Building Materials

Biosorption of Heavy Metals

Heavy Metal Biosorptionthrough Biomass

Pollutants such as heavy metals, volatile organic compounds and dissolved solids are found in wastewaters. Heavy metal remediation of aqueous streams is of special concern due to recalcitrant and persistency of heavy metals in environment (Sud et al. 2008). They are removed on adsorbents such as activated carbon, clay and sediments in riverbeds and in suspension. Over the years, the role of adsorption in water waste-water treatment has been critically investigated (Oke et al. 2008). Adsorption...

Biological Techniques

Bioscrubbers

9.3.2.1 Biological Techniques for Carbon Dioxide Removal Although very little has been reported about biological methods for the removal of carbon dioxide from biogas, recently some research groups have been investigating the possibility to use natural biodegradation processes such as photosynthesis or enzymatic catabolism, in biogas upgrading. Converti et al. 2009 have reported a laboratory-scale apparatus for biogas production and purification using a two-stage biological system, viz.,...

Foam Emulsion Bioreactor

Foam Emulsion Bioreactor

The mechanism of pollutant removal in a foam emulsion bioreactor (Fig. 3.15) is analogous to that of a two-liquid-phase reactor. The bioreactor consists of an emulsion of highly active pollutant degrading microorganisms and water-immiscible organic phase, which is made into foam by passing the waste-gas. The amount of organic phase is low and it uses a biocompatible surfactant for foam production (Shahna et al. 2010). There are only a few reports on foam-emulsion bioreactor for waste-gas...

Photoelectro Fenton

Ele Ctro Fenton

The PEF method has been proposed and extensively studied by Brillas' group using undivided, open Pt GDE and BDD GDE cells like those of Fig. 8.11 (upper). In this technique, the solution is treated under EF conditions and simultaneously irradiated with UVA light to accelerate the mineralization rate of organics. The Fe(OH) 2+ ion, which is the pre-eminent form of Fe(III) at pH 2.8-3.5, plays a key role when the dark EF process is photoassisted by UVA lamps as energy source. Hydroxyl radicals...

Final Considerations

Research carried out in the last decades has revealed important information about decay of building materials, especially stony materials. Such interest is justified due to the importance of the conservation of Heritage Buildings and Monuments, but also to solve important degradation problems in modern buildings. Pollutants can affect the built environment through a diversity of sources, pathways and mechanisms. In the present chapter, the origin and decay mechanisms of pollutants as well as...

Electro Fenton

Electro Fenton

The fundamentals and main characteristics of the chemical and electrochemical technologies based on Fenton's reaction chemistry for water and soil treatment have been recently reviewed (Pignatello et al. 2006 Brillas et al. 2009). The generally accepted classical mechanism for the Fenton process in acidic medium is initiated by the formation of hydroxyl radical in accordance with the classical Fenton's reaction (8.32) between Fenton's reactants (H2O2+Fe2+) occurring in the bulk Fe2+ + H2O2 + H+...

Introduction

Since the 1970s, the impact of chemical contamination on the aquatic environment has mainly focused on persistent priority pollutants such as acutely toxic carcinogenic pesticides, synthetic dyes, and industrial chemicals. This pollution considerably affects the feasibility of water reuse from effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs), which is an essential task due to the severe global water problems. Recently, pharmaceuticals are receiving increasing attention as potential bioactive...

For Water Treatment

238 5.1.1 Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins Found in Natural Waters 238 5.2 Kinetics and Product Studies of ClO2 Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins 242 251 251 Abstract Amino acids, proteins, and peptides occur ubiquitously in natural waters. Although these nitrogen compounds are not directly toxic, harmful byproducts can be formed by reactions with chemical oxidants during water treatment processes. Chlorination and chloramination of water that contains amino acids and other naturally...

Characteristic Features of Lichens Utilized in Biomonitoring Studies

Biomonitoring

Lichens has been recognized and successfully utilized as biological indicators of air quality. They are among the most valuable and reliable biomonitors of atmospheric pollution. Primarily lichens were utilized to monitor gaseous pollution, namely sulphur (SO.), nitrogen (NO., NH3, NO3. etc.) (Rao and LeBlanc 1967 Vestergaard et al. 1986) . Lichens show high sensitivity towards sulphur dioxide because their efficient absorption systems result in rapid accumulation of sulphur when exposed to...

Fluidized Bed Bioreactor

Packed Bed Bioreactor

The fluidized-bed bioreactor (gas-solid) is a modified version of the conventional fluidized bed reactor used in chemical processes and other unit operations. These reactors can be thought upon as an attempt to improve the existing design of other biological systems such as biofilters (Clarke et al. 2008). 3.4.5.1 Operation of Fluidized-Bed Bioreactors The schematic of a typical fluidized-bed bioreactor is shown in Fig. 3.11. The polluted air enters the reaction space with the help of a nozzle...

Anaerobic Degradation of Azo Dyes

Various color removal efficiency listed in Table 6.2 show that removal of color is mainly associated with the anaerobic stage, whereas further decolorization in the aerobic stage is usually limited to a few extra percents. In one of the reactor studies it was shown that the color removal by a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic treatment process was 70 higher than that of a one-stage aerobic treatment process (Minke and Rott 2002). Table 6.2 Studies on biological degradation of azo dye-containing...

Bioremediation of Arsenic in Contaminated Terrestrial and Aquatic Environments

Dabrowska, Meththika Vithanage, K.R. Gunaratna, Arun B. Mukherjee, and Prosun Bhattacharya 12.2 Soil Water - Plant 12.3 Factors Affecting Arsenic Uptake by 12.4 Phytoremediation 12.4.1 Transfer of Arsenic Ions from Bulk Soil to the Root Surface - The Plant 12.4.2 Translocation Mechanisms from the Root to the 12.4.3 Bioconcentration and Bioaccumulation 12.5 Phytoremediation 12.5.3 Phytostabilisation Department of Botany, Stockholm University, SE-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden M. Vithanage...

