Shrimp Aquaculture From Extensive to Intensive Rearing the Relationship with the Environment and The Key to Sustainability

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Jean-Louis Martin

Abstract In this study, we analyze the main characteristics of the different kinds of marine shrimp aquaculture with regards to their potential impact on the surrounding environment and to its sustainability. In order to evaluate the importance of the main features of the impact, we consider parameters related to rearing practices and zootechnical aspects, such as stocking density, as well as the main characteristics of the ecosystem hosting the rearing activities and the receipt of wastes. Two main features, the ecological characteristics of the surrounding environment and the presence or absence of mangroves, are emphasized. At least, based on ecological considerations, we propose a theoretical scheme allowing determination of the best position of the different kinds of aquaculture within an ecosystem in order to minimize the impact and to insure the sustainability of the activity.

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