Microbial Pest Control Products

Numerous microbial pest control products for control of arthropod pests have been developed in the past and are developed at present. In theory, they offer one of the most sustainable and ecologically acceptable means of crop protection for modern agriculture. Generally, they are intended to replace synthetic chemical pesticides as our society requires sustainable pest control solutions that are safe to humans and to the environment. Research on new biocontrol agents, frequently initiated by...

Promotional Factors and Trends

3.2.1 Societal and Market-Related Factors and Trends Environmental groups and consumer organizations are increasing the pressure on retailers and growers to reduce the level of residues on fresh food. As a result, several supermarkets have even set chemical pesticide residue levels that surpass officially allowed levels, thereby limiting the number of active ingredients. GlobalGap, the global organization of food retailers and suppliers, has set standards for growers as major musts for crop...

Successful and Unsuccessful Companies

Numerous companies have entered the field of production and marketing of microbial pesticides over the last 40 years. This field attracted investors and entrepreneurs every where in the world. Obviously, its perspective from the outside must have been of a promising area where profits could be made in a relatively short period of time. Many companies though, once active in the field, could not meet product objectives and market projections, and registrations took too long and delayed income. As...

Crop and Cultivation Effects

The cropping system, the crop structure and cultivation techniques also influence the efficacy of pathogens. The greenhouse climate is to some extent influenced by the spacing of the plants and by the density of the canopy. A grower will focus on production and decides on the basis of optimal yield for a certain plant density, and for growing techniques such as watering regime, fertilization, temperature settings, usage of screens for energy saving or for temperature control. For instance,...

Info

Physical stability Chemical stability Shelf-life + to ++++ Increasing amount of attention needed during quality control. + to ++++ Increasing amount of attention needed during quality control. for baculoviruses produced in vivo. Safety is connected with possible production of metabolites and this plays a role in bacteria and fungi. Technical properties are a minor concern for all products. Shelf-life, on the other hand, is challenging in EPNs while bacterial spores and baculoviruses are the...

Characteristics of Successful Biopesticide Companies

Successful companies can be characterized by their commitment and belief in the products they make. Their enthusiasm and entrepreneurial skills help them succeed. Within the field of biopesticides it is pivotal to find your niche in the market where competition is limited. This seems to be the strategic decision that allows a company to establish its position and to gradually become successful. Examples are Becker Underwood and Enema which specialized in the production and commercialization of...

The Historical Development of Biopesticide Companies and Microbial Pest Control Products

The development of a biopesticide company and a microbial pest control product are inextricably linked. The development of a novel product to solve a pest problem, or a fortuitous discovery that potentially leads to an innovative product could lead to the establishment of a new company, or a new department in an existing company. Potential products that can be commercialized will be the incentive. In the early days of this industry, research ideas from public research generally motivated...

Contents

1 General Introduction and 1.1 Microbial Pest Control 1.2 The Early History of Microbial Control 2 1.3 The First Microbial Pest Control Products 2 1.4 The Rise and Struggle of the Biopesticide Industry 3 1.5 Hurdles and 1.6 The Need for a Roadmap for the Development of a Microbial Pest Control Product 5 2 Insect Pathogens as Microbial Control Agents 6 2.4 Protozoa and 3 Product Development 4 Outline of this 5 Appendix Terminology and Definitions 14 5.1 Microbial Pest Control Agents and Products...

Product Development Process

The development and commercialization of a biopesticide is an expensive and time-consuming process. Biocontrol product developers are dealing with a complicated project in which a living organism is the key element. Such a project entails many phases where each phase is a research project by itself, and successive phases are strongly interconnected. The new product development project often involves the development of new technology, and presents a highly complex matrix of biological,...

Hurdles and Constraints

The failure of many of these initiatives with biopesticides has been a serious problem. Vast sums of money have been spent and were largely wasted. This still occurs today. As a result, the development of biological and sustainable plant protection products is hardly accomplished. The demand for these kinds of products is rising in our societies, but the potential that microorganisms offer to control pests is not met. Lessons should be learned from this history with the commercialization of...

Microbial Pest Control Agents and Products

The term biopesticide is widely used, and definitions vary. Definitions of the term biopesticide may include microbial organisms, pheromones, insect and plant regulators, plant extracts, transgenic plants as well as macroorganisms. Various institutions have defined biopesticides and sub-sets thereof such as microbial pesticides and microorganisms. Regulatory agencies have provided exact definitions of microorganisms, and for plant protection products containing microorganisms as the active...

Quality Control

Abstract Quality control can de divided in production control, process control, and product control. The first two refer to internal quality control of the production of a microbial pest control product, and ensure a stable production process with a minimum of failures. Product control refers to the quality of the final product that leaves the factory and which needs to perform according to registration and customer satisfaction requirements. Products must meet product specifications, which are...

Critical Commercial Success Factors

The development of a new biopesticide is a lengthy and costly challenge. Ultimately, sales need to generate a reasonable profit so that a sustained business is possible. The whole project costs many millions of Euros, and takes on average 5-8 years to come to a break-even point, and even more years to reach a sales volume that provides the desired profit. This business field requires understanding, motivation, patience, and perseverance in order to become successful. Management needs to be...

Biological Control References

Taylor, and M.J. Adang, 2009. Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera Sphingidae) cadherin fragments function as synergists for Cry1A and Cry1C Bacillus thuringiensis toxins against noctuid moths Helicoverpa zea, Agrotis ipsilon and Spodoptera exigua. PestManag. Sci. 65(10) 1097-1103. Alves, S.B., R.M. Pereira, R.B. Lopes, and M.A. Tamai, 2003. Use of entomopathogenic fungi in Latin America. In R.K. Upadhyay (ed), Advances in microbial control of insect pests. Kluwer...

Total Developmental Costs

The most wanted information for decision-makers in companies who contemplate the development of a new microbial pest control products is what are the total costs There is no simple straightforward answer to this question, but an indication must be provided for a sound business decision. Each case is unique, but it is possible to provide a general figure for a certain type of entomopathogen and its foreseen purpose. For each company, the investment will be different since expertise, facilities...

Registration of Microbial Pest Control Agents and Products and Other Related Regulations

Abstract Several regulations apply to the handling and the use of microbial pest control agents. Microorganisms used for control of pests are subject to registration as a plant protection product. The history of the development of data requirements for entomopathogens is presented. Current registration requirements are reviewed, particularly for the European Union. For several topics, data requirements are unclear or even lacking procedures are both long and expensive. Initiatives to ameliorate...

Biological Control and Microbial Control

I will use the terminology with regard to biological control as proposed by Eilenberg et al. (2001). The term biological control will be used interchangeably with bio-control as this is widely accepted. Biological control is defined by Eilenberg et al. (2001) as the use of living organisms to suppress the population density or impact of a specific pest organism, making it less abundant or less damaging than it would otherwise be. The authors emphasized the use of living organisms, and include...