Phy to extraction

Phytoextraction, phytoaccumulation or phytomining, are the processes used by hyperaccumulators for translocating metal contaminants from soil to the above-ground biomass, which is then harvested to remove contaminants. The main process used in phytoextraction techniques is bioconcentration. Stoltz and Greger (2002a) described the different types of arsenic-accumulating plants. The bioconcentration factor, mentioned as phytoextraction coefficient, is used to assess phytoextraction effectiveness...

Conclusions

Based on the whole review, we find that phytoremediation techniques are good as a tool for cleaning up of soil environments and for drinking water protection. This method can be used as a relatively non-expensive tool for removing or and stabilising arsenic, reducing environmental impact in addition to increased public acceptance. It is now a well established fact that by the growing of plants, it is possible to clean up pollutants from contaminated soils or to alter the chemical and physical...

References

Abedin MJ, Cresser MS, Meharg AA, Feldmann J, Cotter-Howells J 2002 Arsenic accumulation and metabolism in rice Oryza sativa L. . Environ Sci Technol 36 962-968 Adriano DC, Wenzel WW, Vangronsveld J, Bolan NS 2004 Role of assisted natural remediation in environmental clean up. Geoderma 122 121-142 Agely AA, Sylvia DM, Ma LQ 2005 Mycorrhizae increase arsenic uptake by the hyperaccumu- lator Chinese brake fern Pteris vittata L. . J Environ Qual 34 2181-2186 Ahmann D, Krumholz LR, Hemond HF,...

Bioremediation

Bioremediation technology is another group of process based on degradation, stabilisation, or volatilization of contaminants from sites using microorganism (fungi and bacteria) (Andrews et al. 2000 Bhattacharya et al. 2002). Remediation of arsenic contaminated soil is based on the ability of micro organisms, especially soil fungal species, to transform arsenic into methylated arsenic and volatilize the arsine which could be trapped. This method can be used to volatilise arsenic aerobically in...

Empirical Modeling and Isotherms

Empirical models are simple mathematical relationships, characterized by a limited number of adjustable parameters, which give a good description of the experimental behavior over a large range of operating conditions. Some frequently employed and well established empirical models involve two, three or even four parameters to model the isotherm data (Vijayaraghavan and Yun 2008). Although these conventional empirical models do not reflect the mechanisms of sorbate uptake, they are capable of...

Phytoremediation Methods

A large number of methods are available for the removal of toxic elements from water and soil by means of plants using this system called phytoremediation. In general, two different types of processes bioaccumulation and biosorption are responsible for phytoremediation. Bioaccumulation is based on intra-cellular accumulation processes. Biosorption is based on extra-cellular physical, chemical, and chemi-physical processes, including diffusion processes. Phytoremediation techniques, using living...

Stp Bacterial Decolorization Of Reactive Black B

Ahmad R, Mondal PK, Usmani SQ (2010) Hybrid UASFB-aerobic bioreactor for biodegradation of acid yellow-36 in wastewater. Bioresour Technol 101(10) 3787-3790 Albuquerque MGE, Lopes AT, Serralheiro ML, Novais JM, Pinheiro HM (2005) Biological sulphate reduction and redox mediator effects on azo dye decolourisation inanaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors. Enzyme Microb Technol 36(5-6) 790-799 An H, Qian Y, Gu XS, Tang WZ (1996) Biological treatment of dye wastewaters using an anaerobic- oxic...

Lpendurada Data Sheet

Abdel-Rehim M 2003 In Gazette CP ed AstraZeneca application, World Intelectual Property Organisation, London, UK, p 77 Abdel-Rehim M 2004 New trend in sample preparation on-line microextraction in packed syringe for liquid and gas chromatography applications I. Determination of local anaesthetics in human plasma samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 801 2 317-321 Abdel-Rehim M, Altun Z, Blomberg L 2004 Microextraction in packed syringe...

One and Two Liquid Phase Suspended Growth Bioreactors

Biological air pollution control in a suspended-growth reactor is one alternative design sometimes overlooked for the treatment of waste-gases. Generally, the air contaminants, such as odors and-or VOCs, are co-degraded with contaminants dissolved in inlet wastewater (Kennes and Veiga 2001). The continuous suspended-growth bioreactor (CSGB) has advantages for culturing microorganisms because it offers stable environmental conditions, which is important since biological systems can be very...

Biodegradation of Non Steroid Antiinflammatory Drugs NSAIDs Betablockers and Antidepressants as Individual Enantiomers

There are many studies on microbial degradation of chiral pharmaceuticals in the environment as racemates (Trautwein et al. 2008 Benotti and Brownawell 2009 Calisto and Esteves 2009 Mascolo et al. 2010 Santos et al. 2010), however biodegradation studies of individual enantiomers are scarcer (Table 1.4) (Buser et al. 1999 Fono and Sedlak 2005 Fono et al. 2006 Matamoros et al. 2009 Winkler et al. 2001). The distribution of worldwide approved drugs indicates that the use of single enantiomers has...

Treatment of Synthetic Solutions

The mineralization ability of the AO and or electro-oxidation with active chlorine has been tested for several synthetic solutions using a large variety of anodes and electrolytic systems. Table 8.2 collects the percentage of TOC decay determined for various common pharmaceuticals under selected conditions. An inspection of these data allows concluding that the use of a BDD anode yields a much higher mineralization degree compared to other non-active anodes such as PbO2 and SnO2, as well as to...

How To Prepare Drumstick Leaves Mudhoo

Abbas M, Nadeem R, Zafar MN, Arshad M (2008) Biosorption of chromium (III) and chromium (VI) by untreated and pretreated Cassia fistula biomass from aqueous solutions. Water Air Soil Pollut 191 139-148. doi 10.1007 s11270-007-9613-8 Abollino O, Aceto M, Malandrino M, Sarzanini C, Mentasti E (2003) Adsorption of heavy metals on Na-montmorillonite. Effect of pH and organic substances. Water Res 37 1619-1627. doi 10.1016 S0043-1354(02)00524-9 Aboulroos SA, Helal MID, Kamel MM (2006) Remediation of...

