Cloud Point Extraction

Cloud point extraction (CPE) is based on the phase separation behaviour exhibited by aqueous solutions of certain surfactant micelles. Surfactants or surface-active agents are amphiphilic molecules that contain a polar hydrophilic head and a nonpolar hydrophobic tail. While the head is an ionic or strongly polar group, in most cases, the tail is a linear or branched hydrocarbon chain with different carbon atoms that can be linear or branched and that can also contain aromatic rings. Above a...

Characteristic Features of Lichens Utilized in Biomonitoring Studies

Lichens has been recognized and successfully utilized as biological indicators of air quality. They are among the most valuable and reliable biomonitors of atmospheric pollution. Primarily lichens were utilized to monitor gaseous pollution, namely sulphur (SO.), nitrogen (NO., NH3, NO3. etc.) (Rao and LeBlanc 1967 Vestergaard et al. 1986) . Lichens show high sensitivity towards sulphur dioxide because their efficient absorption systems result in rapid accumulation of sulphur when exposed to...

Association of Chemistry and the Environment

We founded the Association of Chemistry and the Environment in 2000 with a group of environmental scientists (www.europeanace.com). A chemistry flower logo was designed to symbolise positive benefits of chemistry for Nature (Fig. 1). The association was launched by the organisation of the two first European Meeting on Environmental Chemistry by Eric Lichtfouse, Brigitte Elbisser and co-workers in 2000 in Nancy, France, and in 2001 in Dijon, France. Meetings were immediately a success, with more...

Anodic Oxidation of Nonchloride Solutions

The most popular electrochemical technique for wastewater remediation is the electrochemical oxidation, which is frequently called anodic oxidation when nonchloride solutions are treated. This procedure involves the oxidation of pollutants in an electrolytic cell by (1) direct electron transfer to the anode and (2) indirect or mediated oxidation with heterogeneous ROS formed from water discharge at the anode, such as physically adsorbed active oxygen (physisorbed OH) or chemisorbed active...

References

Aboul-Enein HY, Ali I (2004) Analysis of the chiral pollutants by chromatography. Toxicol Environ Chem 86(1) 1-22 Agrawal YK, Patel RN (2005) Chiral chromatographic separation of b-blockers. J Chromatogr B 820(1) 23-31 Aleksa K, Nava-Ocampo A, Koren G (2009) Detection and quantification of (R) and (S)-dechloroethylifosfamide metabolites in plasma from children by enantioselective LC MS MS. Chirality 21(7) 674-680 Ali I, Gaitonde VD, Aboul-Enein HY, Hussain A (2009a) Chiral separation of...

Zinc

Low Zn content of Fe-Mn concretions and nodules has been found on a number of studies (Childs 1975 Palumbo et al. 2001). Gasparatos (2007) found that the enrichment factor for Zn has the lowest values among metals, ranging from 1.60 to 1.85 for concretions and from 1.6 to 1.96 for nodules. These results shown that despite the high affinity of Zn for Fe-Mn oxides, it is weakly partitioned into Fe-Mn concretions and nodules. The low content of Zn in concretions and nodules may be due to their...

Importance of Biological Degradation

Different physical, chemical and biological techniques can be applied to remove azo dyes from wastewater. These techniques include adsorption, coagulation-flocculation, reverse osmosis, oxidation, Photodegradation, membrane filtration and microbial degradation Each technique has its technical and economical limitations (Table 6.1). Most physico-chemical dye removal methods have drawbacks because they are expensive, have limited versatility, are greatly interfered by other wastewater Table 6.1...

Photocatalytic Efficiency Enhancements

Microbicidal effect of TiO2 mediated photocatalysis has been conceded based on numerous experimental evidences. The process, no doubt, looks very advantageous in its applications for the disinfection of drinking water, but has some limitations in its practical use. The photocatalyst TiO2 used as slurry show high bactericidal efficiency, but its extraction from the treated water is a cumbersome task. The simplest possible solution is to immobilize the catalyst by coating it on a fixed support....

Kinetics and Product Studies of ClOAmino Acids Peptides and Proteins

Chlorine dioxide is a stable free radical and a selective powerful oxidant (Troitskaya et al. 1958). ClO2 + 4H + + 5e- Cl- + 2H2O E0 0.936 V (5.5) The oxidations carried out by ClO2 usually involve a single electron transfer (Tratnyek and Hoigne 1994) . The reactivity of ClO2 with inorganic and organic compounds obeys first-order kinetics with respect to ClO. and is also first-order with respect to the compound (Hoigne and Bader 1994). The second-order rate constants vary over a wide range...

