Carbohydrates Ebooks Catalog

The 3-Week Ketogenic Diet

The 3-week ketogenic diet is tested and proven to be a new diet system that not only will guarantee you are losing weight, but it also gives an assurance of you losing excess body fat in the shortest time of just twenty-one days. After the first week of joining the 3-week ketogenic diet, most people notice some changes in their bodies like joint relief, and their bodies begin to be light and more energy in their bodies.The 3-week ketogenic diet requires food supplements that are readily available locally, and at friendly prices, his makes their product to have a better competitive edge as compared to other products. The 3-week ketogenic diet does not limit any users as anybody can join the program regardless of their age or their ethnicities. A diet program guide is provided by Nick to help all the users and when they follow the guidelines strictly, after three weeks weight loss is achieved. More here...

The 3Week Ketogenic Diet Summary


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Results and Discussion

The cyanobacteria Arthrospira platensis appeared on earth 3.5 billion years ago. This edible cyanobacte-rium has a remarkable nutritional composition. A. platensis is composed of proteins (70 ), carbohydrates (16 ), lipids (6 ), minerals (9 ), and fibers (7 ). It contains vitamins (B1, B2, B3, , E, including anti-oxidants and b carotene) and several oligo elements, such as Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, P, and Fe. Eleven photosynthetic pigments are present in these cyanobacteria (mainly chlorophylls and phycocya-nine) (Gershwin and Belay 2007).

Introduction Basic Concepts of Chirality

Chiral compounds are substances with a similar chemical structure that, in general, confers them the same physical and chemical properties like melting point, solubility and reactivity. However they differ in the deviation of polarized light due to the different spatial configuration originated by planes, axis or centers of asymmetry given two nonsuperposable left-handed and right-handed mirror images compounds, called enantiomers. The planar chirality refers to a planar unit connected to an adjacent part of the structure by a bond which results in restricted torsion avoiding the symmetry plane as in the monosubstituted paracyclophane (Fig. 1.1a). When a set of ligands is held around an axis originates a spatial arrangement which is nonsuper-posable on its mirror image known as axial chirality. Such cases include ortho-substituted biphenyls and substituted allenes, a group of stereoisomers called atropoisomers which have a restricted rotation about a single bond, being the absolute...

Toxicity of Heavy Metals in Biological Systems

Before we can describe the toxic effects of heavy metals (given the definition provided in the first part of this chapter), it is necessary to recall two well-known facts. First, a heavy metal is not toxic per se it is only toxic when its concentration in the plant exceeds a certain threshold (it is the dose that makes the effect). This is especially important to the second fact that some elements, called micronutri-ents, have essential functions in plant cells. This has been shown for Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni and Zn. Only when the internal concentration exceeds a certain threshold do they demonstrate toxic effects, and then they are commonly termed heavy metals. As far as we know, all of these plant micronutrients are transition elements. No lead-group elements or rare earth elements have been found to be essential for higher plants. Micronutrients are essential for biosynthesis, growth, nucleic acids, growth substances, chlorophyll and secondary metabolites, carbohydrates and lipids,...

In Marine Environments

The molecular weight fraction of the DOM larger than 1000 Da but smaller than 0.2 m is also frequently termed colloidal organic matter (COC), in contrast to the truly dissolved DOM of < 1000 Da. Freshly produced high-molecular-weight DOM consists mostly of carbohydrates, as indicated also by overall C N ratios ranging from 15 to 25 (67,69,70). In addition to polysaccharides, proteins and lipids are present as chemically characterizable DOM components. Polysaccharides, however, are by far the most abundant macromolecular class of oceanic DOM.

Enzymes In Marine Sediments

Because C influx to the sediments occurs via settling particles, surface metabolism is frequently stimulated above the levels observed in deeper layers of the sediments (135). Although organic matter in these deeper layers is often considered to be of lower nutritional quality, since it has already been reworked by the surface community, fresh organic matter can be rapidly mixed to considerable depths by infaunal organisms (136), providing the subsurface community with fresh organic C. The depth trends observed in enzyme activities generally correspond to these patterns. Activities in surface layers of the sediment are greater than those in lower depths (133,134,137). Shallow subsurface maxima, however, also have been observed such maxima may correspond to ''hot spots'' of microbial activity and or be related to infaunal organisms (38,134,138). Potential hydrolysis rates of carbohydrates and proteins measured at a wide range of coastal and temperate sediments vary over several orders...

Organic Mattermineral Interactions

Advanced solution-state and high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR methods have been used to study the competitive sorption of model OM mixtures (Simpson et al. 2006). High-resolution MAS NMR is a semisolid NMR technique that probes structures at the soil-water interface, and only structures in contact with the NMR solvent are observed (i.e., pure solid domains are not observed). The model compound mixture used was comprised of four main structural groups that are found in OM 1-palmitoyl-3-stear-oyl-rac-glycerol (to mimic large aliphatic molecules with functionalities similar to those present in plant cuticles), a small peptide (Arg-Pro-Leu-Glc-NH2), maltohexose (to represent carbohydrates), and the 500-1000-molecular-weight fraction of commercially prepared lignin. The model compound mixture was prepared using an equal mass of each model compound and the mixture reacted with mont- Solution-state 1H NMR spectra of the unbound HA and 1H HR-MAS NMR spectra of HA sorbed to...

