New Treatment of Candida Overgrowth

Yeast Infection No More

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Influence of Medium Physical Chemical Properties on Chemical Availability

Bioavailability can vary with the contact time of chemicals with soil or sediment particle constituents. Chemicals in newly deposited sediments may become more bioavailable than older buried materials. In soils the same can happen. In a study where a 70-year-old and a freshly copper-contaminated soil were compared, in the soil contaminated 70 years ago no copper toxicity to Folsomia fimetaria was observed for concentrations of copper as high as 2911 mg kg. The newly spiked soil, however, caused a 10 decrease in reproduction at 337 mg Cu kg (Scott Fordsmand et al. 2000). In the work of Smit and Van Gestel (1998), aging was also shown to be important to understanding the toxicity of Zn to F. Candida. Within time soil pH can change, which also induces a change of Zn toxicity by altering Zn sorption to soil particles (e.g., an increase of soil pH leads to an increased Zn sorption). For chemical mixtures the same may happen due to the effect of soil characteristics on chemical adsorption...

Mechanism of Animal Remediation

Among nature chelators, Phytochelatin (PC) and Metallothionein (MT) interest many scientists and is well studied. Metallothioneins (MT) are categorized into three classes Class 1 MTs referred to polypeptides related to mammals, which contain 61 amino acids but lack aromatic amino acid or histidines Class 2 MTs originally come from yeasts, and Candida albicans or cyanobacteria (Winge et al. 1985) A familiar chelator belonging to this class is S. cerevisiae MT, contributing to plants' high copper tolerance (Kagi 1991) Class 3 MTs is Phytochelatins (PC), which are composed of only three amino acid-Glu, Cys, and Gly, with Glu and Cys residues linked through a g-carboxymide bond. In addition, Kagi (1991) has found

Fungal Biodegradation of Polycyclic Compounds

Reports on the biodegradation of some other compounds with more than one ring, such as biphenyls, by other fungi are also available. Fungal biodegradation and accumulation of soluble metabolites was observed in biphenyl degradation by lygninolytic fungi as well as yeasts, such as Cunninghamella elegans (Dodge et al. 1979), Candida lipolytica (Cerniglia and Crow 1981), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Wiseman et al. 1975), or Trichosporon mucoides (Sietmann et al. 2001). Schauer et al. (1995) reported the ability of the yeast Trichosporon beigelii to metabolize and partly degrade diphenyl ether.

Ecological Field Studies

Dabrowski et al.205 found that mayfly nymphs are more likely to be affected by spray-drift exposure than by run-off exposure because of the reduced bioavailability of sediment-bound pyrethroids. Schulz and Liess206 observed chronic toxicity to Limnephilus lunatus after pulsed exposures to fenvalerate. Soil with low organic matter content has a greater toxicity than soil with high organic matter content.207 However, soil aging was not found to exert any effect on lambda-cypermethrin toxicity in the springtail Folsomia candida.207

Of Postharvest Diseases

Dealt with antibiotic-producing antagonists. The role of enzymes in the activity of posthar-vest biocontrol agents is much less understood. However, the assumption that practical application of antibiotic-producing microbes may not be approved readily, especially in fresh fruits, has stimulated a search for antagonists that suppress postharvest pathogens by other means. The nonantibiotic strain US-7 of the yeast Pichia guilliermondii ( Candida oleophila), which has exhibited efficacy against several postharvest diseases under various environmental conditions, was developed as the efficient biocontrol agent Aspire. This isolate protects apples from the postharvest fruit-rotting fungi B. cinera and Pencillium expansum. Culture supernatants from P. guilliermondii yielded two- to fivefold more P-1-3-glucanase activity than those from a yeast lacking biocontrol activity. Data indicate that tenacious attachment, along with secretion of cell-wall-degrading enzymes, may play a role in the...

Applications of TK and TD Modeling in Risk Assessment

In order to perform sound risk assessments, an understanding of the mechanisms leading to mixture toxicity is required. While external concentrations of mixture components may often be all the data available, these are not always sufficient to understand or predict toxic effects, so either the measurement of the internal concentrations or the use of the best possible data set to estimate them would already improve predictions. Another aspect to understand is how mixture effects change in time and why results can differ between endpoints in the same test. For example, Van Gestel and Hensbergen (1997) observed mainly concentration additive effects of Cd and Zn on reproduction of the springtail Folsomia Candida, but mainly antagonism on growth. Furthermore, the mixture effect became more antagonistic with exposure time. To understand these observations, we need to qualitatively and quantitatively investigate the TK and TD aspects.