Heavy Metals Toxicity

The term heavy metals refers to metals and metalloids having densities greater than 5 g cm-3 and is usually associated with pollution and toxicity although some of these elements (essential metals) are required by organisms at low concentrations (Adriano 2001) . Heavy metals toxicity and the danger of their bioaccumulation in the food chain represent one of the major environmental and health problems of our modern society. Primary sources of pollution is from the burning of fossil fuels, mining...

Removal of Siloxanes from Biogas

Siloxanes are man-made organic products that belong to low molecular weight organosilicons. These compounds are used as a starting material for the formation of high molecular weight polyorganosiloxane that are present in many products of hygiene, health care and industrial products, as gums, shampoos, deodorants, etc. (Wheless and Jeffrey 2004). In biogas arising from sewage treatment plants, as well as landfills, low molecular weight siloxanes volatilize into the digester gas and landfill...

Heavy Metals Toxicity and Removal by Biosorption

Ackmez Mudhoo, Vinod Kumar Garg, and Shaobin Wang 10.2 Biosorption of Heavy 10.2.1 The Vermicomposting 10.2.2 Heavy Metals Biosorption by 10.3.1 Biosorption Experimental 10.3.2 Batch Data Modeling and 10.3.3 Empirical Modeling and 10.3.4 Mechanistic 10.3.5 Kinetic 10.3.6 Main Mechanisms of Metal 10.4 Heavy Metals 10.4.3 Copper Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius e-mail ackmezchem yahoo.co.uk Department of...

Foam Emulsion Bioreactor

Foam Emulsion Bioreactor

The mechanism of pollutant removal in a foam emulsion bioreactor (Fig. 3.15) is analogous to that of a two-liquid-phase reactor. The bioreactor consists of an emulsion of highly active pollutant degrading microorganisms and water-immiscible organic phase, which is made into foam by passing the waste-gas. The amount of organic phase is low and it uses a biocompatible surfactant for foam production (Shahna et al. 2010). There are only a few reports on foam-emulsion bioreactor for waste-gas...

Two Stage Reactors with at Least One Biological Step for Waste Gas Treatment

As the name implies, two-stage reactors exploit the inherent advantages of different processes used for waste-gas treatment, by adjusting the operation strategy as reactors connected in series or in one modified reactor configuration having different pollutant removal mechanisms (Kennes and Veiga 2001 Jin et al. 2008 Rene et al. 2009b, 2010b) . Two-stage reactors are preferable for certain operating conditions and waste-gas characteristics, as given here (i) when the waste-gas contains a...

Advantages and Applications of Biogas

From an aesthetic and hygienic view-point, biogas technology contributes significantly to improvise living conditions and socio-economics in rural areas. It has been Table 9.1 Composition ofbiogas obtained from different sources Table 9.1 Composition ofbiogas obtained from different sources n.a not available, b.d below detectable limit n.a not available, b.d below detectable limit Table 9.2 Composition of important trace compounds from different biogas sources compounds Biogas (mg m-3)...

Monolith Bioreactors

A monolith reactor (Fig. 3.9) is a reactor in which the biomass is attached on a plastic, ceramic or metal structure with uniform parallel channels separated by thin walls. Commercially available monolith supports can be tailored to meet the needs of a relatively inexpensive, light weight, inert, bioreactor packing that provides a high specific surface area, i.e., surface to volume ratio, to greatly improvise the mass transfer rate of pollutant (Jin et al. 2006b, 2008 Rene et al. 2010c)....

Biogas Cleaning Techniques

The biogas produced from different sources using conventional or emerging biogas technologies may contain various impurities. Biogas, when upgraded efficiently, can be used for all applications designed for natural gas. However, in order to use biogas as a vehicle fuel it has to be enriched in methane, and this is primarily achieved by carbon dioxide removal which then enhances the energy value of the gas to give longer driving distances with a fixed gas storage volume. Hydrogen sulfide should...

Geochemistry

The study of the geochemical composition of Fe-Mn concretions and nodules originally started with samples mainly from marine sediments (Li 1982). The researchers found that the Fe-Mn nodules from the oceans contained significant quantities of Ni, Cu and Co of economic value (Chauhan et al. 1994 Dutta et al. 2001). The geochemical study of soil Fe-Mn concretions and nodules began in the mid 1970s (Childs 1975) and was expanded during the last decade (Ram et al. 2001 Cornu et al. 2005). Table...