Methods Used In Water And Sediment

Components such as sulfate or phosphate. These substrates are used as analogs to measure the hydrolysis of the most abundant combined molecules in the sea carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. 4-Methylumbelliferyl-P-d-glucuronide (MUG) has been used successfully to determine coliform bacteria in seawater (154). MUF substrates screened against to a variety of commercially available enzymes showed relatively few nonspecific reactions (155). The sensitivity of the fluorogenic substrates for the measurement of enzyme activity is generally in the nanomolar range. Martinez and Azam (106) have demonstrated, with these substrates, that activity originates from periplasmic and other extracellular enzymes and not from cytoplasmic enzymes. An interesting and promising method for the separation of such enzymes by capillary electrophoresis was presented by Arrieta and Herndl (156) (see also section VII).

Scope for Substitution

Of recent anabolic activity-processes catalyzed by enzymes within living tissues. The chemicals present in biomass comprise a wide variety of highly oxygenated compounds, including acids, alcohols, proteins, and carbohydrates. Consequently, the most readily available renewable materials are not always directly analogous to the most readily available petrochemical compounds and so biomass itself does not represent a direct substitute for mineral oil. Although it is theoretically possible to produce identical molecules from renewable raw materials, where conversion pathways are complex or energy demands are high, it may not be economically viable to do so.

Increasing Production

Enzymes required for starch decomposition allows the inexpensive production of catalysts necessary for the fermentation of carbohydrates 17 . These techniques are in the early stages of development and require extensive environmental impact assessment on a case-by-case basis. However, GM technology has the potential to maximize production of existing crop types and to improve the efficiency of raw material extraction and use on a global scale.

Aerobic Biotreatment System ABS Abstract

Aromatics, alcohols, ketones, phenols, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), solvents, carbohydrates, and pesticides. Soil can also be excavated and treated in a containment area. According to the vendor, the technology has been successfully demonstrated at bench-scale, pilot-scale, and full-scale levels and commercially available through the company.

Other Biogenic Residues

The second important pulping process, sulfite pulping, yields waste liquor containing mainly carbohydrates and lignosulfonates. If recovered, the former can be used to produce ethanol, yeast and xylitol while the latter is applicable as concrete additive, dispersing agent or drilling agent, for instance. In a concentrated form, waste liquor from sulfite pulping is a pelletizing agent in animal feed, coal, and ore production 17 .

Polysaccharides in Our World

If the carbohydrates dominate our world, representing a three quarters from the biomass materials produced in nature (175 billion tons), we could say that the polysaccharides rule in the carbohydrates family (ca. 90 from the total amount of carbohydrates). The varied polysaccharides origin explains the richness of their structures and corresponding properties from plants (e.g. starch, cellulose, pectin, guar gum), algal (e.g. alginate agar, carrageenans), microbial (e.g. dextran, xanthan gum), and animal (chitosan, chondroitin) (Sinha and Kumria 2001 Rinaudo et al. 2004 Geremia and Rinaudo 2005). These carbohydrates are essentially natural macromolecules build up from mono-saccharides units (from hundreds to thousands units) connected through glycosidic bonds. Each sugar residue carries multiple hydroxyl groups, able to act as acceptor of glycosyl substituents, leading to branched or mixed linear-branched polysaccha-rides structures. The most common constituent of polysaccharides is...

Use of Phage as Disinfectant in Water Treatment

Bacteriophages are the viruses of prokaryotes, which can either instantly kill a bacterial cell or integrate its genome into the host genome (Madigan et al. 1997) . Bacteriophages are the most numerous organisms on the earth that play a key role in bacterial gene exchange and bacterial pathogenesis and continue to provide important insights into the basic molecular working of life. Through a combination of their antagonistic but metabolically intimate relationship with their bacterial hosts, lytic phages possess ideal properties to serve as agents of both antibacterial biocontrol and bacterial identification. The first report about phages was published by Hankin (1896). He showed that the waters of the Jamuna and Ganges Rivers in India could kill many kinds of bacteria. Bacteriophages get adsorbed on to the host cells and phage entry is mediated by specific receptors such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipopolysaccharides present on the surface of host cell (Marks and Sharp 2000).

Environmental Impacts Issues

Each defective replacement is likely to induce some long-term damage. For instance, hydrocarbon molecules can be treated as a replacement of carbohydrates (it is fatal when it reaches lung diaphragms), lead can replace zinc, and so on. Recently it was noticed that plastic baby bottles release dioxins when exposed to the microwave (Mittelstaedt, M. 2006b). From this, two essential points may be inferred plastics always release some toxins, and microwave exposure enhances molecular breakdown. In other words, something clearly unsafe following microwave irradiation was, in fact, already unsafe, prior to radiation exposure.

