Biological Control

Quality Control

Abstract Quality control can de divided in production control, process control, and product control. The first two refer to internal quality control of the production of a microbial pest control product, and ensure a stable production process with a minimum of failures. Product control refers to the quality of the final product that leaves the factory and which needs to perform according to registration and customer satisfaction requirements. Products must meet product specifications, which are...

Crop and Cultivation Effects

The cropping system, the crop structure and cultivation techniques also influence the efficacy of pathogens. The greenhouse climate is to some extent influenced by the spacing of the plants and by the density of the canopy. A grower will focus on production and decides on the basis of optimal yield for a certain plant density, and for growing techniques such as watering regime, fertilization, temperature settings, usage of screens for energy saving or for temperature control. For instance,...

Product Development Process

The development and commercialization of a biopesticide is an expensive and time-consuming process. Biocontrol product developers are dealing with a complicated project in which a living organism is the key element. Such a project entails many phases where each phase is a research project by itself, and successive phases are strongly interconnected. The new product development project often involves the development of new technology, and presents a highly complex matrix of biological,...

Outline of this Book

Chapter 1 introduces the challenge of the development of microbial pest control products and microbial control. The history of the concept of microbial control is presented and the industrial product developments over time. The need for a roadmap to develop biopesticides is proposed in order to provide successful products in the market. The aim of this book is to present a model that guides product developers towards a successful project. The terminology used is provided. The groups of insect...

Other Important Aspects in Mass Production

An efficient and low-cost medium for the production is an essential part of the process. Each organism needs a medium tailored to its demands and the growing conditions, and research is needed to develop such a medium. The choice of equipment is determinative. This depends on how an organism will be produced, a chief part of the cost factor of a product. Below the relevant considerations for these two aspects are given. Stability and quality of the inoculum used in the mass production over a...

Product Packaging

Product packaging is usually considered from a marketing perspective only. However, it is intrinsic to the success of a microbiological control product. The final formulation needs to be packaged in an appropriate package. The packaging material needs to be compatible with the formulation and its shelf-life. Registration requirements demand evidence hereof by means of shelf-life studies in the final packaging. Other general requirements are that the packaging be well-designed and constructed,...

Entomopathogenic Fungi

In general, biopesticides based on entomopathogenic fungi need to be registered and a detailed description of quality procedures as well as real data from tests are required to illustrate that the product complies with pre-determined specifications. In fungal products, the essential parameters subject to quality control are the number of active propagules, the biological activity and the microbial purity. Fungal biocontrol products cover a range of species and applications such as antagonists,...

Biological Control References

Taylor, and M.J. Adang, 2009. Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera Sphingidae) cadherin fragments function as synergists for Cry1A and Cry1C Bacillus thuringiensis toxins against noctuid moths Helicoverpa zea, Agrotis ipsilon and Spodoptera exigua. PestManag. Sci. 65(10) 1097-1103. Alves, S.B., R.M. Pereira, R.B. Lopes, and M.A. Tamai, 2003. Use of entomopathogenic fungi in Latin America. In R.K. Upadhyay (ed), Advances in microbial control of insect pests. Kluwer...

Promotional Factors and Trends

3.2.1 Societal and Market-Related Factors and Trends Environmental groups and consumer organizations are increasing the pressure on retailers and growers to reduce the level of residues on fresh food. As a result, several supermarkets have even set chemical pesticide residue levels that surpass officially allowed levels, thereby limiting the number of active ingredients. GlobalGap, the global organization of food retailers and suppliers, has set standards for growers as major musts for crop...

Business Models in the Biopesticide Industry

Friedman (1990) described three business models prevalent in the field of biocon-trol. The first is the owner equity model in which the owner invests to a limited level and development is gradual. The second type is the social investment model where large investments are conducted before any sales occur and development can be quick. Funding from governmental and non-profit organizations supports this model. An example is the Lubilosa project. The third model is the venture capital Table 7.10 An...

Critical Factors in the Successful Commercialization of Microbial Pest Control Products

Abstract Commercialization is the final and most difficult step in the development and the introduction to the market of a microbial pest control product. The critical factors that determine success or failure are identified for a company as well as for a product, and recommendations are provided that will facilitate success. The history of the biopesticide industry will be highlighted. Currently available products will be presented, as well as the biopesticide markets in Europe and the...

Five Determinants for Success or Failure

To develop a successful product and to become a profitable company in the area of biopesticides is an enormous challenge. The many critical aspects described in this chapter provide a matrix of product attributes and market features that need to be profoundly understood and weaved together. The complicated commercialization route demands biological and technical expertise, understanding of the market, and entrepreneurial intelligence, next to commitment and perseverance. On the other hand, if...