Solid Phase Micro Extraction SPME and Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction SBSE

The principles and applications of SPME and SBSE have been reviewed previously (Baltussen et al. 2002 Prieto et al. 2010a). Briefly, in SPME and SBSE the analytes are extracted from the aqueous matrix into a non-miscible liquid or solid polymer, mainly liquid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). PDMS is a very well-known stationary phase in gas chromatography (GC), thermally stable in a broad temperature range (-20 C to 320 C) and with remarkable diffusion properties. The major Fig. 4.1 Theoretical...

Contributors

Carlos Alves Centro de Investigado Geol gica, Ordenamento e Valorizado de Recursos, Campus de Gualtar, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057, Braga, Portugal, casaix dct.uminho.pt Anil Kumar Anal Center ofExcellence in Nanotechnology, School ofEngineering and Technology, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand Sunandan Bar uah Center ofExcellence in Nanotechnology, School ofEngineering and Technology, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klong Luang,...

Translocation Mechanisms from the Root to the Shoot

Arsenic shows low mobility (unlike phosphorous) with respect to translocation from roots to shoots in plants, except for hyperaccumulators (Zhao et al. 2009). The uptake of arsenic by plant roots varies for different plants or their parts (Stoltz and Greger 2002a, b, 2005). Arsenic ions are taken up, translocated from the roots to the shoot system via the xylem and then redistributed between tissues. The translocation of arsenic ions from root to shoot depends on root pressure and leaf...

Biomonitoring Studies in India 7421 Heavy Metals

Lichen morphology and physiology enable it to be a good reservoir of metals. Various heavy metals such as Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Hg, and Cr considered as toxic for many other living organisms, may be accumulated simultaneously in lichen thallus (Garty 1993) . Accumulation of metals by lichen thalli is one of the extensively studied aspects in lichen biomonitoring (Nieboer et al. 1978).Vehicular activity is reported to be the main source of atmospheric Cr, Cu and Pb (Loppi et al. 1998 Tuba and...

Introduction

Since the 1970s, the impact of chemical contamination on the aquatic environment has mainly focused on persistent priority pollutants such as acutely toxic carcinogenic pesticides, synthetic dyes, and industrial chemicals. This pollution considerably affects the feasibility of water reuse from effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs), which is an essential task due to the severe global water problems. Recently, pharmaceuticals are receiving increasing attention as potential bioactive...

Photocatalytic Inactivation of Microbes

This section is mostly devoted to studies on the efficiency of metal oxide semiconductor mediated photocatalysis in degrading all types of water. These include bacteria, viruses, molds, algae and fungi. Among the various bacterial species, Escherichia coli (E. coli) have been extensively used as a model microorganism in testing the efficacy of most of the newly synthesized disinfectant photocatalysts as well as newly Table 13.1 Photocatalytic inactivation of three bacterial strains with undoped...

U u rlogj

The delayed-Chick-Watson model can fit reasonably the microbial inactivation curve including shoulder. However, the provision for the tail is still not there. To include the consideration for all the three regions of the curve, a modified-Chick-Watson model was thus proposed. This is given as Where, k2 is the first order decay constant. The modified-Chick-Watson model, given in Eq. 13.4 can explain the initial delay in the activity or inhibition in the process activity at the end. However, it...

Biogas Technology

Biogas Bacteria Methane

As previously mentioned, many different organic sources may be used in biogas generation. Although most of the natural organic material, except lignin (Sleat and Mah 1987 Petersson and Wellinger 2009), can be used as a biogas precursor, the most important sources are those processes that are directly involved with waste management, mainly sewage sludge, landfills, agriculture wastes, manure, and industrial food wastes (Fig . 9.1). The anaerobic digestion process, responsible for biogas...

Transfer of Arsenic Ions from Bulk Soil to the Root Surface The Plant Factor

Some plants have the capacity to alter their membrane permeability, change the metal binding capacity of cell walls, or exude various quantities of chelating substances from the roots to enhance or prevent uptake of elements (e.g. Greger 2008). The bioavailability of arsenic depends on root uptake from the bulk soil. Adsorption depends on root excretions, as well as on symbiotic microorganisms (bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi). Interactions between roots and bacteria may impact arsenic uptake...

Redox Process and Environmental Issues

Redox-related environmental issues have increased in importance in the last decades. The importance of the redox potential, as a main biogeochemical variable, in controlling the speciation and toxicity of a wide variety of elements have been recently reviewed (Borch et al. 2010). Redox processes are chemical reactions that include a transfer of electrons and consequently a change in valence state of elements that are either oxidized to a higher valence state or reduced to a lower valence state....

