The Geosystem An Entry for the Integrated Management of Coastal Zone

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Human knowledge about marine exploitation has long been underpinned by the existence of the submarine "Eldorado." It is a vision now largely anachronistic, even though some developers continue more or less skillfully to use the exhibit. Learning to manage global maritime space, for example, by ground restoration of the coastal areas to develop their biodiversity and increase the productivity of fisheries, is part of a heritage, and therefore included in the duration of ocean space by coastal communities. It is important to remember when trying to respond positively to the needs for aquaculture products and also to the communities desires to have areas available for underwater recreation, artificial habitat development includes the issue of territory. The approach presented here is based on a geo-systemic approach, which is tantamount to a study of the relation between societies and nature (Scheibling 1994). This spatial unit, formed by more or less balanced elements of climate, soil, fauna, flora, and landscape, is what geographers used to describe the "natural environment" (Brunet et al. 1995). This definition is different from many ecologists approach because it takes into account human action, without necessarily seeing the human presence in an ecosystem as disruptive. "Nature" is being influenced by man, and therefore, we independently observe that nature changes and that companies that find places reduce the effectiveness of the analysis and scope of the proposed solutions (forgetting the development of society and therefore its acceptance).

Therefore, it is worth considering the functional and structural reality of a "geo-socio-system," i.e., the structuring the action (including no-structuring aspects) that an organized population exerts on the biophysical environment. For convenience, we will talk about the geo-system, knowing that it remains linked to human action in the various ecosystems. In our particular case, we are in a dynamic problematic stewardship of the coastal zone, knowing that the geo-system will find its place. It is based on marine space, land, and lagoon, supported by fishing, aquaculture, agriculture, urban development, industrial, and leisure activities. A geo-system also includes all past and present men in the middle (Veyret 2004). It is an essential element of foresight to know

Fig. 1 Geo-systemic approach and the nature-society relation (Pioch 2008)

Fig. 1 Geo-systemic approach and the nature-society relation (Pioch 2008)

and control within the framework of public policies that is perfectly displayed (see diagram below).

When the geo-systemic approach focuses on coastal area management, it is a similar approach using a strategy called ICZ(or A)M, an acronym for Integrated Coastal Zone (or Area) Management (Cadoret 2006) (see Fig. 1). This is a dynamic process that brings together government and society, science and policy makers, and public and private interests in preparing and implementing a plan for protection and development of systems and therefore of coastal resources. This process is designed to maximize choice for long-term emphasis on resources and their reasoned and reasonable use (Cicin-Sain and Knecht 1998). The ICAM cannot replace sector planning, but it focuses on the relationship between the various sector activities to achieve broader objectives. This approach is based on nature, but also on society and its perceptions. The policies on maritime transport, fisheries, energy, and tourism have evolved separately, sometimes causing failures, inconsistencies, and conflicts in the use of resources and territories (Doumenge 2004; Cadoret 2006).

Coastal development is a way to reduce these conflicts by assigning rules to use a specific space. Finally, while ensuring the reconciliation of economic imperatives categorically, the overall development of communities and relative stability of ecosystems and levies by man of natural resources, including fish, is involved (Meur-Ferec 2007). In this sense, the European Parliament (Commission Européenne 2007a) promotes the implementation of ICZM strategies in Europe, which is considered in all the national legislation of EU countries (Interministerial Committee for Planning, in July 2001, September 2004).

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