Applications of Mixture TD in Ecotoxicology

Recently, the stochastic approach of Bedaux and Kooijman (1994) has been extended to mixtures, and tested on the full dose-response surface of binary mixtures in time. This extension to mixtures was undertaken by Baas et al. (2007), who analyzed survival data for 6 binary mixtures of heavy metals in the springtail Folsomia candida. The crucial aspect was that survival was scored daily over a period of 21 days. Because the approach used is a combined TK TD approach, it is used to fit the survival data for all time steps simultaneously, using a set of 8 parameters. Note that in this approach the raw survival data were described, not just the Figure 2.14 Example of the fit of a stochastic model to the effects of a mixture of copper and cadmium on the survival of the springtail Folsomia Candida. Only two time observations are shown, but the model is fit to all data for all time steps simultaneously. (After Baas et al. 2007.) Figure 2.14 Example of the fit of a stochastic model to the...

Ionic Liquids in Biocatalysis for Fine Chemicals

Furthermore, to increase solubility and enzyme activities initially functiona-lized ILs with polyethylene glycol chains have been used,88 whereas, more recently, new classes of biocompatible ILs able to solubilize and or stabilize proteins has been synthesized.89 These ILs consist of biocompatible anions such as dicyanamide, citrate, saccharinate and dihydrogen phosphate associated to different cations, ranging from 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium to choline. Cytochrome c from horse, used as model protein, can be dissolved in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dihydrogen phosphate containing 10-20 wt of water up to 3 mM, whereas choline citrate-water has been used90 with success in oxidation reactions catalyzed by chloroperoxidase from Caldariomyces fumago. In addition, the unconventional solvent properties of ILs have been used in biocatalyst recycling and product recovery systems that are not feasible in common traditional solvents. Bioreactors with covalently supported SILPs able to...

Basis of Biosurfactant A Lucrative Background

Among glycolipid surfactants, the best-known compounds are rhamnolipids, tre-halolipids, sophorolipids and mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), which contain mono- or disac-charides, combined with long-chain aliphatic acids or hydroxyali-phatic acids. Rhamnolipids from Pseudomonas aeruginosa are currently commercialised by Jeneil Biosurfactant, USA, mainly as a fungicide for agricultural purposes or an additive to enhance bioremediation activities. Sophorolipids, on the other hand, are produced mainly by yeasts, such as Candida bombicola (also known as Torulopsis bombicola), Centrolene petrophilum, Candida apicola and Rhodotorula bogoriensis, while MELs are produced by Pseudozyma yeasts, Pseudozyma aphidis, Pseudozyma antarctica and Pseudozyma rugulosa (Banat et al. 2010). Besides, cyclic lipopep-tides (mainly surfactin and iturin) are produced by a number of Bacillus species

Role of Microbes in Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degradation


Twenty-one years after ZoBell's (1946) classic review, the super tanker Torrey Canyon sank in the English Channel. With this incident, attention of the scientific community was dramatically focused on problems of oil pollution. After this event, several studies were initiated to study the fate of oil pollution. Several studies were also initiated on the fate of petroleum in varied ecosystems. Biodegradation of petroleum products in natural ecosystem is no doubt a complex issue. The degradation of the hydrocarbon mixture depends on the nature of the oil, the nature of the microbial community, and a variety of environmental factors, which influence microbial activities (Gibson 1968 ZoBell 1973 Atlas 1981 Michaud et al. 2004). The ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons is not restricted to a few microbial genera (Whyte et al. 1998), but a diverse group of bacteria and fungi. ZoBell (1946), in his review, noted that more than 100 species representing 30 microbial genera had been shown...

Microbial Degradation of Alkanes

A number of microbes including bacteria, fungi and yeasts have been reported to degrade alkanes using them as the source of carbon and energy (van Beilen et al. 2003 Wentzel et al. 2007). Bacteria with alkane degradation ability have also versatile metabolism to use other compounds in addition to alkanes as source of carbon (Margesin et al. 2003 Haryama et al. 2004). Use of bacteria in the degradation of alkane compounds has been extensively studied by Haryama et al. (2004). Many microbes have been reported for the degradation of aliphatic compounds, such as Arthrobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., Candida sp., Pseudomonas sp., Rhodococcus sp., Streptomyces sp., Bacillus sp., Aspergillus japonicus, Arthrobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., etc. In addition, some bacterial species are reported as highly specialized in degrading hydrocarbons and hence called hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. They play a key role in the removal of hydrocarbons from the polluted environments (Head et al. 2006 Yakimov...