Biomonitoring Studies Carried Out in India Till Date

Indian landscape has wide geographical area ranging from tropical to alpine climate. It has rich lichen diversity with more than 2,300 species, reported from different regions of the country, belonging to 305 genera and 74 families. Out of these species reported about 520 species (22.5 ) are endemic (Singh and Sinha 2010). There are Fig. 7.3 Map of India showing different cities where long term biomonitoring studies are being carried out and some of the lichen rich areas of the country.* J&...

Biotic and Abiotic Degradation and Removal Processes of Chiral Pharmaceuticals in the Environment

Removal of pharmaceuticals in surface waters can be due to photo-transformation, biodegradation, hydrolysis and partition to sediment (Liu et al. 2009). Pharmaceuticals are generally highly polar compounds since they are produced in a way which promotes their transport and excretion in the organism. Thus, their removal in Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP) is mostly restricted to biodegradation and to abiotic processes as oxidation and sorption. Air-stripping and photo-transformation are also...

Electrocoagulation

Coagulation is a traditional physicochemical treatment of phase separation for the decontamination of wastewaters containing colloidal and ionic species before discharge to the aquatic environment. Coagulating agents such as Fe3+ or Al3+ ions are usually added in the form of chloride salts for precipitation. Similar effects can be achieved by means of the electrochemical technology known as electrocoagulation (EC) (Chen 2004 Martinez-Huitle and Brillas 2009). In EC, a current is applied to...

C

Fig. 3.14 Schematic of a two-stage reactor (UV-photoreactor + biofilter) used efficiently for treating exceedingly high concentrations of gas-phase pollutant and during shock-loads with a microbial consortium enriched from wastewater treatment plant sludge. Sercu et al. (2005) showed that high ECs could easily be achieved in a two-stage biotrickling filter for treating gas-phase DMS and H. S. The 1st and 2nd stage biotrickling filters were inoculated with pure cultures of Acidithiobacillus...

Effect of Water Quality

Nearly, all the factors affecting the efficiency of photocatalysis for water disinfection have been investigated through a number of experiments. However, most of the experiments were performed with the contaminant suspensions prepared in deion-ized water. Natural water, on the other hand, contains many other organic and inorganic dissolved suspended materials. Wist et al. (2002) carried out the photocatalytic disinfection tests of E. coli in distilled as well as tap water for 1.5 h...

Manganese

The behaviour of Mn in soil is very complex and is controlled by different environmental factors, of which pH-Eh conditions are the most important (Kabata-Pendias 2001) . The solubility of Mn is highly sensitive to redox condition. Manganese occurs in two oxidation states Mn (IV), which is the most stable in neutral to slightly alkaline conditions, and Mn (II), which is stable in reducing conditions (Post 1999). Although the Mn (II) ion is readily soluble under reducing conditions, Mn is not...

Effect of Light Irradiation

A photocatalytic material like TiO2 has been reported to show no bactericidal effect in the dark, while light alone has a considerable antimicrobial efficacy depending upon its wavelength. However, the synergistic action of TiO2 and light irradiation has proven to be effective for inactivation of microorganisms (Huang et al. 1998). The mechanism of photocatalysis has been hypothesized to commence with the photo-generation of electron-hole pairs in the valance band of the TiO2 semiconductor and...

Electro Oxidation with Active Chlorine

A very different behavior is found when the wastewater contains chloride ions since the generated active chlorine species such as Cl2, HClO and or ClO-, ClO2-, ClO3-and ClO4- can attack the organics in competition with ROS (Bergmann et al. 2009 Martinez-Huitle and Brillas 2009 Panizza and Cerisola 2009). This procedure is usually called electro-oxidation with active chlorine and is based on the direct oxidation of Cl- ion at the anode to yield soluble chlorine by reaction (8.25) The...

Photoelectro Fenton

The PEF method has been proposed and extensively studied by Brillas' group using undivided, open Pt GDE and BDD GDE cells like those of Fig. 8.11 (upper). In this technique, the solution is treated under EF conditions and simultaneously irradiated with UVA light to accelerate the mineralization rate of organics. The Fe(OH) 2+ ion, which is the pre-eminent form of Fe(III) at pH 2.8-3.5, plays a key role when the dark EF process is photoassisted by UVA lamps as energy source. Hydroxyl radicals...

Bioindicator Studies in India

Foliose and fruticose epiphytic lichens are best suited for biomonitoring studies (Seaward 1993 van Dobben and ter Braak 1999) . In urban environment, sulphur dioxide along with the NOX gases (resulting from vehicular emissions) has antagonistic effect on lichen community at relatively high doses of gases in the environment (Balaguer et al. 1997). Changes in the composition of lichen diversity including frequency, density and abundance provide first hand evidence on the alterations in air...

