasing number of ethylene oxide units, while corresponding oligomers with the same...

Anaerobio Biodegradation Of Surfactants

Biodegradation Surfactants

Le n, Jose Luis Berna and Abelardo Gomez-Parra The major part of the biosphere is aerobic and consequently priority has been given to the study and assessment of biodegradability under aerobic conditions. Nevertheless, there are environmental compartments that can be permanently (e.g. anaerobic digesters) or temporarily anaerobic (e.g. river sediments and soils) and surfactants do reach these. The majority of surfactants entering the environment is exposed to and...

Analyses of anionic surfactants

Alkane- and alkene sulfonates presented with their general structural formulas in Fig. 2.11.1 belong to the group of anionic surfactants. In contrast to aromatic sulfonates, the aliphatic linear alkane sulfonates (general formula CnH2n+1-SO3H structural formula see Fig. 2.11.1(Ia)) and secondary alkane sulfonates (SASs structural formula see Fig. 2.11.1(II)) with the modified formula CH3-(CH2)n-CH(SO-)-(CH2)x-CH3 (n + x 10-15) are detected nearly exclusively in the inflows of WWTPs 22,41,44 ....

Raw Materials

C10 C11 Paraffine

Surfactants can be produced from both petrochemical resources and or renewable, mostly oleochemical, feedstocks. Crude oil and natural gas make up the first class while palm oil (+kernel oil), tallow and coconut oil are the most relevant representatives of the group of renewable resources. Though the worldwide supplies of crude oil and natural gas are limited estimated in 1996 at 131 X 1091 and 77 X 109 m3, respectively 28 it is not expected that this will cause concern in the coming decades or...

Concentrations Of Surfactants In Wastewater Treatment Plants

Currently, under optimised conditions, more than 90-95 of surfactants can be eliminated by conventional biological wastewater treatment. Even if such high elimination rates are achieved, the principal problem is the formation of recalcitrant metabolites out of the parent surfactants. Some compounds, e.g. alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs), are eliminated incompletely, forming metabolites that are more resistant to further degradation and more toxic than parent compounds. Discharges of sewage...

Biodegradation Of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates In The Marine Environment

Ppm And Spc

Leon and Eduardo Gonz lez-Mazo Although the marine environment can generally be considered the final destination of industrial and urban wastewater effluents, studies of biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) in this compartment have been scarce until recently 1-8 . The removal of LAS from the marine medium seems to be an efficient process, as shown by the low levels of LAS detected in samples of both water and sediment 9-11 . High values have only been found in zones...

Toxicity to microalgae

Phytoplankton as test organisms in toxicity bioassays with surfactants Microalgae are the basis of the aquatic trophic chain and at least 30 of the organic carbon planetary primary production is attributed to unicellular algae 34 . These micro-organisms have been shown to be quite sensitive to different toxicants 35 , including surfactants 36 . Damage to cells caused by surfactants seems to occur at membrane level, above all in the mitochondrial electron-transport chain 37 . By affecting...

Interlaboratory Studies For The Determination Of Surfactants

Pim de Voogt, Mira Petrovic and Thomas P. Knepper The ability to provide accurate and reliable data is central to the role of analytical chemists, not only in areas like the development and manufacture of drugs, food control or drinking water analysis, but also in the field of environmental chemistry, where there is an increasing need for certified laboratories (ISO 9000 standards). The quality of analytical data is a key factor in successfully identifying and monitoring contamination of...

Analysis of alkylphenol ethoxylates and degradation products in drinking water

In The Netherlands the drinking water supply is largely dependent on water from the rivers Meuse and Rhine. The quality assessment of these rivers is thus a long existing goal of RIWA (Association of River Waterworks, The Netherlands) and the associated water companies, with permanent monitoring for a variety of organic micropollutants in place 11,12 . During a sampling campaign carried out in 1999, alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEO) and degradation products, such as nonylphenol (NP), were also...

Fate Of Organosilicone Surfactants

Bonnington, William Henderson and Jerzy A. Zabkiewicz Ecotoxicological effects have been demonstrated for a number of surfactants or their metabolites, including some still currently in use, such as the nonylphenol ethoxylates 1 , and as such there is a necessity to find more environmentally acceptable alternatives. Whilst the silicones are not the major surfactant type in use to date, the efficient properties and indications of low environmental persistence and toxicity demonstrate...

Matrix solidphase dispersion

In matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) the sample is mixed with a suitable powdered solid-phase until a homogeneous dry, free flowing powder is obtained with the sample dispersed over the entire material. A wide variety of solid-phase materials can be used, but for the non-ionic surfactants usually a reversed-phase C18 type of sorbent is applied. The mixture is subsequently (usually dry) packed into a glass column. Next, the analytes of interest are eluted with a suitable solvent or solvent...