Morphological Properties

Soil Fe- Mn concretions and nodules are morphological characteristics with significant heterogeneity in relation to the surrounding soil material and can easily be isolated from it and even seen with the naked eye. There is wide variety in shape, colour and size depending on the soil properties and the conditions under which they formed. Soil Fe-Mn concretions and nodules can occur in several forms, including spherical Phillippe et al. 1972 Palumbo et al. 2001 Gasparatos et al. 2005b , oval...

Heavy Metals Toxicity and Removal by Biosorption

Ackmez Mudhoo, Vinod Kumar Garg, and Shaobin Wang 10.2 Biosorption of Heavy 10.2.1 The Vermicomposting 10.2.2 Heavy Metals Biosorption by 10.3.1 Biosorption Experimental 10.3.2 Batch Data Modeling and 10.3.3 Empirical Modeling and 10.3.4 Mechanistic 10.3.5 Kinetic 10.3.6 Main Mechanisms of Metal 10.4 Heavy Metals 10.4.3 Copper Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius e-mail ackmezchem yahoo.co.uk Department of...

Heavy Metals Toxicity

The term heavy metals refers to metals and metalloids having densities greater than 5 g cm-3 and is usually associated with pollution and toxicity although some of these elements (essential metals) are required by organisms at low concentrations (Adriano 2001) . Heavy metals toxicity and the danger of their bioaccumulation in the food chain represent one of the major environmental and health problems of our modern society. Primary sources of pollution is from the burning of fossil fuels, mining...

Electrocoagulation

Coagulation is a traditional physicochemical treatment of phase separation for the decontamination of wastewaters containing colloidal and ionic species before discharge to the aquatic environment. Coagulating agents such as Fe3+ or Al3+ ions are usually added in the form of chloride salts for precipitation. Similar effects can be achieved by means of the electrochemical technology known as electrocoagulation (EC) (Chen 2004 Martinez-Huitle and Brillas 2009). In EC, a current is applied to...

Photoelectrocatalysis

The electrochemical application of photocatalysis is the PEC method, which provides much higher efficiency for wastewater remediation. This photoassisted electrochemical method consists in the application of a constant bias anodic potential ( anod) usually to a TiO2-based thin film anode subjected to UV illumination. The electrochemical cells used in PEC are tank or flow reactors that permit the pass of UV light through a quartz glass to reach the exposed surface of the anode with the minimum...

Extraction Procedures for Organic Pollutants Determination in Water

Prieto, M. Olivares, A. Usobiaga, L.A. Fern ndez, and Olatz Zuloaga List of 4.2 Sorptive 4.2.1 Solid-Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) and Stir-Bar Sorptive Extraction 4.2.1.1 Method Development and 4.2.2 Microextraction by Packed Sorbent 4.2.2.1 Critical Steps in the Microextraction by Packed Sorbent 4.2.2.2 Applications and Future 4.3 Liquid-Liquid 4.3.1 Cloud Point 4.3.2 Single Drop 4.3.2.1 Single Drop Microextraction 4.3.2.2 Ionic 4.3.2.3 Single Drop...

Environmental Chemistry

We published the book Environmental Chemistry in 2005 (Lichtfouse et al. 2005b). The book includes 69 chapters sorted in 7 sections Analytical Chemistry, Toxic Metals, Organic Pollutants, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Pesticides, Green Chemistry, and Ecotoxicology. The book is a success with over 35,000 chapters downloads from 2007 to 2010. Book chapters are still highly downloaded with 639 Table 1 Chapters of environmental chemistry for a sustainable world (Lichtfouse et al. 201 la. b)...

Dispersive Liquid Liquid Phase Micro extraction

Micro Liquid Liquid Extraction

DLLME was developed in 2006 by Rezaee et al. as a novel technique for the extraction of compounds from aqueous samples (Rezaee et al. 2006) . As mentioned in the introduction of LPME techniques, DLLME avoids the high consumption of organic solvents involved in classical extraction techniques (Herrera-Herrera et al. 2010). This technique, which allows the simultaneous extraction and concentration of analytes is based on the use of a ternary solvent system consisting of an aqueous phase, the...

Bioconcentration and Bioaccumulation

Definitions were adapted to differentiate 'bioconcentration' and 'bioaccumulation' in accordance with the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC 1996 Gobas et al. 1999) (1) Bioconcentration is the intake of chemical contaminants Table 12.1 Bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) for arsenic tolerant plant species in soil and sediments Table 12.1 Bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) for arsenic tolerant plant species in soil and...

Single Drop Micro extraction

Single Drop Micro Extraction

SDME is based on the preconcentration of target analytes in a small volume 0.5-3 mL of organic solvent, aqueous solutions or ionic liquid IL . In this sense, SDME is considered to be the basic liquid-liquid microextraction technique Sarafraz-Yazdi and Amiri 2010 Nerin et al. 2009 Psillakis and Kalogerakis 2002 Xu et al. 2007 Lambropoulou et al. 2007 . Equilibration times, which range from seconds to hours, can happen in SDME, depending on the target analyte. In any case, regardless the sampling...

Solid Phase Micro Extraction SPME and Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction SBSE

Stir Bar Micro Extraction Insrument

The principles and applications of SPME and SBSE have been reviewed previously (Baltussen et al. 2002 Prieto et al. 2010a). Briefly, in SPME and SBSE the analytes are extracted from the aqueous matrix into a non-miscible liquid or solid polymer, mainly liquid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). PDMS is a very well-known stationary phase in gas chromatography (GC), thermally stable in a broad temperature range (-20 C to 320 C) and with remarkable diffusion properties. The major Fig. 4.1 Theoretical...

Gaseous Pollutants

While not being usually considered among the gaseous pollutants, this section would begin with a brief reference to water vapour. Depending on relative humidity and temperature, water vapour can cause the formation of moisture films by condensation, propitiating the action of other pollutants (dissolution of gases and the fixation of particulate matter) and biological decay. For example, the oxidation of SO2 in moisture films on iron with formation of sulphates leads to autocatalytic reactions...

