Advantages and Applications of Biogas

From an aesthetic and hygienic view-point, biogas technology contributes significantly to improvise living conditions and socio-economics in rural areas. It has been

Table 9.1 Composition ofbiogas obtained from different sources

Biogas

CH4 (%)

CO2 (%)

O2 (%)

N2 (%)

H2S (ppm) NH3 (ppm)

Reference

Landfill

44.0

40.1

2.6

13.2

n.a.

n.a.

Jaffrin et al. (2003)

Landfill

47-57

37-41

<1

<1-17

36-115

n.a.

Rasi et al. (2007)

Landfill

35-65

15-50

0-5

5-40

0-100

5

Petersson and Wellinger (2009)

Sewage digester

58

33.9

0

8.1

24.1

n.a.

Rasi et al. (2007)

Sewage digester

59.6

39.1

0.2

0.9

2,897

n.a.

Osorio and Torres (2009)

Municipal sludge

60

33

0

1

n.a.

n.a.

Favre et al. (2009)

Agriculture

68

26

0

1

n.a.

n.a.

Favre et al.

residues

(2009)

Farm biogas plant

55-58

37-38

< 1

<1-2

b.d.

n.a.

Rasi et al. (2007)

From anaerobic

53-70

15-50

0-5

0.2

0-10,000

<100

Persson et al.

digester

(2006)

n.a not available, b.d below detectable limit n.a not available, b.d below detectable limit

Table 9.2 Composition of important trace compounds from different biogas sources

Siloxanes Halogenated Sulfur compounds

Biogas (mg m-3) compounds (mg m-3) except H2S (mg m-3) Reference

Landfill 7.84 194.9 229 Jaffrin et al. (2003)

Landfill 24.15 n.a. n.a. Haberbauer (2005)

Sewage digester 7.04 n.a. n.a. Haberbauer (2005) n.a not available reported that, in developing countries, by installing biogas plants, diseases like asthma, lung problems, and eye infections have considerably decreased in the same area when compared to the pre-biogas plant times. Salomon and Lora (2009) estimated the electricity generation potential of biogas from different sources of organic residues, viz., sugar and alcohol industry residues (vinasse), urban solid and liquid wastes (garbage and sewage) and livestock wastes (bovine and swine manure), and described the advantage of biogas production as follows; "the bio-digestion process can reduce the polluting potential of organic residue discharges with high contents of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and at the same time, it can produce methane and a fertilizer agent as residue". Biogas can be used for the generation of electricity with the help of internal combustion engines, as a fuel in substitution of natural or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), heat generation for incubators and coolers, and as an alternative fuel for gasoline engines (Roubaud and Favrat 2005; Purohit and Kandpal 2007).

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