And their biodegradability under laboratory conditions

Among the first analytical methods proposed for the determination of LAS in sludge-amended soil was the one developed by Matthijs and de Henau 1,19 . Samples of dried soil were extracted with methanol under reflux for 2 h. To remove soil matrix components the extracts were subjected to a clean-up procedure consisting of an anion exchange column (SAX) followed by a reversed-phase (RP)-C8 column. Quantitative measurements performed by RP-high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet...

Surfactants properties production and environmental aspects

Knepper and Jose Luis Berna 1.1 INTRODUCTION FROM SOAP TO MODERN SURFACTANTS Surfactants are a broad group of chemicals that play important and vital roles in a great variety of fields. Applications as diverse as cleaning, food, metallurgy, pharmacy, medicine, paints and varnishes, mining, and many others utilise the characteristic properties provided by the surfactants. The human body with its continuous and complex chemical and biological reactions is also an extraordinary receptor...

Nonionic surfactants in saline waters

Alkylphenol derivatives in the Mediterranean Sea The behaviour of lipophilic metabolites of A9PEO in the Venice lagoon, Italy, was studied in detail by Marcomini et al. 2,3 . Salinity in this estuary is in the range of 25-35 c, and both industrial and domestic wastewater is discharged into the lagoon. Water samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FL) 2 . In an early study, rather high APEO concentrations have been found 0.20, 0.73,1.1...

Synthesis Of Surfactants

Various chemical reactions are utilised in the preparation of surfactants and an extensive description of them is not feasible within the limited scope of this book. Only the most important ones in this industry, sulfonation-sulfation and ethoxylation, used to generate a broad variety of sulfonated, sulfated and ethoxysulfated surfactants, will be described here. These key processes provide the fundamental change in the chemical structure of the molecule to convert it into a surface-active...

Estrogenicity Of Surfactants

Rivas and F. Olea-Serrano In 1991 new insights into the biological activity of some alkylphenols (APs) drew attention to a singular form of toxicity, hormone mimicry. It was discovered that p-nonylphenol (NP), used as an antioxidant additive in plastics to retard yellowing, was estrogenic 1 . NP forms part of the chemical structure of an extensive group of APs and alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs) that can release these monomers after the environmental degradation...

Quantification By Liquid Chromatographymass Spectrometry

Pim de Voogt, Mira Petrovic, Niels Jonkers and Thomas P. Knepper For quantitative analysis of organic compounds in general by means of liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS), one should be aware of two major factors, which may strongly impact on the outcomes. These are directly associated with the process of ion generation in the interface. Formation of distinct adducts with ions originating from the buffer, the sample and or the introduction system (e.g....

Sampling And Sample Treatment For Surfactant Analysis In Water

Knepper, Francesa Ventura and Pim de Voogt The complex composition of aqueous environmental sample matrices, especially sewage and marine water samples, and the low concentrations in which the surfactants are generally found, have made it necessary to perform an initial stage of concentration and purification of the analytes prior to its analysis. Traditionally, such steps were carried out off-line with procedures based on liquid-liquid extraction (LLE),...

Ionic surfactants

Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs) and their by-products and metabolites. The first application of HPLC in the analysis of LAS started in the mid-1970s. Its principal advantage over other techniques (e.g. GC) is that it allows direct analysis without any necessity to derivatise the surfactant. The technique was first applied by Kunihiro et al. 4 using silica gel as the stationary phase and acidified hexane ethanol (80 20) as the mobile phase. The chromatogram thus obtained presented a single...

Anionic surfactants

Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs) GC and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have been used for the determination of LASs in the environment, and for those studies involving information about the distribution of alkyl homologues and Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry XL T.P. Knepper, D. Barcelo and P. de Voogt (Eds) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved phenyl positional isomers, which are almost completely resolved. Thus, capillary GC of derivatised (or desulfonated) LAS allows...

Volumes In The Series

Inorganic Qualitative Analysis Organic Qualitative Analysis Inorganic Gravimetric Analysis Inorganic Titrimetric Analysis Organic Quantitative Analysis Analytical Chemistry of the Elements Electrochemical Analysis Electrodeposition Potentiometric Titrations Conductometric Titrations High-Frequency Titrations Liquid Chromatography in Columns Gas Chromatography Ion Exchangers Distillation Paper and Thin Layer Chromatography Radiochemical Methods Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Electron Spin...