Novel Bioreactors for Waste Gas Treatment

Rene, Mar a Montes, Mar a C. Veiga, and Christian Kennes List of 3.1.1 Background Information on Air 3.1.2 Waste-Gas Treatment 3.1.2.1 Physico-Chemical 3.1.2.2 Biological 3.2 Physico-Chemical Processes for Waste-Gas 3.2.6 Photo-Catalytic 3.2.7 Thermal and Catalytic 3.2.7.1 Thermal 3.2.7.2 Catalytic Oxidation 3.3 Biological Processes for Waste-Gas 3.3.1 Performance Indicators 3.3.2 Biotrickling 3.3.3 Bioscrubbers 3.4 Novel Bioreactors for Waste-Gas 3.4.1 One and Two-Liquid Phase...

Anodic Fenton Treatment

The AFT is a variant of the EF process where the reagent H2O2 is not cathodically generated, but it is added to the solution. A divided cell is employed to avoid the negative effect of the formation of OH- at the cathode from water reduction, which raises pH and is then against the optimum conditions of 'OH production from Fenton's reaction (8.32). This process has been extensively developed for water remediation by Lemley's group, who have considered different bench-scale electrolytic systems...

ClO2Aqueous Chemistry

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) in solution has been extensively used for the purification and disinfection of drinking water, sterilization of medical devices, sanitization of food products, bleaching of paper, and the biocidal treatment of cooling water (Tsai et al. 1995 Kim et al. 1999 Gordon and Rosenblatt 2005). The use of gaseous ClO2 has been shown to be effective in treating mold affected buildings and in deactivating Bacillus anthracis spores in governmental and commercial buildings (Southwell...

Weathering and Decay Features of Building Materials

The weathering of rocks (Oilier 1979) is the breakdown and alteration of such materials near the Earth's surface resulting in products that are more in equilibrium with newly imposed physical and chemical conditions. Two main classes of weathering are usually considered physical, that is the breakdown of material by entirely mechanical processes, and chemical breakdown by chemical processes. Weathering is also the effect of atmospheric exposure to man-made structures and materials. Buildings...

Building Materials

Chemical and physical properties of materials are important as they determine the result of the interactions with gases, particles and solutions. Thus, solubility, corrosion resistance, weathering resistance, etc. are chemical properties strongly related to density, porosity, hardness, and other physical properties, but also to environmental factors. In this section are presented some of the features that render materials susceptible to the action of pollutants, with special focus on the...

Kinetics and Product Studies of ClOAmino Acids Peptides and Proteins

Chlorine dioxide is a stable free radical and a selective powerful oxidant (Troitskaya et al. 1958). ClO2 + 4H + + 5e- Cl- + 2H2O E0 0.936 V (5.5) The oxidations carried out by ClO2 usually involve a single electron transfer (Tratnyek and Hoigne 1994) . The reactivity of ClO2 with inorganic and organic compounds obeys first-order kinetics with respect to ClO. and is also first-order with respect to the compound (Hoigne and Bader 1994). The second-order rate constants vary over a wide range...

Membrane Liquid Phase Microextraction

Membrane liquid-phase microextraction was introduced years ago as a simple and inexpensive alternative to traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) methodology Table 4.5 SDME application to the determination of priority or emerging pollutants in water samples during the period 2000-2010 pesticides OPPs Chlorinated anilines River, drinking, well, tap water Water waste water Tap, river and wastewater Wastewater Tap, waste and sea water Tap, river effluent water Wastewater reservoir groundwater...

List of Abbreviations

1-methylpyrrolidinium 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophos- 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate 1 -octyl-3 -methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluor- benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes vinylpyridine-ethylene dimethacrylate volatile organic compounds capillary electrophoresis-ultraviolet detector direct immersion-single drop microextraction...

Microextraction by Packed Sorbent MEPS

Micro Extraction Packed Syringe

MEPS is a recently developed technique that was introduced by Abdel-Rehim Abdel-Rehim 2003, 2004 Abdel-Rehim et al. 2004 in the field of sample preparation. MEPS can combine sample processing and the extraction and injection steps in a fully automated way as an at-line sampling injecting device to GC or LC Jagerdeo and Abdel-Rehim 2009 Matysik and Matysik 2009 Morales-Cid et al. 2009 Schurek et al. 2008 Said et al. 2008 . MEPS is not only a miniaturized format of SPE which is able to handle...

High Performance Liquid Chromatography HPLCLiquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry LCMS

High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) has become a technique of routine analysis in replacement of GC because of the numerous combinations of the available columns with the potential mobile phases, and the detection methods that can be coupled, such as Mass Spectrometry (MS) or optical detectors when the analytes are UV transparent (Aboul-Enein and Ali 2004 Gorog 2007). The high variety of chiral commercial columns, like Pirkle, crown ethers, ligand exchangers, cyclodextrins,...

Treatment of Real Wastewaters

The study of real pharmaceutical wastewaters by electrochemical oxidation is more difficult than that of synthetic wastewaters because they are composed of a complex mixture of compounds including ions such as NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, and SO42-. The indirect oxidation of organic and inorganic species with the generated 'OH and active chlorine is then expected using the potent BDD anode. This has been proven by Perez et al. (2010) when examining the electrochemical destruction of reverse osmosis...

Heavy Metals Biosorption by Vermicomposts

Humic Acid Metal Complexation

At present there are only a few studies regarding the treatment of wastewaters containing heavy metals by vermicompost. The efficiency of vermicompost for removing heavy metals from aqueous solutions or industrial effluents has not been studied in detail except to mention a few and namely Jordao et al. (2002), Pereira and Arruda (2003), Carrasquero Duran et al. (2006), Jadia and Fulekar (2008), Urdaneta et al. (2008) and Jordao et al. (2009). Those researchers found that metal concentrations in...

Redox Process and Environmental Issues

Anaerobic Soils

Redox-related environmental issues have increased in importance in the last decades. The importance of the redox potential, as a main biogeochemical variable, in controlling the speciation and toxicity of a wide variety of elements have been recently reviewed (Borch et al. 2010). Redox processes are chemical reactions that include a transfer of electrons and consequently a change in valence state of elements that are either oxidized to a higher valence state or reduced to a lower valence state....

