Copper

Copper as the Zn, show low concentrations in Fe-Mn concretions and nodules as evidenced by the low values of enrichment factor for Cu (Palumbo et al. 2001; Cornu et al. 2005; Tan et al. 2006; Gasparatos 2007).

Copper mobility is decreased by sorption to mineral surfaces. Cu2+ sorbs strongly to mineral surfaces over a wide range of pH values. The majority of literature shows that Cu in Fe-Mn concretions and nodules associated with the Mn phases (Palumbo et al. 2001; Latrille et al. 2001; Liu et al. 2002). Dawson et al. (1985) using micro-analysis found that areas of Fe-Mn nodules rich in Mn had a higher content of Cu. However Mckenzie (1975) noted that Cu tended to be associated with Fe in the soils, but no correlations were found in the soil Fe- Mn nodules. More recently Sen et al. (2002) using batch adsorption studies showed that Cu2+ adsorb more strongly on the naturally present colloidal fines, Fe oxide and kaolin than on the solid matrix (sand material).

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