Effect of Root Exudates on Metal Uptake

Root growth affects the properties of the rhizospheric soil and stimulates the growth of the microbial consortium. In turn, rhizospheric microorganisms may interact symbiotically with roots to enhance the potential for metal uptake. In addition, some microorganisms may excrete organic compounds (Narula et al. 2009) which increase bioavailability and facilitate root absorption of essential metals, such as Fe (Crowley et al. 1991) and Mn (Barber and Lee 1974), as well as nonessential metals, such as Cd (Salt et al. 1995). Rhizosphere effect is often expressed quantitatively as the ratio of number of microorganisms in rhizosphere soil to the number of microorganisms in nonrhizosphere soils (R S ratio). This type of increased micro-bial activity in the rhizosphere may be responsible for the increased metabolic degradation rate of certain xenobiotic compounds in the rhizosphere. The actual composition of the microbial community in the rhizosphere is dependent on root type, plant species,...

Perspectives and Conclusions

The present review is the first deeper look, to our knowledge, into a new and a very promising research area the polysaccharide-assisted synthesis of metal oxide nano-particles. Last decades has enlighted the great potential of the polysaccharides in the chemistry of materials taking into account their increased and various industrial and biomedical applications. Their migration toward nanotechnology is viewed as a natural stepforward for this special family of carbohydrates. Their compatibility with solution-based approaches for the materials synthesis and with the restrictive demands of the non-polluting chemistry transform them into a beneficial input for nanoparticles area of research. The present paper gather the most illustrative examples of the polysaccharide interferences in different solution methods to obtain oxide-based materials (or related composite materials), highlighting the multiple roles coating, protecting, (bio)-template with structure-directing role, complexing,...

Spinosyn Manufacturing

The manufacturing processes for spinosad and spinetoram utilize several green chemistry principles.132 Both spinosad and spinetoram are derived primarily from fermentation processes which use proteins, carbohydrates, oils and minerals from renewable agricultural sources as feedstocks. The solvents used in the extraction and precipitation steps that isolate the desired materials from the fermentation broth are recycled. Spinosad is produced entirely through fermentation, whereas spinetoram requires additional chemical steps. These synthetic steps are atom economical and significant amounts of the solvents used in these synthetic steps are recycled.

Marjorie Aelion and R Sean Norman Contents

Isotopically labeled compounds can be incorporated into many types of molecules that are associated with distinct biological functions. Isotopic signatures can then be used to examine these specific functions with which the molecule is associated. For example, if either 13C or 14C is used as a tracer, labeling of carbon can occur in biological molecules including carbohydrates that include monosac-charides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides that are used for energy during metabolism major components of lipids including waxes, triacylglycerols, phos-pholipids, sphingolipids, and steroids that are important components of cellular membranes and energy storage CO2 and CH4 that are gaseous end products of microbial metabolism and DNA and proteins. If either 13N or 15N is used as a tracer, labeling of N can occur in amino acids and proteins that are responsible for cellular function and in transformation products associated with the nutrient cycling in nitrification, denitrification,...

Need for improved models to assess bioavailable fraction of metals

In a relatively recent paper, it was even demonstrated that natural organic matter (NOM) of different origin may have quite different capacity of reducing the accumulation and the toxicity of metals in fish (Richards et al., 2001). In general, NOM is a complex mixture of organic compounds including humic and fulvic acids as well as many types of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. NOM can be produced within the water column, e.g. from phytoplankton (autochthonous NOM) or washed in from the surrounding catchment (allochthonous NOM). Richards et al. (2001) showed that increasing concentrations of NOM from different sources increased survival of rainbow trout exposed to a mixture of dissolved trace metals (Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg and Pb), but the NOM having the most allochthonous properties increased fish survival most, while the NOM with the most autochthonous properties increased it the least.

Radiocarbon and stable carbon studies in uncontaminated environments

Radiocarbon and stable carbon isotopes have been measured in many environmental compartments including river water, groundwater, ocean water, terrestrial and aquatic plants, bacteria, soil gas, soil, and sediment. Within these environmental compartments a plethora of carbon-based molecules has been measured for combined radiocarbon and stable carbon isotopes. Chemical samples include DOC (Karltun et al. 2005), DIC (Druffel et al. 2008), POC (Hwang, Druffel, and Bauer 2006) soil and sediment total organic carbon (TOC), sediment organic matter (Glaser and Zech 2005 Longworth et al. 2007), individual organic contaminants (Slater et al. 2006), and biodegradation end products (Aelion, Kirtland, and Stone 1997). Biological samples include total lipids (Roland, McCarthy, and Guilderson 2008), archaeal lipids (Shah et al. 2008), several classes of lipids (Pearson et al. 2001 Petsch, Eglinton, and Edwards 2001), total hydrolysable amino acids and carbohydrates (Wang and Druffel 2001),...

