Freundlich Model

Biomass Adsorbent

The values of the Freundlich constants determined from the graphs displayed in Figs. 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 are given in Table 7. The high correlation Table 7 Langmuir and Freundlich constants of RR158 adsorption on CAC's Table 7 Langmuir and Freundlich constants of RR158 adsorption on CAC's Fig. 18 The linearised Freundlich isotherm for RR158 on CAC's. Experimental conditions at room temperature, 200 rpm, adsorbent dosage 7.5 g L Fig. 18 The linearised Freundlich isotherm for RR158 on...

Temkin Isotherm Model

The values of qe versus ln Ce were plotted so that linearised form of Temkin model is obtained in the form of qe A B ln Ce, whereby A is the y intercept and B is the gradient. The linearised Temkin model are illustrated in Figs. 30, 31, 32, 33, 34 and 35 followed by a summary Table 9 that gives the calculated values of the Temkin parameters. The R2 values obtained from the linear method were above Fig. 30 The linearized Temkin model of RR158 by CAC's. Experimental conditions room temperature...

Intra Particle Diffusion Model

The intra-particle diffusion model is expressed as where R is the percentage of dye adsorbed, t is the contact time (h), a is the gradient of linear plots, kid is the intraparticle diffusion rate constant (h 1), and it depicts the adsorption mechanism while kid may be taken as a rate factor that is, percent dye adsorbed per unit time 15 . A linearised form of the equation is followed by Larger kid values illustrate a better adsorption mechanism, which is related to an improved bonding between...

Langmuir Adsorption Isotherm Model

The Langmuir adsorption isotherm model is valid for monolayer adsorption onto a surface with a finite number of identical sites and is applicable in cases whereby there is a continual process of bombardment of molecules onto the surface and a corresponding evaporation of molecules from the surface to maintain zero rate of accumulation at the surface of equilibrium. The equation can be used only if the surface is homogeneous, that is adsorption energy is constant over all the sites and each site...

Thomas Model

Thomas derived the mathematical expression for a column with a typical breakthrough curve that is expressed in the equation below, where C0 is the initial dye concentration (mg L), Ct is the equilibrium concentration (mg L) at time t (min), Table 4 Experimental conditions used for batch column studies Parameter Initial dye Initial volume Bed height of concentration (mg L) of dye (mL) column (cm) Initial dye concentration 60, 80, 100, 120 150 6 Initial volume of dye 60 100, 150, 200, 250 6 Bed...

Batch Column Studies 4101 Effect of Bed Height

The observed curves of RR158 adsorption on CAC's at three different bed heights are displayed in Fig. 54, plotted as the percentage dye removal versus time and Fig. 55 shows the breakthrough curves. The uptake of RR158 increased from 73.60 to 92.49 with increase in bed height from 6 to 10 cm. This rise in dye uptake was due to the increase in mass of adsorbent in the column resulting in an increase in the surface area of adsorbent, which provided more binding sites for adsorption 1 . Results...

Batch Studies Removal of RR158 with Time

Biomass Adsorbent

The removal of RR158 dye from the synthetic solution with respect to time for each solution at different initial values of dye concentration is illustrated in Figs. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. It was observed that at low dosages of adsorbent, the dye removal decreased as the initial dye concentration rose. For instance at dosage of 7.5 g L, the maximum dye uptake of the 40 mg L dye solution was about 12.00 while that of a 100 mg L dye solution was 24.00 . As dosage of adsorbent and initial dye...

Biosorption A Green Remediation

Biosorption is the binding and concentration of adsorbate(s) from aqueous solutions (even very dilute ones) by certain types of inactive, dead, microbial biomass. The major advantages of biosorption over conventional treatment methods include low cost, high efficiency, minimization of chemical or biological sludge, regeneration of biosorbents and possibility of metal recovery 16 . Another powerful technology is adsorption of heavy metals by activated carbon for treating domestic and industrial...

Synthetic Dyes

A dye is a coloured compound that can be applied on a substrate by one of the various processes of dyeing, printing, surface coating, and so on. Most of the dyes have been made from natural sources such as various parts of plants or certain animals until synthetic dyes were developed in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Most of the synthetic dyes are aromatic organic compounds and generally, the substrate that is the material on which dye is being applied includes textile fibers, polymers,...

Dubinin Radushkevich Isotherm Model

The values for the theoretical saturation capacity and that of b which is a constant connected with the mean free energy of adsorption per mole of adsorbate were determined from the slopes and y intercepts of the linearly regressed lines Fig. 28 The linearised D-R isotherm for RR158 on CAC's. Experimental conditions room temperature, 200 rpm, adsorbent dosage 17.5 g L Fig. 28 The linearised D-R isotherm for RR158 on CAC's. Experimental conditions room temperature, 200 rpm, adsorbent dosage 17.5...

Springer Briefs in Molecular Science Green Chemistry for Sustainability

For further volumes Adsorption of Reactive Red 158 Dye by Chemically Treated Cocos nucifera L. Shell Powder Dickcha Beekaroo Faculty of Engineering Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering University of Mauritius Reduit Mauritius Ackmez Mudhoo Faculty of Engineering Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering University of Mauritius Reduit Mauritius ISSN 2191-5407 e-ISSN 2191-5415 ISBN 978-94-007-1985-9 e-ISBN 978-94-007-1986-6 Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York...

Thomas Model to Batch Column Experiments

Thomas Model For Column

The linearised Thomas models for the data in this work are shown in Figs. 60, 61 and 62 at varying bed heights, varying input volume and varying initial dye Fig. 61 Linearised Thomas model of RR158 adsorption on CAC's for varying input volume. Experimental conditions concentration of dye 60 mg L, pH 2 and bed height 6 cm Fig. 61 Linearised Thomas model of RR158 adsorption on CAC's for varying input volume. Experimental conditions concentration of dye 60 mg L, pH 2 and bed height 6 cm Fig. 62...