Microbial Pest Control Agents and Products

The term biopesticide is widely used, and definitions vary. Definitions of the term biopesticide may include microbial organisms, pheromones, insect and plant regulators, plant extracts, transgenic plants as well as macroorganisms. Various institutions have defined biopesticides and sub-sets thereof such as microbial pesticides and microorganisms. Regulatory agencies have provided exact definitions of microorganisms, and for plant protection products containing microorganisms as the active...

Total Developmental Costs

The most wanted information for decision-makers in companies who contemplate the development of a new microbial pest control products is what are the total costs There is no simple straightforward answer to this question, but an indication must be provided for a sound business decision. Each case is unique, but it is possible to provide a general figure for a certain type of entomopathogen and its foreseen purpose. For each company, the investment will be different since expertise, facilities...

Implementation of a Microbial Pest Control Product in an Integrated Pest Management Programme

Microbial Control Application

Abstract Key factors to cost-effective implementation of a microbial pest control product are application strategy, compatibility, and knowledge transfer to the user. This requires the design of a comprehensive integrated pest management programme in which the microbial pest control product is to be incorporated. The first element is an optimal application strategy per targeted pest and cropping system. Determinative parameters such as dosage and spray volume are discussed as well as factors...

Biocontrol Strategies

Biological control can be divided in four strategies Classical biological control, Inoculation biological control, Inundation biological control and Conservation biological control. I follow the definitions as provided by Eilenberg et al. (2001). I will only discuss the use of biocontrol agents according to the strategy of inundation biological control. Classical biocontrol, inoculation biocontrol and conservation biocontrol with insect pathogens will not be covered. Inundation biological...

Different Approaches in Finding a New Pest Control Agent

Predators, parasitoids and insect pathogens are used as biocontrol agents in biological control of pests. In the finding of a biocontrol agent and the development of it into a biocontrol product, the first two require a similar approach. Pathogens, however, demand different evaluation criteria. On the other hand, many aspects are similar for arthropods and insect pathogens, particularly commercial considerations. For arthropods, Van Lenteren and Manzaroli (1999) described the various steps and...

Selection Criteria for a Microbial Pest Control Agent 31 The Most Important Selection Criteria

Which criteria are the most important in a screening study of a microbial pest control agent In order to be able to answer this question, it is necessary to have in mind the foreseen application of the pathogen. Here we are selecting for a biocontrol agent that will be used in an inundative approach, an application, usually by spraying, that is meant to give a high mortality of the pest. It would be different when we want to apply a pathogen for long term control, as in classical biological...

History of the Biopesticide Industry

Numerous enterprises have been active in the field of biopesticide production and marketing. Lisansky (CPL 2006a) listed nearly four hundred companies worldwide which manufactured and or marketed biopesticides (broad definition) between 1980 and 2006. The companies involved in the early period of biopesticides and some of their histories have been presented in papers of Lisansky (1997), Lisansky and Coombs (1994), Rodgers (1993), Starnes et al. (1993), Gelernter (2005), and for nematodes, in...

Characteristics of Successful Biopesticide Companies

Successful companies can be characterized by their commitment and belief in the products they make. Their enthusiasm and entrepreneurial skills help them succeed. Within the field of biopesticides it is pivotal to find your niche in the market where competition is limited. This seems to be the strategic decision that allows a company to establish its position and to gradually become successful. Examples are Becker Underwood and Enema which specialized in the production and commercialization of...

Successful Biopesticide Companies and Products

In more than 30 years of commercialization of biopesticides, many companies have been active in this field and many products have been developed and sold in the crop protection market. The historical picture presents outstanding failures as well as ongoing success stories. Particularly in the 1990s in the USA, large venture capital biopesticide companies failed to develop a sustainable business. Most of the world's largest agrochemical companies had a brief encounter with biocontrol, but they...

Box 23 The Importance of a Broad Host Range for the Market Size of a Microbial Insecticide

The product Vertalec has been developed for control of aphids, but in the field it only is effective against Aphis gossypii, the cotton aphid and on the peach aphid Myzus persicae, pests in cucumber and sweet pepper and in chrysanthemum greenhouse crops. Other aphids are less effectively controlled or not controlled at all this is partly due to the limited host range of the Vertalec strain, partly due to the high humidity requirement of the strain. In a widely-grown crop as tomato it cannot be...

Product and Market Related Factors

Factors that determine the decision whether to initiate the commercialization of a new biopesticide need to be understood extremely well. The difficulty regarding this decision is that it must be made when most information is only indicative. The decision should in most cases be market-driven. Is there a pest problem that asks for a solution, for a new product And if so, how big is this market and what is a grower willing to spend to solve the pest problem A decision could, on the other hand,...