Production of Biosurfactants and PAH Uptake

Production of biosurfactant is another mechanism adopted by certain bacterial species to degrade complex petroleum hydrocarbons. Like chemical surfactants, biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules having both hydrophilic and hydropho-bic regions which help them in attachment to different surfaces. Biosurfactants are categorized into groups based on their MW (Ron and Rosenberg 2002). LMW surfactants are typically glycolipids where the carbohydrate group is attached to long chain alkyl acids or lipoproteins. Rhamnolipids, trehalolipids and sophorolipids are a few known biosurfactants that come under this category. Several species of Pseudomonas are reported to produce rhamnolipids. External addition of rhamnolipids was reported to have varying impacts on CSH of bacterial cultures degrading phenanthrene, i.e., Bacillus subtilis BUM and P. aeruginosa P-CG3, which, in turn, was found to alter the relative contribution of the two cultures in phenanthrene biodegradation (Zhao et al. 2011)....

Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP), present in certain strains of yeast Candida, is able to convert > C12 alkane by a, ro-oxidation to the corresponding dicarboxylic acids. The ro-oxidation of the alkane to alcohol is first reaction to be catalyzed by a hydroxylase complex composed of a CYP monooxygenase and NADPH and CYP oxireductase. Further oxidation to the acid is catalysed by fatty alcohol oxidase and a fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (Gallo et al. 1973). Vatsyayan et al. (2008) studied the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity in the cells of Aspergillus terreus MTCC6324 and found that CYP catalysis of n-Hexadecane had followed both terminal and sub-terminal oxidations. The activity was localized in cytosol of n-hexadecane grown cells. CYP activity was obtained only when NADH was used as co-factor. No other compounds checked, such as NAD, NADP, NADPH, FMN, FAD and FADH2, could serve as co-factor of the enzyme. Size of isolated enzyme was closer to that reported for Fusamarium...


In a fashion similar to the discussion presented on organic chemicals, Baas et al. (2007) applied the 1-compartment model without TK interactions for the analysis of-time series survival data for the springtail Folsomia Candida exposed to binary mixtures of heavy metals. It must be stressed that no internal concentrations were measured in these experiments instead, the toxicokinetics parameters were solely determined from the survival pattern in time. In this case, the toxicity data were well described without assuming interactions, which stresses that even though we know that interactions on toxicokinetics can occur, this does not mean that they will significantly influence toxicity for every metal mixture in each organism.

Scheme 412

A further approach that has been used to immobilize ILs is the incorporation of the IL and eventual catalysts into the porous framework of a membrane. Supported IL membranes containing suitable catalysts have been used for olefin hydrogenation,67 in oligomerization reactions68 and for separation applications.69 These latter applications ranged from isomeric amine separation70 to the enzyme-facilitated transport of (S)-ibuprofen through a supported liquid membrane.71 In this case the selective separation of the (S)-isomer from the racemic mixture was obtained by utilizing the lipase-facilitated transformation of this latter isomer the formed (S)-ibuprofen ester dissolved in the supported liquid membrane and diffused across to the receiving phase where it was hydrolyzed. Candida rugosa (CRL) facilitated selective esterification in the feed phase while lipase from Porcine pancreas (PPL) was responsible for hydrolysis of ester in receiving phase (Figure 4.11).


The first report of microbially derived gaseous Se was discovered by Challenger and North (25) during their studies of pure cultures of Penicillium brevicaule (previously named Scopulariopsis brevicaulis). They found that the fungus was able to convert both SeO42 and SeO32 to DMSe while growing on bread crumbs. Several reports that followed over the years identified many other fungi capable of methylating Se, including Penicillium sp., Fusarium sp., Schizopyllum commune, Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, and Acremonium falciforme (26). Abu-Erreish et al. (27) noticed the production of volatile Se in seleniferous soils appeared to be related to fungal growth. The addition of a fungal inoculum, Candida humicola, to soil caused the rate of Se volatilization to double (28). However, the addition of chloramphenicol to soil reduced the amount of Se volatilized from a soil by 50 , suggesting that bacteria also play an important role in Se methylation.

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