Factors Involved in the Photocatalytic Microbicidal Process

Photocatalytic inactivation of microorganisms is a complex process that depends on several parameters. The rate of inactivation has been reported to vary with the type, physiological state, and concentration of microorganisms (Lonnen et al. 2005 Rincon and Pulgarin 2004a) . The nature, morphology, concentration, and state (slurry or immobilized) of the catalyst material, also, have a great influence on the inactivation rate (Adams et al. 2006 Huang et al. 1998 Qi et al. 2004 Sondi and...

Chiral Pharmaceuticals

Pharmaceuticals are chemicals used for diagnosis, treatment, alteration or prevention of disease, health condition, or structure function of the human body, including veterinary drugs. They act by interaction with the binding site of the drug receptor which is a macromolecule such as enzymes, nucleic acids or membrane-bounded proteins, promoting the pharmacological action by the formation of a drug-receptor complex (Stringer 2006). Their action in humans is well described, but their mechanism...

Physico Chemical Methods

Biogas Purification Methods

Carbon dioxide can be removed from the biogas by adsorption on a surface, normally activated carbon, molecular sieves or zeolites. In pressure swing adsorption, adsorption takes place at elevated pressure and the material is regenerated by reducing the pressure and subsequent application of a light vacuum. However, this process requires a pre-treatment step in order to remove water vapour and hydrogen sulfide present in the inlet stream, i.e., biogas. Hydrogen sulfide pose a severe operating...

Air Lift Bioreactors

Air-lift reactors were originally designed by chemical engineers for enhancing mass and heat transfer efficiency and to produce pharmaceuticals, polymers, and chemical feed stocks, among others (Bielefeldt 2001). This reactor configuration offers many advantages and is being applied in the field of wastewater engineering. The advantages include complete mixing of species, simple mechanical design, low shear rate, high capacity, the absence of mechanical agitators, versatility for scale-up, and...

List of Abbreviations

1-methylpyrrolidinium 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophos- 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate 1 -octyl-3 -methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluor- benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes vinylpyridine-ethylene dimethacrylate volatile organic compounds capillary electrophoresis-ultraviolet detector direct immersion-single drop microextraction...

Anodic Fenton Treatment

The AFT is a variant of the EF process where the reagent H2O2 is not cathodically generated, but it is added to the solution. A divided cell is employed to avoid the negative effect of the formation of OH- at the cathode from water reduction, which raises pH and is then against the optimum conditions of 'OH production from Fenton's reaction (8.32). This process has been extensively developed for water remediation by Lemley's group, who have considered different bench-scale electrolytic systems...

Fluidized Bed Bioreactor

The fluidized-bed bioreactor (gas-solid) is a modified version of the conventional fluidized bed reactor used in chemical processes and other unit operations. These reactors can be thought upon as an attempt to improve the existing design of other biological systems such as biofilters (Clarke et al. 2008). 3.4.5.1 Operation of Fluidized-Bed Bioreactors The schematic of a typical fluidized-bed bioreactor is shown in Fig. 3.11. The polluted air enters the reaction space with the help of a nozzle...

Empirical Modeling and Isotherms

Empirical models are simple mathematical relationships, characterized by a limited number of adjustable parameters, which give a good description of the experimental behavior over a large range of operating conditions. Some frequently employed and well established empirical models involve two, three or even four parameters to model the isotherm data (Vijayaraghavan and Yun 2008). Although these conventional empirical models do not reflect the mechanisms of sorbate uptake, they are capable of...

High Performance Liquid Chromatography HPLCLiquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry LCMS

High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) has become a technique of routine analysis in replacement of GC because of the numerous combinations of the available columns with the potential mobile phases, and the detection methods that can be coupled, such as Mass Spectrometry (MS) or optical detectors when the analytes are UV transparent (Aboul-Enein and Ali 2004 Gorog 2007). The high variety of chiral commercial columns, like Pirkle, crown ethers, ligand exchangers, cyclodextrins,...

Solutions

Solutions are an important way of transport of pollutants in either ionic or solid form. Several deleterious processes of materials can arise from reactions between the constituents of this materials and ionic pollutants such as - corrosion of metals - the presence of electrolytes promotes corrosion reactions (Trethewey and Chamberlain 1995 Roberge 2000 Tidblad and Kucera 2003). The effects of pH and redox (related to oxygen levels) of the solutions on metal corrosion can be assessed by Eh-pH...