Basic Technology for the Conversion of Renewable Raw Materials

The total annual biomass production on our planet is estimated to be 170 billion tons and consists of roughly 75 carbohydrates, 20 lignin, and 5 of other substances such as oils and fats, proteins, terpenes, alkaloids, etc. Table 8.1 translates this into absolute numbers. Carbohydrates

The Structure of the Organic Matter

(2005) review in detail the role in soil structure formation of each molecular type of organic carbon (carbohydrates, polysaccharides, phenols, lignin, lipids, humic substances), and the factors influencing the OM in soil (climate, erosion, texture, porosity). POM exists as free POM light fraction (LF) or embedded with soil particles and having lower turnover rates as a result of this (Bronick and Lal 2005). Soil aggregates are grouped by size in macro-aggregates (> 250 mm) and micro-aggregates (< 250 mm), which differ in properties such as binding agents and carbon and nitrogen distribution. While micro-aggregates are formed from organic molecules attached to clay and polyvalent cations to form compound particles, macro-aggregates can form around POM, which can be decomposed, and microbial exudates are released. Therefore, macro-aggregates becomes more stable while C N ratio decreases, and micro-aggregates form inside. The utilization of carbon contaminants by microorganisms...

Uptake By Plant Seedlings From Soil

For whole barley seedlings, the authors assumed the composition to be 87.5 water and 1 lipids. As before, we further assume that the remaining 11.5 consists essentially of carbohydrates and cellulose, on which the contaminants exhibit the same partition coefficients. With these assumptions together with Eq. (8.5), Eq. (8.6) may then be expressed as The apt values calculated for the compounds, except for 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, are quite consistent with the expected countertrend between apt and Kow, despite the fact that the calculated apt values for lipophilic compounds depend sensitively on the accuracy of the Kow and Ksom values. The noted results on apt are consistent with the model approach of substituting Csom Ksom for Cw in soil interstitial water. For 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in soil, the system was recognized to be unstable because of its high volatility (Trapp et al., 1990) the total recovery of this compound and its metabolites from soil and plants was only 70 , whereas the...

General Considerations

Because of the importance of volatile-acid formation in anaerobic treatment, it is of value to provide more details of the somewhat complicated biological processes involved. Volatile acids are formed as intermediates during the anaerobic degradation of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, as discussed in Sees. 6.7 to 6.11. Figure 32.1 illustrates the four major stages through which a complex waste such as domestic sludge must pass during its conversion to methane gas. The first two stages of hydrolysis and fermentation may be carried out by the same organisms. Here, complex organic materials such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats and oils are hydrolyzed into basic components, which are then fermented to fatty acids, alcohols, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and some hydrogen. In the third stage of acetogenesis and dehy-drogenation, a more specialized group of anaerobic bacteria ferment the higher organic acids to form acetic acid, hydrogen, and perhaps formic acid. In the fourth stage,...

Forms of Heavy Metals in Biosolids

Biosolids contain organic and inorganic compounds . The content of organic compounds and their chemical composition depends on various factors and mainly on the type of digestion applied Anaerobically digested sludge contains 25 to 30 organic carbon on a dry mass basis, although the content can vary widely. During the process of anaerobic digestion, organic solids are stabilized by the almost complete microbial fermentation of carbohydrates, apart from cellulose, resulting in a reduction of volatile solids at a rate of about 60 to 75 . The remaining organic material consists of a mixture of microbial tissue, lignin, cellulose, lipids, organic nitrogen compounds, and humic compounds (Miller, 1974). When biosolids are applied to soil there is decomposition of organic matter by the action of various factors, especially microorganisms using carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) . The half-life of the decomposition of organic matter has been estimated at about ten years (Bell et al , 1991) During...

Uptake By Root Crops From Different Soils

According to the USDA Nutrient Database ( fnic foodcomp ), a fully grown carrot (Daucus carota) has a lipid content of about 0.19 , whereas a baby carrot (D. carota) contains 0.53 lipids. The lipid content for the carrot (Nantes) used by Harris and Sans is unknown. As a working basis, we assume a lipid content of 0.2 for carrots. Similarly, according to the USDA Nutrient Database, the lipid content for radishes varies between the varieties, with most values around 0.1 , and no information is available for the species used by Harris and Sans (1967). We assume a lipid content of 0.1 to be representative of most radish varieties. With the Kow values for dieldrin and DDT, the crop uptake should be controlled predominantly by the lipid uptake. Contributions by carbohydrates and plant water are therefore ignored.

Green Sustainable Chemistry in the Production of Nicotinates

Nicotine Mild Oxidation Reaction

Co-enzyme I (nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide NAD) and Co-enzyme II (nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate NADP) are required by all living cells. They enable both the conversion of carbohydrates into energy as well as the metabolism of proteins and fats. Both nicotinamide and nicotinic acid are building blocks for these co-enzymes. The common name for the vitamin is niacin and, strictly speaking, refers only to nicotinic acid.