Effect of Water Quality

Nearly, all the factors affecting the efficiency of photocatalysis for water disinfection have been investigated through a number of experiments. However, most of the experiments were performed with the contaminant suspensions prepared in deion-ized water. Natural water, on the other hand, contains many other organic and inorganic dissolved suspended materials. Wist et al. (2002) carried out the photocatalytic disinfection tests of E. coli in distilled as well as tap water for 1.5 h...

Role of Pedogenic FeMn Concretions and Nodules in the Environmental Geochemistry of the Soil

Although significant literature data exists on trace metals enrichment of Fe-Mn concretions and nodules, an efficient and robust process for their sequestration, their geochemical speciation is still rather limited (Manceau et al. 2003 Marcus et al. 2004). Researchers have often used total metal concentrations or chemical extraction techniques to provide some insight into metal speciation and bioavailability (Liu et al. 2002 Gasparatos et al. 2005b) . These techniques are among the most...

Biodegradation of Azo Dyes from Wastewater

Pijush Kanti Mondal and Brajesh Chauhan 256 6.2 Importance of Biological 258 6.3 Biodegradation of Azo Dyes by Combined Anaerobic-Aerobic Bioreactor 259 6.4 Anaerobic Degradation of Azo 259 6.4.2 Hydraulic Retention Time 266 6.4.3 Biomass Concentration 266 6.4.4 Alternative Electron 267 6.5 Aromatic Amines Formation Due to Azo Dye Reduction 269 6.6 Aerobic Biodegradation of Aromatic 269 270 271 Environmental Research Laboratory, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering and...

Transfer of Arsenic Ions from Bulk Soil to the Root Surface The Plant Factor

Some plants have the capacity to alter their membrane permeability, change the metal binding capacity of cell walls, or exude various quantities of chelating substances from the roots to enhance or prevent uptake of elements (e.g. Greger 2008). The bioavailability of arsenic depends on root uptake from the bulk soil. Adsorption depends on root excretions, as well as on symbiotic microorganisms (bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi). Interactions between roots and bacteria may impact arsenic uptake...

Translocation Mechanisms from the Root to the Shoot

Arsenic shows low mobility (unlike phosphorous) with respect to translocation from roots to shoots in plants, except for hyperaccumulators (Zhao et al. 2009). The uptake of arsenic by plant roots varies for different plants or their parts (Stoltz and Greger 2002a, b, 2005). Arsenic ions are taken up, translocated from the roots to the shoot system via the xylem and then redistributed between tissues. The translocation of arsenic ions from root to shoot depends on root pressure and leaf...

Conclusion Of Building Materials

The removal of heavy metals ions from our environment especially wastewater streams is now steadily shifting from the use of conventional adsorbents to the use of biosorbents for reasons of degradability and environmental sustainability. This shift is also perfectly contextualized within the concept of Green Chemistry. The presence of heavy metals in the environment has always been of major concern because of their toxicity, bioaccumulating tendency, and threat to human life, aquatic life and...

Biosorption

Biosorption is defined as a physio-chemical interaction which occur between metal(loid)s and extra-cellular compounds such as polysaccharides, proteins and lipids with amino, carboxyl, phosphate and sulphate groups (Volesky 2003 Febrianto et al. 2009) . It is an alternative process for removing arsenic and trace metals from contaminated solutions and a mechanism of metal(loid) immobilization by biomass. (Veglio and Beolchini 1997 Kratochvil and Volesky 1998). Biosorption is defined also as the...

Other Plant Groups 12831 Algae

Alginate beads are most commonly used with immobilized biomass, however only a few studies, have been carried out on their metal uptake. Alginate is also well known as an immobilization supporter (Brierley 1990 Cotoras et al. 1993 Mata et al. 2008). Readily available plant residual material and their parts, algae, fruit waste material, and natural polysaccharide gelmatrixes such as alginate are used as biosorbents. Alginate is a component of the outer cell wall of brown algae, which has high...

Electrochemical Remediation Technologies for Waters Contaminated by Pharmaceutical Residues

8.3 Electrochemical 8.3.1 Anodic Oxidation of Non-chloride 307 8.3.2 Electro-Oxidation with Active 309 8.3.3 Treatment of Synthetic 310 8.4 Indirect Electro-Oxidation in the Bulk with Electrogenerated Fenton's Reagent 324 324 8.4.2 Anodic Fenton Treatment 332 333 8.5 Other Related Electrochemical 8.5.2 Photoelectrocatalysis 339 References Abstract The presence of pharmaceutical micropollutants in the environment has become of major concern in the last decades. Many electrochemical technologies...

Cloud Point Extraction

Cloud point extraction (CPE) is based on the phase separation behaviour exhibited by aqueous solutions of certain surfactant micelles. Surfactants or surface-active agents are amphiphilic molecules that contain a polar hydrophilic head and a nonpolar hydrophobic tail. While the head is an ionic or strongly polar group, in most cases, the tail is a linear or branched hydrocarbon chain with different carbon atoms that can be linear or branched and that can also contain aromatic rings. Above a...

Thermal and Catalytic Oxidation

The process equipment essentially consists of a chambered unit, equipped with a propane or natural gas burner and a stack. The organic compounds present in the waste-gas are burned out completely with the evolution of heat. But unless the quantity of VOCs present is very large, additional energy is required to raise the VOC to the temperature required for complete destruction, which is supplied by an auxiliary fuel such as natural gas. Typical conditions for thermal oxidation are as follows (i)...

Biogas Cleaning Techniques

The biogas produced from different sources using conventional or emerging biogas technologies may contain various impurities. Biogas, when upgraded efficiently, can be used for all applications designed for natural gas. However, in order to use biogas as a vehicle fuel it has to be enriched in methane, and this is primarily achieved by carbon dioxide removal which then enhances the energy value of the gas to give longer driving distances with a fixed gas storage volume. Hydrogen sulfide should...

