Thomas Model

Thomas derived the mathematical expression for a column with a typical breakthrough curve that is expressed in the equation below, where C0 is the initial dye concentration (mg L), Ct is the equilibrium concentration (mg L) at time t (min), Table 4 Experimental conditions used for batch column studies Parameter Initial dye Initial volume Bed height of concentration (mg L) of dye (mL) column (cm) Initial dye concentration 60, 80, 100, 120 150 6 Initial volume of dye 60 100, 150, 200, 250 6 Bed...

Intra Particle Diffusion Model

The linearised intra-particle diffusion model deduced for this work are illustrated in Figs. 48, 49, 50, 51, 52 and 53 followed by a summary of results giving the aforesaid parameters in Table 12. The R2 values were higher than 0.800 for most of the batch experiments such as for dye concentrations of 40, 80, 100 and 120 mg L when adsorbent dosage was 7.5 g L, and the R2 values were 0.827, 0.906, 0.808 and 0.827 for dye concentrations of 20, 40, 60, 80 mg L respectively when adsorbent dosage was...

Batch Column Studies 4101 Effect of Bed Height

The observed curves of RR158 adsorption on CAC's at three different bed heights are displayed in Fig. 54, plotted as the percentage dye removal versus time and Fig. 55 shows the breakthrough curves. The uptake of RR158 increased from 73.60 to 92.49 with increase in bed height from 6 to 10 cm. This rise in dye uptake was due to the increase in mass of adsorbent in the column resulting in an increase in the surface area of adsorbent, which provided more binding sites for adsorption 1 . Results...

Batch Studies Removal of RR158 with Time

Graph Dosage

The removal of RR158 dye from the synthetic solution with respect to time for each solution at different initial values of dye concentration is illustrated in Figs. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. It was observed that at low dosages of adsorbent, the dye removal decreased as the initial dye concentration rose. For instance at dosage of 7.5 g L, the maximum dye uptake of the 40 mg L dye solution was about 12.00 while that of a 100 mg L dye solution was 24.00 . As dosage of adsorbent and initial dye...

Biosorption A Green Remediation

Biosorption is the binding and concentration of adsorbate(s) from aqueous solutions (even very dilute ones) by certain types of inactive, dead, microbial biomass. The major advantages of biosorption over conventional treatment methods include low cost, high efficiency, minimization of chemical or biological sludge, regeneration of biosorbents and possibility of metal recovery 16 . Another powerful technology is adsorption of heavy metals by activated carbon for treating domestic and industrial...

Synthetic Dyes

A dye is a coloured compound that can be applied on a substrate by one of the various processes of dyeing, printing, surface coating, and so on. Most of the dyes have been made from natural sources such as various parts of plants or certain animals until synthetic dyes were developed in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Most of the synthetic dyes are aromatic organic compounds and generally, the substrate that is the material on which dye is being applied includes textile fibers, polymers,...

Dubinin Radushkevich Isotherm Model

The values for the theoretical saturation capacity and that of b which is a constant connected with the mean free energy of adsorption per mole of adsorbate were determined from the slopes and y intercepts of the linearly regressed lines Fig. 28 The linearised D-R isotherm for RR158 on CAC's. Experimental conditions room temperature, 200 rpm, adsorbent dosage 17.5 g L Fig. 28 The linearised D-R isotherm for RR158 on CAC's. Experimental conditions room temperature, 200 rpm, adsorbent dosage 17.5...

Springer Briefs in Molecular Science Green Chemistry for Sustainability

For further volumes Adsorption of Reactive Red 158 Dye by Chemically Treated Cocos nucifera L. Shell Powder Dickcha Beekaroo Faculty of Engineering Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering University of Mauritius Reduit Mauritius Ackmez Mudhoo Faculty of Engineering Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering University of Mauritius Reduit Mauritius ISSN 2191-5407 e-ISSN 2191-5415 ISBN 978-94-007-1985-9 e-ISBN 978-94-007-1986-6 Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York...

Thomas Model to Batch Column Experiments

Thomas Model For Column

The linearised Thomas models for the data in this work are shown in Figs. 60, 61 and 62 at varying bed heights, varying input volume and varying initial dye Fig. 61 Linearised Thomas model of RR158 adsorption on CAC's for varying input volume. Experimental conditions concentration of dye 60 mg L, pH 2 and bed height 6 cm Fig. 61 Linearised Thomas model of RR158 adsorption on CAC's for varying input volume. Experimental conditions concentration of dye 60 mg L, pH 2 and bed height 6 cm Fig. 62...