How To Prepare Drumstick Leaves Mudhoo

Abbas M, Nadeem R, Zafar MN, Arshad M (2008) Biosorption of chromium (III) and chromium (VI) by untreated and pretreated Cassia fistula biomass from aqueous solutions. Water Air Soil Pollut 191 139-148. doi 10.1007 s11270-007-9613-8 Abollino O, Aceto M, Malandrino M, Sarzanini C, Mentasti E (2003) Adsorption of heavy metals on Na-montmorillonite. Effect of pH and organic substances. Water Res 37 1619-1627. doi 10.1016 S0043-1354(02)00524-9 Aboulroos SA, Helal MID, Kamel MM (2006) Remediation of...

Stp Bacterial Decolorization Of Reactive Black B

Ahmad R, Mondal PK, Usmani SQ (2010) Hybrid UASFB-aerobic bioreactor for biodegradation of acid yellow-36 in wastewater. Bioresour Technol 101(10) 3787-3790 Albuquerque MGE, Lopes AT, Serralheiro ML, Novais JM, Pinheiro HM (2005) Biological sulphate reduction and redox mediator effects on azo dye decolourisation inanaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors. Enzyme Microb Technol 36(5-6) 790-799 An H, Qian Y, Gu XS, Tang WZ (1996) Biological treatment of dye wastewaters using an anaerobic- oxic...

Biodegradation of Non Steroid Antiinflammatory Drugs NSAIDs Betablockers and Antidepressants as Individual Enantiomers

There are many studies on microbial degradation of chiral pharmaceuticals in the environment as racemates (Trautwein et al. 2008 Benotti and Brownawell 2009 Calisto and Esteves 2009 Mascolo et al. 2010 Santos et al. 2010), however biodegradation studies of individual enantiomers are scarcer (Table 1.4) (Buser et al. 1999 Fono and Sedlak 2005 Fono et al. 2006 Matamoros et al. 2009 Winkler et al. 2001). The distribution of worldwide approved drugs indicates that the use of single enantiomers has...

Environmental Chemistry

We published the book Environmental Chemistry in 2005 (Lichtfouse et al. 2005b). The book includes 69 chapters sorted in 7 sections Analytical Chemistry, Toxic Metals, Organic Pollutants, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Pesticides, Green Chemistry, and Ecotoxicology. The book is a success with over 35,000 chapters downloads from 2007 to 2010. Book chapters are still highly downloaded with 639 Table 1 Chapters of environmental chemistry for a sustainable world (Lichtfouse et al. 201 la. b)...

Electro Fenton

Electro Fenton

The fundamentals and main characteristics of the chemical and electrochemical technologies based on Fenton's reaction chemistry for water and soil treatment have been recently reviewed (Pignatello et al. 2006 Brillas et al. 2009). The generally accepted classical mechanism for the Fenton process in acidic medium is initiated by the formation of hydroxyl radical in accordance with the classical Fenton's reaction (8.32) between Fenton's reactants (H2O2+Fe2+) occurring in the bulk Fe2+ + H2O2 + H+...

Elements and Ions

In this section, the use elements and ions will be considered in the assessment of pollution sources (isotopic data will be discussed in the next section Isotopic Tracers (Stable Isotopes)). Qualitative studies about the presence of certain elements or ions could give indications about the presence of pollutants (see Sabbioni et al. 2003 on organic ions) and can give relevant information for the typology of decay features (Sanjurjo-Sanchez et al. 2008) . The present authors defend that...

Decay Effects of Pollutants

This section would deal with the sources, pathways and decay mechanisms of the main pollutants affecting materials in the built environment. The diverse pollutants will be discussed in specific sections but here are presented some transversal concepts that are relevant for diverse forms of the polluting substances. In the built environment, water (even in its purest form) can be considered a pollutant as it promotes decay reactions on materials such as paints (Koleske 1995 Wypych 1995) ,...

Plants as Biosorbents 1281 Vascular Plants

Plant materials such as living plants (Hoffman et al. 2004), their parts or their dried, seized, and chemically treated seeds (Kumari et al. 2006 Koivula et al. 2009 Pandey et al. 2009) and also the residue of vascular plants from industry or agriculture, such as rice polish, and orange wastes (Ranjan et al. 2009 Ghimire et al. 2003), were tested as biosorbent material (Table 12.3) for arsenic. Maximum sorption capacity for arsenic depends on the three factors sorbate solution characteristic,...

Biosorption of Heavy Metals

Heavy Metal Biosorptionthrough Biomass

Pollutants such as heavy metals, volatile organic compounds and dissolved solids are found in wastewaters. Heavy metal remediation of aqueous streams is of special concern due to recalcitrant and persistency of heavy metals in environment (Sud et al. 2008). They are removed on adsorbents such as activated carbon, clay and sediments in riverbeds and in suspension. Over the years, the role of adsorption in water waste-water treatment has been critically investigated (Oke et al. 2008). Adsorption...