Decay Effects of Pollutants

This section would deal with the sources, pathways and decay mechanisms of the main pollutants affecting materials in the built environment. The diverse pollutants will be discussed in specific sections but here are presented some transversal concepts that are relevant for diverse forms of the polluting substances. In the built environment, water (even in its purest form) can be considered a pollutant as it promotes decay reactions on materials such as paints (Koleske 1995 Wypych 1995) ,...

Chromatography

The basis of analytical methods for analyses of chiral compounds is the formation of diastereoisomers between the enantiomers and other optical pure compound which provides different retention times, leading to the separation of the enantiomers. The diastereoisomers, which are non-mirror image compounds, can be separated by chromatography due to their different physical and chemical properties (Carvalho et al. 2006). In chromatography methods, indirect and direct experimental approaches can be...

Chiral Pharmaceuticals

Pharmaceuticals are chemicals used for diagnosis, treatment, alteration or prevention of disease, health condition, or structure function of the human body, including veterinary drugs. They act by interaction with the binding site of the drug receptor which is a macromolecule such as enzymes, nucleic acids or membrane-bounded proteins, promoting the pharmacological action by the formation of a drug-receptor complex (Stringer 2006). Their action in humans is well described, but their mechanism...

Biomonitoring Studies in India 7421 Heavy Metals

Lichen morphology and physiology enable it to be a good reservoir of metals. Various heavy metals such as Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Hg, and Cr considered as toxic for many other living organisms, may be accumulated simultaneously in lichen thallus (Garty 1993) . Accumulation of metals by lichen thalli is one of the extensively studied aspects in lichen biomonitoring (Nieboer et al. 1978).Vehicular activity is reported to be the main source of atmospheric Cr, Cu and Pb (Loppi et al. 1998 Tuba and...

Biogas Technology

Biogas Bacteria Methane

As previously mentioned, many different organic sources may be used in biogas generation. Although most of the natural organic material, except lignin (Sleat and Mah 1987 Petersson and Wellinger 2009), can be used as a biogas precursor, the most important sources are those processes that are directly involved with waste management, mainly sewage sludge, landfills, agriculture wastes, manure, and industrial food wastes (Fig . 9.1). The anaerobic digestion process, responsible for biogas...

The Vermicomposting Process

Composting is a controlled self-heating, aerobic solid phase biodegradative process of organic materials (Ryckeboer et al. 2003). The process comprises mesophilic and thermophilic phases involving numerous microorganisms. In several successive steps, microbial communities degrade organic substrates into more stable, humified forms and inorganic products, generating heat as a metabolic waste product (Mason 2006 Mohee and Mudhoo 2005 Mudhoo and Mohee 2006,2007,2008 Nakasaki et al. 2005 Richard et...

Two Stage Reactors with at Least One Biological Step for Waste Gas Treatment

Stage Dip Reactor

As the name implies, two-stage reactors exploit the inherent advantages of different processes used for waste-gas treatment, by adjusting the operation strategy as reactors connected in series or in one modified reactor configuration having different pollutant removal mechanisms (Kennes and Veiga 2001 Jin et al. 2008 Rene et al. 2009b, 2010b) . Two-stage reactors are preferable for certain operating conditions and waste-gas characteristics, as given here (i) when the waste-gas contains a...

Removal of Siloxanes from Biogas

Siloxanes are man-made organic products that belong to low molecular weight organosilicons. These compounds are used as a starting material for the formation of high molecular weight polyorganosiloxane that are present in many products of hygiene, health care and industrial products, as gums, shampoos, deodorants, etc. (Wheless and Jeffrey 2004). In biogas arising from sewage treatment plants, as well as landfills, low molecular weight siloxanes volatilize into the digester gas and landfill...

Photocatalytic Efficiency Enhancements

Microbicidal effect of TiO2 mediated photocatalysis has been conceded based on numerous experimental evidences. The process, no doubt, looks very advantageous in its applications for the disinfection of drinking water, but has some limitations in its practical use. The photocatalyst TiO2 used as slurry show high bactericidal efficiency, but its extraction from the treated water is a cumbersome task. The simplest possible solution is to immobilize the catalyst by coating it on a fixed support....

Air Lift Bioreactors

Air-lift reactors were originally designed by chemical engineers for enhancing mass and heat transfer efficiency and to produce pharmaceuticals, polymers, and chemical feed stocks, among others (Bielefeldt 2001). This reactor configuration offers many advantages and is being applied in the field of wastewater engineering. The advantages include complete mixing of species, simple mechanical design, low shear rate, high capacity, the absence of mechanical agitators, versatility for scale-up, and...

Physico Chemical Methods

Biogas Purification Methods

Carbon dioxide can be removed from the biogas by adsorption on a surface, normally activated carbon, molecular sieves or zeolites. In pressure swing adsorption, adsorption takes place at elevated pressure and the material is regenerated by reducing the pressure and subsequent application of a light vacuum. However, this process requires a pre-treatment step in order to remove water vapour and hydrogen sulfide present in the inlet stream, i.e., biogas. Hydrogen sulfide pose a severe operating...

Biomonitoring Studies Carried Out in India Till Date

Indian landscape has wide geographical area ranging from tropical to alpine climate. It has rich lichen diversity with more than 2,300 species, reported from different regions of the country, belonging to 305 genera and 74 families. Out of these species reported about 520 species (22.5 ) are endemic (Singh and Sinha 2010). There are Fig. 7.3 Map of India showing different cities where long term biomonitoring studies are being carried out and some of the lichen rich areas of the country.* J&...

Other Novel Bioreactor Configurationsfor Volatile Organic Compound Treatment

Gas-phase benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene, commonly reported as BTEX, are usually present in emissions from petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries. The deleterious effects of these aromatics are well documented in the literature, and several studies have demonstrated their toxic and carcinogenic health effects. Shim et al. (2002) inoculated a novel fibrous-bed bioreactor with a co-culture of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens, and studied the kinetics of BTEX...