The Vermicomposting Process

In the digestive system of these worms, microorganisms are responsible for transforming some 40 (Pereira and Arruda 2003) organic species (proteins, nucleic acids, fats, carbohydrates) into a more stable product (vermicompost). This product presents a high cation exchange capacity (CEC), high humidity content, wide particle size distribution, high concentration of nutrients (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, S, N) and a characteristic black colour due to the presence of humic substances (Atiyeh et al. 2002 Canellas et al. 2002 Contreras-ramos et al. 2005 Arancon et al. 2006).

Industrial Biotechnology Today Main Products Substrates and Raw Materials

Having a look at the existing value chain of industrial biotechnology, all fermentation processes which have been commercialized in the last decades for the production of one of the building blocks mentioned in Table 5.1 presently rely on carbohydrates as feedstock. These feedstocks have to be considered as intermediates instead of raw materials according to Kircher 4 (see Figure 5.1). Moreover, the majority of fermentation processes, which recently are in the feasibility stage, also start from these feedstocks at the moment 2 .

Mechanism of Free Radical Scavenging and Role of Phytohormones in Plants Under Abiotic Stresses

Abstract Environmental stresses result in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants. ROS accumulate in cells and lead to the oxidation of proteins, chlorophyll, lipids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates etc. Cells have evolved intricate defense systems including enzymatic (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductases (GR), monodehydroascorbate reductases (MSHAR), dehydroascorbate reductases (DHAR), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), guaicol peroxidase (GOPX) and glutathione-S- transferase (GST) and non-enzymatic systems such as ascorbic acid (ASH), glutathione (GSH), phenolic compounds, alkaloids, non-protein amino acids and a-tocopherol, which can scavenge the indigenously generated ROS. Plant stress tolerance mediated by antioxidants has been shown by many workers. Antioxidant resistance mechanisms may provide a strategy to enhance plant stress tolerance. Various enzymes involved in ROS-scavenging have been manipulated,...

Adv Carbohyd Chem 1956 Publisher Beelik

Carbohydrates as Organic Raw Materials, VCH, Weinheim New York (a) Vol. I, Lichtenthaler, F. W. (Ed.), 1991, 365 pp (b) Vol. II, Descotes, G. (Ed.), 1993, 278 pp. (c) Vol. III, van Bekkum, H. Roper, H. Voragen, A. G. J. (Eds.), 1996, 358 pp. (d) Vol. IV, Praznik, W. (Ed.), Wiener Univ. Verlag, Vienna, 1998, 292 pp. 9. Lichtenthaler, F. W. Mondel, S. Perspectives in the use of low molecular weight carbohydrates as organic raw materials, Pure Appl. Chem., 1997, 69, 1853-1866. 11. (a) Lichtenthaler, F. W. Unsaturated O- and N-heterocycles from carbohydrate feedstocks, Acc. Chem. Res., 2002, 35, 728-737 (b) Lichtenthaler, F. W. Carbohydrates as Organic Raw Materials, Ullmann's Encyclopedia Industrial Chem., 6th Ed., Vol. 6, 2002, pp. 262-273 Electronic Release, 7th Ed., chapt. 9, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2007 (c) Lichtenthaler, F. W. Peters, S. Comptes Rend. Chim., 2004, 7, 65-90. 15. (a) Gandini, A. Belgacem, M. N. Furans in polymer chemistry, Prog. Polym. Sci., 1997, 22, 1203-1379 (b)...

Unsustainable Technologies

Current daily production of plastics (from hydrocarbons) is greater than the consumption of carbohydrates by the entire human population (Islam 2005a). Our lifestyle is abounding in plastics. Households that boast wall to wall carpets are in fact covered with plastic. The vast majority of shoe soles are plastic. Most clothing is plastic. Television sets, refrigerators, cars, paints, computer chassis, and practically everything that modern civilization has to offer are plastic. Cookware boasting a non-stick liner is non-stick because of the plastic coating. The coating on hardwood is plastic. The material that makes virgin wool manageable is plastic. The

Effect of Metals on Photosynthesis in Aquatic Macrophytes

Amyloplasts and amylo-chloroplasts, but not to gerontoplasts The contents of the chlorophylls a and b decreased strongly carotenoids level remained approximately constant The observed accumulation of starch without stimulation of the photosynthetic activity indicated less efficient export of carbohydrates out of the plastids Spirodela appeared more sensitive to nickel than Lemna however, both species were sensitive, which make them not particularly suitable for phytoremediation but suitable for ecotoxicological testing instead Cd induced the decrease of the photosynthetic Li et al. (2008) activity mainly due to the damage of Photosystem II Chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll content decreased, but carotenoid content increased

Landfill Design and Operation

Generally, more than half of household waste is organic. This degrades gradually through five stages within a landfill aerobic hydrolysis, in which micro-organisms convert some carbohydrates to simple sugars (such as glucose), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water hydrolysis and fermentation, when carbohydrates, lipids and proteins are broken down and fermented yielding volatile acids, acetate, CO2, hydrogen (H2) and inorganic salts acetogenesis, where bacteria turn soluble acids to C02 and H2. These, with carbohydrates are also transformed into acetic acid methanogenesis, in which bacteria convert acetic acid to methane and CO2. Finally, conditions may become aerobic again as the landfill becomes more stabilised.