Anaerobic Degradation of Azo Dyes

Various color removal efficiency listed in Table 6.2 show that removal of color is mainly associated with the anaerobic stage, whereas further decolorization in the aerobic stage is usually limited to a few extra percents. In one of the reactor studies it was shown that the color removal by a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic treatment process was 70 higher than that of a one-stage aerobic treatment process (Minke and Rott 2002). Table 6.2 Studies on biological degradation of azo dye-containing...

Electrochemical Remediation Technologies for Waters Contaminated by Pharmaceutical Residues

8.3 Electrochemical 8.3.1 Anodic Oxidation of Non-chloride 307 8.3.2 Electro-Oxidation with Active 309 8.3.3 Treatment of Synthetic 310 8.4 Indirect Electro-Oxidation in the Bulk with Electrogenerated Fenton's Reagent 324 324 8.4.2 Anodic Fenton Treatment 332 333 8.5 Other Related Electrochemical 8.5.2 Photoelectrocatalysis 339 References Abstract The presence of pharmaceutical micropollutants in the environment has become of major concern in the last decades. Many electrochemical technologies...

ClO2Aqueous Chemistry

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) in solution has been extensively used for the purification and disinfection of drinking water, sterilization of medical devices, sanitization of food products, bleaching of paper, and the biocidal treatment of cooling water (Tsai et al. 1995 Kim et al. 1999 Gordon and Rosenblatt 2005). The use of gaseous ClO2 has been shown to be effective in treating mold affected buildings and in deactivating Bacillus anthracis spores in governmental and commercial buildings (Southwell...

Treatment of Synthetic Solutions

The mineralization ability of the AO and or electro-oxidation with active chlorine has been tested for several synthetic solutions using a large variety of anodes and electrolytic systems. Table 8.2 collects the percentage of TOC decay determined for various common pharmaceuticals under selected conditions. An inspection of these data allows concluding that the use of a BDD anode yields a much higher mineralization degree compared to other non-active anodes such as PbO2 and SnO2, as well as to...

Heavy Metals Biosorption by Vermicomposts

Humic Acid Metal Complexation

At present there are only a few studies regarding the treatment of wastewaters containing heavy metals by vermicompost. The efficiency of vermicompost for removing heavy metals from aqueous solutions or industrial effluents has not been studied in detail except to mention a few and namely Jordao et al. (2002), Pereira and Arruda (2003), Carrasquero Duran et al. (2006), Jadia and Fulekar (2008), Urdaneta et al. (2008) and Jordao et al. (2009). Those researchers found that metal concentrations in...

Dispersive Liquid Liquid Phase Micro extraction

DLLME was developed in 2006 by Rezaee et al. as a novel technique for the extraction of compounds from aqueous samples (Rezaee et al. 2006) . As mentioned in the introduction of LPME techniques, DLLME avoids the high consumption of organic solvents involved in classical extraction techniques (Herrera-Herrera et al. 2010). This technique, which allows the simultaneous extraction and concentration of analytes is based on the use of a ternary solvent system consisting of an aqueous phase, the...

Chromium

One of the most important chemical contaminants of concern is chromium (Cr), which exists in a series of oxidation states from -2 to +6 valence the most important stable states are 0 (element metal), +3 (trivalent) and +6 (hexavalent). Cr3+ and Cr6+ are released to the environment primary from stationary point sources resulting from human activities. Contamination of groundwater by Cr at numerous localities primarily resulted from uncontrolled or accidental release of Cr-bearing solutions, used...

Bioremediation of Arsenic in Contaminated Terrestrial and Aquatic Environments

Dabrowska, Meththika Vithanage, K.R. Gunaratna, Arun B. Mukherjee, and Prosun Bhattacharya 12.2 Soil Water - Plant 12.3 Factors Affecting Arsenic Uptake by 12.4 Phytoremediation 12.4.1 Transfer of Arsenic Ions from Bulk Soil to the Root Surface - The Plant 12.4.2 Translocation Mechanisms from the Root to the 12.4.3 Bioconcentration and Bioaccumulation 12.5 Phytoremediation 12.5.3 Phytostabilisation Department of Botany, Stockholm University, SE-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden M. Vithanage...

The Vermicomposting Process

Composting is a controlled self-heating, aerobic solid phase biodegradative process of organic materials (Ryckeboer et al. 2003). The process comprises mesophilic and thermophilic phases involving numerous microorganisms. In several successive steps, microbial communities degrade organic substrates into more stable, humified forms and inorganic products, generating heat as a metabolic waste product (Mason 2006 Mohee and Mudhoo 2005 Mudhoo and Mohee 2006,2007,2008 Nakasaki et al. 2005 Richard et...

