Successful Entomopathogenic Products

The most successful bioinsecticides are undoubtedly the Bt products. They are "the simplest to produce and use" (Burges 1981a), and applied in many crops and environments on a worldwide scale. Sales are estimated to be between €60-80 million worldwide (Federici 2007) and $100 million (Phillips McDougall 2008). The latter refers to use in agriculture and forestry. Figures reported by CPL indicated that the total world market is greater than $150 million. The market for Bt products is approximately $160 million, which represents around 60% of the total microbial insecticides (Ave 2008). The use of Bt in China and export from China is estimated to exceed $100 million (Huang et al. 2007). Little information is available on the use of Bti for control of dipteran pests. The overall worldwide market is most likely over $200 million considering all uses of Bt products. Nevertheless, sales have been declining as a result of transgenic Bt-crops and new chemical and natural insecticides. On the other hand, Ave (2008) believes that the market potential for Bt products is likely to increase in the next few years due to the demands of the regulatory agencies and the general public for safer food and for crop protection products with no detrimental effect on the environment.

The second most successful group of entomopathogens is the nematodes although there is a huge gap between sales of Bt and nematodes. Sales in Europe are estimated to be around $6 million (CPL, 2006b). Here too, it is very difficult to provide figures on the various markets where they are used such as greenhouses, outdoor ornamentals, soft fruit, mushrooms, turf, and upcoming markets like top fruit, forestry, and home gardens (Blum 2001). The most important target insects are the larvae of Sciaridae and the black vine weevil.

Baculoviruses have increasingly become popular and the use of CpGV in fruit orchards is the largest market. Their usage in greenhouses for control of S. exigua has also increased, mainly in Spain (Van der Blom 2009). The number of products remains small.

The use of entomopathogenic fungi has slowly grown, yet the total market in Europe is limited when compared to the sales of the other three groups of pathogens (CPL 2006b). Figures are provided in Tables 7.4 and 7.5. There are about ten products in Europe, and most of them have a small market share.

From the above it is clear that the order of success of entomopathogens is bacteria, EPNs, baculoviruses and fungi, although the order may differ per area (Fig. 7.1). I think that this ranking can be explained by comparing efficacy, costs, and user-friendliness of biopesticides to traditional chemicals. The more these parameters reflect the characteristics of a chemical pesticide, the easier the adoption of a biopesticide in the market.

Other Antagon. bacteria fungi 11%

Entomop. fungi 4% Viruses 13%

Other Antagon. bacteria fungi 11%

Entomop. fungi 4% Viruses 13%

EPNs 14%

Various Antagon. 5% fungi 17%

EPNs 14%

Entomop. fungi

Entomop. fungi

EPNs 21%

Viruses 35%

EPNs 21%

Viruses 35%

Fig. 7.1 Division of microbial pesticides in Europe (left) and in the Netherlands (right) in 2008

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