Enzyme Protein Concentration In Soils

Numerous attempts have been made to extract pure enzymes from soils, but in reality the best that has been achieved is the extraction of enzyme-containing substances and complexes (68). The reagents used in the extraction procedures range from water to salt solutions or buffers to strong organic matter-solubilization reagents, such as NaOH or sodium pyrophosphate. The extracted activities are usually associated with carbohydrate-enzyme protein complexes and are often difficult to purify. Modern biochemical techniques have been used in the purification of the extracted enzymes, but little progress has been made in obtaining pure enzyme proteins from soils. Several of the enzymes extracted from soils could be present in soils as glycoproteins. Although many investigators have demonstrated that clay-free extracts could be obtained from soils, the major problem appears to be the strong affinity of the carbohydrate-enzyme complexes for chromatographic columns, which makes the separation...

New Raw Materials for White Biotechnology

According to Busch et al. 18 , agriculture currently generates large quantities of residues and by-products in Europe, which have only to be added to the value chain shown in Figure 5.1 at a lower level. These residual substances include, for example, whey, molasses, potato proteins, and loppings, which in turn contain a variety of compounds, which could form an inexpensive basis for new, premium products, for example, in the pharmaceutical, food, feed, and cosmetics industries. According to Soetaert and Vandamme 1 , the following industrial sectors supply the most important renewable raw materials (i) the sugar and starch sector-it produces carbohydrates such as sugar, glucose, starch, and molasses from plant raw materials such as sugar beet, sugarcane, wheat, corn, potatoes, sweet cassava, rice, etc. (ii) the oil and fat processing sector - it produces numerous oleo-chemical intermediates such as triglycerides, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, and glycerol from plant raw materials like...

Status Of The Search For Hyperthermophilic Microorganisms And Enzymes

Euryarchaeota Bacteria Under Microscope

Although ecological considerations beg study and enzyme foraging scenarios for hyperthermophiles have not yet been formulated, the acquisition of culturable hyperther-mophiles from marine hydrothermal vents now borders on routine. Current repositories of marine hyperthermophiles, virtually all of which are obligately anaerobic, include representatives of 25 genera (examples of which are shown in Fig. 4 in italics) and physiological processes as diverse as methanogenesis, iron oxidization, other forms of chemoautotrophy, sulfate reduction, and other forms of heterotrophy. With the exception of methanogenic genera, which contain a wide range of thermal classes of methanogens, all of these genera contain only hyperthermophilic organisms. As species have been added over time, culture collections have become dominated by heterotrophic hyperthermophiles in a limited number of genera of both Archaea and Bacteria. These organisms typically require complex organic compounds, including peptides...

Effects of Earthworms on the Soil

In soil aggregation processes supported by dry excrement, fungal hyphae and their micelles play an important role, whereas microbial polysaccharides and dead plant materials are active in fresh excrement-based aggregation. Earthworm excrement usually accumulates in the upper soil layers (0-20 cm), and so water-resistant soil aggregates are concentrated the near soil surface. The main factor in soil aggregation is the integration between earthworm excrement and soil. This integration occurs via microbial proliferation around the excrement, which results in an increase in the concentrations of carbohydrates that stick soil particles together. For this reason there are more aggregates around earthworm burrows (Haynes and Fraser 1998). Earthworms build their burrows in different depths of soil depending on the species. The diameters of these burrows and galleries range between 1-10 mm and generally reflect the body type of the earthworm (Lee 1985 Tamlin et al. 1995). Earthworm activities...

Kinetics and Product Studies of ClOAmino Acids Peptides and Proteins

Under water treatment conditions, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbohydrates, and molecules containing primary and secondary amines, aldehydes, and acetone are un-reactive, however, phenolic and tertiary amino group-containing compounds are reactive with ClO2. The reactivity of ClO2 with these compounds is governed by the pH phenoxide ion and neutral species of the amine are much more reactive than either the neutral phenol or the protonated amine (Hoigne and Bader 1994 Tratnyek and Hoigne 1994).

Natural Impurities In Water

Impurities may be dissolved compounds as well as insoluble particles, and may be of organic or inorganic origin 7 , Some of the more commonly found natural components containing organic material are, in decreasing size order, zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria, viruses, clay-humic acid complexes, humic acids, proteins, polysaccharides, fulvic acids, and very small species such as fatty acids, carbohydrates, amino acids and hydrocarbons. They are formed by the biological degradation of organic life substances 8 , and include highly coloured compounds. Inorganic salts of natural origin are also present to some degree.