Internal Microelectrolysis

This method is a variant of EC described in Sect. 8.2, but without an external power supply to feed electricity to the electrodes. It is based on the use of galvanic cells formed between grains or particles of iron and carbon in the pharmaceutical effluent (Jin et al. 2002 Wang et al. 2009). The spontaneous Fe dissolution from anode reaction (8.1) and H2 evolution from cathode reaction (8.2) or (8.3) are the main processes taking place during the internal micro-electrolysis. The Fe(OH)2 and or...

Conclusion

The treatment of pharmaceutical residues by means of several AOPs is progressively receiving greater attention due to their efficacy and or efficiency. Particularly, in the last decade the electrochemical technologies have proven to be an efficient, versatile alternative. The EAOPs, especially those based on the electrogenerated Fenton's reagent (H2O2+Fe2+) such as the EF and SPEF processes, have been the most applied electrochemical decontamination processes for the treatment of synthetic...

Importance of Biological Degradation

Different physical, chemical and biological techniques can be applied to remove azo dyes from wastewater. These techniques include adsorption, coagulation-flocculation, reverse osmosis, oxidation, Photodegradation, membrane filtration and microbial degradation Each technique has its technical and economical limitations (Table 6.1). Most physico-chemical dye removal methods have drawbacks because they are expensive, have limited versatility, are greatly interfered by other wastewater Table 6.1...

Monolith Bioreactors

A monolith reactor (Fig. 3.9) is a reactor in which the biomass is attached on a plastic, ceramic or metal structure with uniform parallel channels separated by thin walls. Commercially available monolith supports can be tailored to meet the needs of a relatively inexpensive, light weight, inert, bioreactor packing that provides a high specific surface area, i.e., surface to volume ratio, to greatly improvise the mass transfer rate of pollutant (Jin et al. 2006b, 2008 Rene et al. 2010c)....

Biosorption Experimental Procedures

A biosorption process can be performed via several modes (Vijayaraghavan and Yun 2008) of which, batch and continuous modes of operation are frequently employed to conduct laboratory scale biosorption processes. Although most industrial applications prefer a continuous mode of operation, batch experiments have to be used to evaluate the required fundamental information, such as biosorbent efficiency, optimum experimental conditions, biosorption rate and possibility of biomass regeneration. The...

Batch Data Modeling and Isotherms

Biosorption modeling can be performed in two general ways empirical or mechanistic equations, which are able to explain, represent and predict the experimental behaviour (Vijayaraghavan and Yun 2008). The quality of a biosorbent is judged by how much sorbate it can attract and retain in an immobilized form. The solute uptake by a biosorbent can be calculated from the differences between the initial quantities of solute added to that contained in the supernatant, which is achieved using the...

Kinetic Modeling

Mathematical models that can describe the behaviour of a batch biosorption process operated under different experimental conditions are very useful for scale up studies or process optimization (Loukidou et al. 2004). A number of models with varying degrees of complexicity have been developed to describe the kinetics of metal biosorption in batch systems. According to the kinetic model selection criteria, several reaction-based and diffusion-based models were tested for the simulation of the...

Biosorption Mechanisms

Biosorption of heavy metal is a passive non-metabolically mediated process of metal binding by biosorbent (Volesky 2003). Biosorption mechanisms can be divided into two main categories metabolism dependent (transport across cell membrane and intracellular precipitation and accumulation) and metabolism independent (precipitation, physical and chemical adsorption, ion exchange, complex-ation) (e.g. Veglio and Beolchini 1997). Metabolism dependent ion transport across cell membranes can take place...

Biosorption Characteristics

This review attempts to summarise recent studies in the removal of arsenic using plants and fungi in situ and as biosorbent materials. Analysis and design of biosorption adsorption processes involves biosorption adsorption equilibrium. Equilibrium concentration is a function of temperature. The adsorption equilibrium at a given constant temperature is referred to as adsorption isotherm. The adsorption capacity qt , the most important characteristic of a biosorbent, is dependent on pore and...

Plants as Biosorbents 1281 Vascular Plants

Plant materials such as living plants (Hoffman et al. 2004), their parts or their dried, seized, and chemically treated seeds (Kumari et al. 2006 Koivula et al. 2009 Pandey et al. 2009) and also the residue of vascular plants from industry or agriculture, such as rice polish, and orange wastes (Ranjan et al. 2009 Ghimire et al. 2003), were tested as biosorbent material (Table 12.3) for arsenic. Maximum sorption capacity for arsenic depends on the three factors sorbate solution characteristic,...

Soil Water Plant Interaction

Inorganic arsenic (arsenate and arsenite) is highly toxic to plants because it detaches phosphoryzation and inhibits phosphate uptake. At higher concentrations, arsenic interferes with plant metabolic processes and reduces their growth. Under certain conditions it may lead to plant death (Dermatas et al. 2004). The sensitivity of plants to arsenic appears to be determined by the absorption ability of the plants or non-translocation of arsenic to shoots. Beans and other legumes are amongst the...

Condensation

Condensation, refrigeration, and cryogenic systems are recovery based techniques that are used to remove the organic vapors, mostly VOCs, present in waste-gases, by condensing them onto a colder surface. Cryogenic condensation is a cost-effective technology for controlling emissions of VOCs from chemical processing facilities, only under certain conditions. These extremely cold conditions can be created by passing cold water through an indirect heat exchanger, by spraying cold liquid into an...

Advantages and Applications of Biogas

From an aesthetic and hygienic view-point, biogas technology contributes significantly to improvise living conditions and socio-economics in rural areas. It has been Table 9.1 Composition ofbiogas obtained from different sources Table 9.1 Composition ofbiogas obtained from different sources n.a not available, b.d below detectable limit n.a not available, b.d below detectable limit Table 9.2 Composition of important trace compounds from different biogas sources compounds Biogas (mg m-3)...