Toxicity of Emergent Chiral Pharmaceuticals in Aquatic Organisms

Although there are few studies about ecological toxicity of isolated enantiomers of chiral pharmaceuticals, many studies have been developed reporting the toxicity of these pharmaceuticals to aquatic organisms (Khetan and Collins 2007) , mostly at concentrations higher than those found in the environment (Fent et al. 2006) , which show the need of research on the effects of each enantiomer separately (Table 1.5). Briefly, ecotoxicity evaluation of propranolol using the marine bacterium Vibrio...

Biosorption Characteristics

This review attempts to summarise recent studies in the removal of arsenic using plants and fungi in situ and as biosorbent materials. Analysis and design of biosorption adsorption processes involves biosorption adsorption equilibrium. Equilibrium concentration is a function of temperature. The adsorption equilibrium at a given constant temperature is referred to as adsorption isotherm. The adsorption capacity qt , the most important characteristic of a biosorbent, is dependent on pore and...

FeMn Concretions and Nodules to Sequester Heavy Metals in Soils

444 11.2 Redox Process and Environmental 446 11.3 Genesis and Properties of Pedogenic Fe-Mn Concretions and Nodules 448 11.3.1 Formation Process and Environmental 448 457 11.4 Role of Pedogenic Fe-Mn Concretions and Nodules in the Environmental Geochemistry of the 460 460 461 462 463 463 464 464 11.5 Application of Pedogenic Fe-Mn Concretions and Nodules to Remediating Metal Contaminated Soils 467 Laboratory of Soils and Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75,...

Biological Techniques

9.3.2.1 Biological Techniques for Carbon Dioxide Removal Although very little has been reported about biological methods for the removal of carbon dioxide from biogas, recently some research groups have been investigating the possibility to use natural biodegradation processes such as photosynthesis or enzymatic catabolism, in biogas upgrading. Converti et al. 2009 have reported a laboratory-scale apparatus for biogas production and purification using a two-stage biological system, viz.,...

Morphological Properties

Soil Fe- Mn concretions and nodules are morphological characteristics with significant heterogeneity in relation to the surrounding soil material and can easily be isolated from it and even seen with the naked eye. There is wide variety in shape, colour and size depending on the soil properties and the conditions under which they formed. Soil Fe-Mn concretions and nodules can occur in several forms, including spherical Phillippe et al. 1972 Palumbo et al. 2001 Gasparatos et al. 2005b , oval...

Mechanism of Microbial Degradation

The microbicidal efficacy of heterogeneous photocatalysis is well documented. In order to enhance its efficiency for practical applications, detailed study of all the involved parameters is crucial. In aqueous suspension, using the catalyst in slurry form, the activity mainly proceeds through the adsorption of the catalyst particles on the organism surface. With illumination, these particles start oxidation-reduction reactions which bring about damages to the protective envelope of the...

Single Drop Micro extraction

SDME is based on the preconcentration of target analytes in a small volume 0.5-3 mL of organic solvent, aqueous solutions or ionic liquid IL . In this sense, SDME is considered to be the basic liquid-liquid microextraction technique Sarafraz-Yazdi and Amiri 2010 Nerin et al. 2009 Psillakis and Kalogerakis 2002 Xu et al. 2007 Lambropoulou et al. 2007 . Equilibration times, which range from seconds to hours, can happen in SDME, depending on the target analyte. In any case, regardless the sampling...

Microextraction by Packed Sorbent MEPS

Micro Extraction Packed Syringe

MEPS is a recently developed technique that was introduced by Abdel-Rehim Abdel-Rehim 2003, 2004 Abdel-Rehim et al. 2004 in the field of sample preparation. MEPS can combine sample processing and the extraction and injection steps in a fully automated way as an at-line sampling injecting device to GC or LC Jagerdeo and Abdel-Rehim 2009 Matysik and Matysik 2009 Morales-Cid et al. 2009 Schurek et al. 2008 Said et al. 2008 . MEPS is not only a miniaturized format of SPE which is able to handle...

Environmental Chemistry Letters

We founded the journal Environmental Chemistry Letters in 2003 to fill the science gap between chemistry and environment www.springer.com 10311 . Despite a tough selection by the Thomson Reuters agency to enter the Science Citation Index, we got our first impact factor of 0.814 for 2006, only 3 years later . The impact factor increased steadily to reach 2.109 in 2009 Fig. 2 www.thomsonreuters.com . The increase of the impact factor can be explained by a higher quality of articles, as a result...