Effect of the feed water composition

A literature review on the effect of NOM on pesticide retention by membranes, suggests that there is a dependence on the type of NOM present in the water. NOM is composed of an extremely diverse group of compounds, including humic acids, carbohydrates, alcohols, amino acids, carboxylic acids, lignins, and pigments, whose origin greatly influences its character and behaviour. The majority of the published works agree on the fact that the retention of pesticides in membrane-based systems tends to increase in the presence of NOM (Agbekodo et al., 1996 Devitt et al., 1998a, 1998b Zhang et al., 2004 Dalton et al., 2005), which is generally attributed to a variety of factors e.g., the size, shape, and surface chemistry of compounds involved. On the other hand, the use by various researchers of NOM of different origin, and the inadequate information regarding their physicochemical properties (elemental analysis, functional groups), hinder the systematic comparison of experimental results as...

Production of Biosurfactants and PAH Uptake

Deziel et al. (1996) first reported the production of rhamnolipid biosurfactant by P. aeruginosa 19 SJ for facilitating growth on the PAHs, naphthalene and phen-anthrene. Maximum extracellular biosurfactant production was observed at the onset of the stationary phase when high cell density limited the availability of the substrate. Production of the biosurfactant enhanced solubilization of the substrate. Prabhu and Phale (2003) also indicated the role of extracellular biosurfactants in phenanthrene biodegradation. Bordoloi and Konwar (2009) reported biosurfactant production by various strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from petroleum contaminated soil in Assam, India. All the strains were capable of degrading the PAHs, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene as sole substrate. The biosurfactants produced by the various strains lowered the surface tension up to 30-32 mN m and was characterized by CMC in the range 100-110 mg L. Differences were observed in the nature of the various...

Isotopic analysis of biomarkers

Biomarkers are compounds specific to a particular organism or group of organisms that can be isolated and measured to allow the study of both microbial processes specific to that organism or group of organisms and the study of larger scales of population and community changes. The microbial formation of biological components from parent carbon can be assessed under aerobic conditions using isotopic fractionation. Bacteria synthesize proteins from amino acids and carbohydrates and lipids that are used in cell wall formation from the building blocks of lipopolysac-charides and peptidoglycans and phospholipids. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) are membrane-bound lipids that can be used as biomarkers because they vary in different organisms. Hopanoids are a diverse group of compounds that are found in the membranes of bacteria and also can be used as biomarkers (Staddon 2004).

Effect of pesticides properties on retention

Molecular length and molecular width are also reported in the literature to be realistic measures of molecular size and good parameters for predicting the rejection of different groups of organic compounds by NF RO membranes. For example, the rejection of aromatic pesticides was found (Chen et al., 2004) to be best correlated with their molecular length rather than their molecular width (theoretical calculations by HyperChem based on their structures and orientation). The molecular length in this case represented the cross-sectional diameter due to structural orientation. On the other hand, the molecular width (MWd) was suggested (Kiso et al., 2001b) as a useful descriptor of the steric hindrance effect on the rejection of alcohols and carbohydrates. In addition to MWd, Kiso et al. (2001b) developed another molecular size parameter which correlated the rejection of alcohols and carbohydrates better than the MWd or the Stokes diameter specifically, they calculated a mean molecular size...

Physiological Effects

According to Stobrawa and Lorenc-Plucinska (2007), efficient carbohydrate metabolism is the basis of survival strategies of plants subjected to HM influence. In particular, the carbohydrate status of fine roots seems to be absolutely crucial. Their fast turnover rate requires systematic rebuilding of tissues, with an increased demand for energy and carbon atoms. Under stress conditions, the demand may also increase due the initiation of response mechanisms and secondary metabolism. Thus, the maintenance of primary metabolic pathways and the carbohydrate balance becomes fundamental in counteracting stress factors. Lorenc-Plucinska and Stobrawa (2004) investigated the effects of HMs on the carbohydrate metabolism in fine roots of P. deltoides growing at polluted site (Cd Pb Zn Cu Cr Ni Fe Mn mg kg-1) in Poland. Results showed that fine roots from polluted soils contained higher contents of total nonstructural carbohydrates, soluble sugars, starch and sucrose but lower hexoses level than...

Theoretical Considerations

The water content and the organic composition of plants may vary considerably either between plant types or between the different parts of a plant. The partition limits for a given contaminant inside a plant from the water phase to different plant parts would therefore vary with the overall and local plant composition. Most root and leaf crops are composed of large amounts of water and polar organic constituents, such as carbohydrates, cellulose, and proteins, and lesser amounts of lipids. From the partition standpoint Eq. (8.2) , the most striking differences in plant contamination level would probably occur for relatively nonpolar, lipid-soluble contaminants between plants that differ radically in their lipid contents. Such differences are anticipated because the partition coefficients of these contaminants are much higher with relatively nonpolar lipids than with polar organic matter (Chiou, 1985 Rutherford et al., 1992). For the more water-soluble solutes, the partition capacities...