Biotic and Abiotic Degradation and Removal Processes of Chiral Pharmaceuticals in the Environment

Removal of pharmaceuticals in surface waters can be due to photo-transformation, biodegradation, hydrolysis and partition to sediment (Liu et al. 2009). Pharmaceuticals are generally highly polar compounds since they are produced in a way which promotes their transport and excretion in the organism. Thus, their removal in Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP) is mostly restricted to biodegradation and to abiotic processes as oxidation and sorption. Air-stripping and photo-transformation are also...

Effect of Light Irradiation

A photocatalytic material like TiO2 has been reported to show no bactericidal effect in the dark, while light alone has a considerable antimicrobial efficacy depending upon its wavelength. However, the synergistic action of TiO2 and light irradiation has proven to be effective for inactivation of microorganisms (Huang et al. 1998). The mechanism of photocatalysis has been hypothesized to commence with the photo-generation of electron-hole pairs in the valance band of the TiO2 semiconductor and...

Photocatalytic Inactivation of Microbes

This section is mostly devoted to studies on the efficiency of metal oxide semiconductor mediated photocatalysis in degrading all types of water. These include bacteria, viruses, molds, algae and fungi. Among the various bacterial species, Escherichia coli (E. coli) have been extensively used as a model microorganism in testing the efficacy of most of the newly synthesized disinfectant photocatalysts as well as newly Table 13.1 Photocatalytic inactivation of three bacterial strains with undoped...

Mechanism of Microbial Degradation

The microbicidal efficacy of heterogeneous photocatalysis is well documented. In order to enhance its efficiency for practical applications, detailed study of all the involved parameters is crucial. In aqueous suspension, using the catalyst in slurry form, the activity mainly proceeds through the adsorption of the catalyst particles on the organism surface. With illumination, these particles start oxidation-reduction reactions which bring about damages to the protective envelope of the...

Effect of pH on Photocatalytic Microbial Inactivation

Since, the photocatalytic disinfection proceeds through the adsorption of the nanopho-tocatalyst at the organism surface, a variation in the pH level of the suspension is, therefore, deemed to affect the activity by establishing electrostatic interaction between the organism and the photocatalyst. Rincon and Pulgarin (2004b) have investigated the effect of pH during the photocatalytic disinfection of E. coli and have found that, while complete disinfection was obtained after 120 min of...

Photocatalyst Disinfectants

Several nanoparticulate materials like chitosan (Qi et al. 2004). silver (Kim et al. 2008) , fullerene nC60 (Lyon et al. 2008) etc. have been reported to exhibit microbi-cidal effects. The activities of metal oxides semiconductors in synergism with electromagnetic irradiation are significantly high. Nanoparticulate ZnO semiconductor shows strong cytotoxicity towards certain bacterial cells, such as Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus helveticus (Adams et al. 2006). TiO2 is the most extensively...

Factors Involved in the Photocatalytic Microbicidal Process

Photocatalytic inactivation of microorganisms is a complex process that depends on several parameters. The rate of inactivation has been reported to vary with the type, physiological state, and concentration of microorganisms (Lonnen et al. 2005 Rincon and Pulgarin 2004a) . The nature, morphology, concentration, and state (slurry or immobilized) of the catalyst material, also, have a great influence on the inactivation rate (Adams et al. 2006 Huang et al. 1998 Qi et al. 2004 Sondi and...

Plant Litter as Biosorbent

The biosorbent biomass constitutes mainly lignin, cellulose and other elements stored in the cell walls and vacuoles. Fibres, lignins cellulose and other substances bind to cell walls, such as phenols, cutin, suberins waxes and others (e.g. Berg and McClaugherty 2003) and can be used as biosorbent. Certain cell wall components, specially lignin and pectin, are assumed to be connected with the sorption of metal ions (Bailey et al. 1999 Quek et al. 1998 Randall et al. 1974 Senthilkumaar et al....

Hydraulic Barriers

Trees and wetland plants are used as hydraulic barriers to control movement of arsenic contaminated surface water and groundwater, as well as to physically stabilize the soil environment (US EPA 2000). Perennial herbs and trees having the capability of absorbing large volumes of water, are used in order to prevent or control the migration of contaminants to groundwater (Rock and Sayre 2000 ITRC 2009). The water uptake rate is given by the Eq. 12.3 where U uptake rate of the contaminant, in...

Factors Affecting Arsenic Uptake by Plants

The main soil factors affecting arsenic transfer from soil particles to the plant roots are arsenic ion concentration in solution, bioavailability of arsenic, mass flow with soil solution, decrease in soil pH, soil sorption desorption ratio, decrease in redoxpotential, solubilization, co-precipitation, microbial activity, interaction with other ions (Fig. 12.1). Ion interactions within plants are divided into three categories (i) addition, when there is no effect on plant uptake and metabolism...

Geochemistry

The study of the geochemical composition of Fe-Mn concretions and nodules originally started with samples mainly from marine sediments (Li 1982). The researchers found that the Fe-Mn nodules from the oceans contained significant quantities of Ni, Cu and Co of economic value (Chauhan et al. 1994 Dutta et al. 2001). The geochemical study of soil Fe-Mn concretions and nodules began in the mid 1970s (Childs 1975) and was expanded during the last decade (Ram et al. 2001 Cornu et al. 2005). Table...

Mineralogical Composition

The mineralogical composition of Fe-Mn concretions and nodules is largely determined by the soil environment in which they are formed and the properties of their Fe - Mn oxides. Table 11.2 presents a literature review of the mineralogical composition of Fe-Mn concretions and nodules from various research papers published over the last 30 years. The majority of studies have shown that the primary minerals of the Fe-Mn concretions and nodules were quartz, feldspars and micas. The mineralogical...

Formation Process and Environmental Conditions

Since their discovery in marine sediments during the scientific expeditions of the H.M.S. Challenger, iron - manganese concretions and nodules have been studied in a wide range of natural geochemical systems. Fe - Mn concretions and nodules have been observed in oceans (Koschinsky and Halbach 1995 Banerjee et al. 1999), lakes (Schwertmann et al. 1987 Belzile et al. 2001), rivers (Halbach 1976) and soils (Palumbo et al. 2001 Cornu et al. 2005). They are relatively common in soils throughout the...