The Role of a Distributor

The distribution of crop protection products may be set up very differently per country and or per sector. The role of the distributor can be limited to the ordering, invoicing and shipping on the one hand to the storage, shipping, and provision of intensive support on an IPM system and cultivation techniques to the grower on the other hand. In the case of biopesticides, proper storage and transport are essential elements due to the vulnerability of the products, particularly at high...

Registration of Microbial Pest Control Agents and Products and Other Related Regulations

Biological Pest Control History

Abstract Several regulations apply to the handling and the use of microbial pest control agents. Microorganisms used for control of pests are subject to registration as a plant protection product. The history of the development of data requirements for entomopathogens is presented. Current registration requirements are reviewed, particularly for the European Union. For several topics, data requirements are unclear or even lacking procedures are both long and expensive. Initiatives to ameliorate...

Implementation in an IPM System

The implementation strategy of the product in an IPM programme is a basic element of the use of any MPCP (Chapter 6). The positioning of a product implies a good understanding of all components of an IPM system and their interactions with the new product, in any given cropping system. This phase requires a considerable amount of research which should be conducted before market launch. I have experienced that many companies underestimated or even neglected this part of product development. The...

Hurdles and Constraints

The failure of many of these initiatives with biopesticides has been a serious problem. Vast sums of money have been spent and were largely wasted. This still occurs today. As a result, the development of biological and sustainable plant protection products is hardly accomplished. The demand for these kinds of products is rising in our societies, but the potential that microorganisms offer to control pests is not met. Lessons should be learned from this history with the commercialization of...

Mass Production and Downstream Processing

The production and the downstream method should deliver a yield of infective propagules, called the technical product, which can be further formulated into a final product. The production method is the phase in which the pathogens are mass-produced, and includes the bioreactor type and the medium. Once infective propagules are produced, these will be collected by the downstream process any large-scale processing of the ferment or solid state matrix to recover and purify the propagules until...

Microbial Pest Control Products

Numerous microbial pest control products for control of arthropod pests have been developed in the past and are developed at present. In theory, they offer one of the most sustainable and ecologically acceptable means of crop protection for modern agriculture. Generally, they are intended to replace synthetic chemical pesticides as our society requires sustainable pest control solutions that are safe to humans and to the environment. Research on new biocontrol agents, frequently initiated by...

Critical Commercial Success Factors

The development of a new biopesticide is a lengthy and costly challenge. Ultimately, sales need to generate a reasonable profit so that a sustained business is possible. The whole project costs many millions of Euros, and takes on average 5-8 years to come to a break-even point, and even more years to reach a sales volume that provides the desired profit. This business field requires understanding, motivation, patience, and perseverance in order to become successful. Management needs to be...

Box 31 Production of Lecanicillium muscarium in SSF and LSF

In 1989 Koppert started to mass-produce Verticillium lecanii strain Ve6 (renamed as Lecanicillium muscarium) for Mycotal, in SSF home-built bioreactors. In the past, Tate & Lyle produced it in LSF as they did with the V lecanii strain Ve2 (renamed as L. longisporum) for Vertalec (Quinlan 1988). Tate & Lyle's biopesticide department became independent as Microbial Resources Ltd in 1984. In 1986 all registrations and technical know-how of Microbial Resources were acquired by Novo Industria AS of...

The Historical Development of Biopesticide Companies and Microbial Pest Control Products

The development of a biopesticide company and a microbial pest control product are inextricably linked. The development of a novel product to solve a pest problem, or a fortuitous discovery that potentially leads to an innovative product could lead to the establishment of a new company, or a new department in an existing company. Potential products that can be commercialized will be the incentive. In the early days of this industry, research ideas from public research generally motivated...

Currently Active Biopesticide Manufacturers

An accurate picture of the currently active biopesticide manufacturers is very difficult to provide. Every year, new ones enter this field and others leave. Acquisitions of products and whole companies occur frequently. The status of companies in North America and Western Europe is well known, but for the rest of the world it is impossible to provide reliable information. There are two industrial associations of the biopesticide industry. The global International Biocontrol Manufacturers...

Requirements for a Company to be Successful

For a company to be successful, it is necessary to have a vision, to have the required knowledge, skills and resources, and to develop an appropriate business plan. If any of these requirements is insufficient or lacking, the project may end in confusion, anxiety or frustration and eventually failure. A company must develop a strategy, and follow it. Making choices at the right time is a crucial management attribute. When a company wants to develop new products and grow, it must have a critical...

Overview of Currently Available Products

A comprehensive overview of available products worldwide is provided by Copping in subsequent editions of the Biopesticide Manual Manual of Biocontrol Agents (Copping 1998, 2001, 2004, 2009). These editions listed 59, 96, 110 respectively 149 microorganisms on which biopesticides are based. Product availability per country is provided in the market study in the Biopesticide series of CPL (CPL 2006a). A list of products and producers is provided in the Directory of Microbial Control Products and...