White Biotechnology Future Products from Todays Raw Materials

And intermediates for the chemical industry by processes based on renewable resources 2, 6 . In case of NREL, 33 six-carbon-atoms containing compounds were identified, most of them available by microbial fermentation processes from carbohydrates, while in case of the EU BREW project 13 key components were identified 7 (see Table 5.2), eight of them mainly produced by microbial fermentation at the moment.

Soil Organic Matter

Color, most of which in turn affect soil temperature. Soil organic matter consists of microbial cells, plant and animal residues at various stages of decomposition, stable humus (humic acids, humins) synthesized from residues by microorganisms, and highly carbonized compounds (e.g., charcoal, graphite, coal). Soil organic matter is thus a complex mixture of heterogeneous organic compounds (including sugar, starch, protein, carbohydrates, lignin, waxes, resins, and organic acids) derived from plants, microorganisms and animal residues that are formed through the decomposition, synthetic, and polymerization reactions. The process of organic matter decay in the soil begins with the decomposition of sugars and starch from carbohydrates, which quickly break down as saprophytes initially invade the dead plant. Proteins decompose into amino acids. Organic matter is an essential source of nutrients for all heterotrophic soil organisms, which in turn hold a key position in the humification and...

Masked Contaminants

A masked contaminant is defined as a contaminant present in such a form that it will escape from rapid screening or instrumental analysis and remain undetected. A contaminant might be conjugated with carbohydrates, sulfates, amino acids, fatty acids or bound to proteins or nucleic acids in the sample of interest. Rapid screening tests such as immuno or receptor assays are based on molecular recognition and will fail recognition when the binding sites of the molecule become less accessible due to modification or steric hindrance elsewhere in the molecule. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods


A commercial sodium LS purified by ultrafiltration from Borregaard Lignotech as well as the products of their modification with sodium diethylalumoethylsiloxanolate (Si-LS) by the method described elsewhere1 were used in the work as adsorptives. Purified LS had Mw 42,800 (HPLC) and contained less than 1 of carbohydrates, sulphonate groups 1.23 mequivalents g, phenolic groups 1.06 mequivalents g (conductometry titration).


A large variety of commercially produced ectoenzyme substrates are now available. Depending on their chemical structure and the enzyme assay, two types of organic compounds can serve as substrates natural and artificial substrates. Natural substrates are native compounds (nonlabeled) or their chemical structure is only slightly modified by labeling with chromophores, fluorophores, or radiolabeling with 14C, 3H, 32P, 35S, or 125I. Most natural substrates have an affinity for the enzyme that is complementary to that of the natural substrates in aquatic samples. Monitoring of enzyme activity by means of natural nonlabeled substrates requires a sensitive analytical method to measure the end product or substrate remaining after incubation time (70). Modern analytical methods offer precise and rapid determination of several natural compounds that can be used as enzyme substrates or products (e.g., amino acids, proteins, deoxyribonucleic acid DNA , carbohydrates). The application of the...

Heavy Metals

The term heavy metal refers to a metal or metalloid with a density exceeding 5 g cm-3, and is usually associated with pollution and toxicity, although some of these elements (essential metals) are actually required by organisms at low concentrations (Adriano 2001). Several heavy metals, such as copper, zinc and iron, are essential for the physiological functioning of living organisms, but they all become toxic at high concentrations. The toxicity of a metal depends on the metal itself, its total concentration, the availability of the metal to the organism, and the organism itself. Depending on the organism and the metal, different modes of action are recognized binding to macromolecules (proteins, DNA, RNA), disruption of enzymatic functions, catalysis of radical formation, etc. For example, zinc (Zn) is a component found in a variety of enzymes (dehydrogenases, proteinases, peptidases), but it is also involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, phosphate, auxins, and in...


A number of new questions and insights have begun to emerge from a diverse range of recent studies. The hydrolysis of high-molecular-weight substrates to sequentially smaller sizes has been monitored directly by a combination of liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (201), as well as liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection (38,137,159). Direct detection of bond cleavage and systematic changes in substrate molecular weight have shown that enzymatic hydrolysis rates may, in certain cases, actually outpace terminal remineralization processes. In enrichments from anaerobic marine sediments, production of oligosaccharides from polysaccharides clearly exceeded uptake of the newly formed oligosaccharides (201). Field studies also support these results a comparison of amino acid turnover and peptide hydrolysis rates showed that production of amino acids potentially exceeded uptake by a factor of ca. 8 in coastal sediments (38). Likewise, a comparison of...

E lui ion volume ml

3.7 Carbohydrates Ochiai 127 used gas chromatography to determine dissolved carbohydrates in natural water. The carbohydrates are first hydrolysed to alditol acetates of monosaccharides by refluxing for 7h with 1M hydrochloric acid under nitrogen. The hydrolysate is then reduced with sodium hydroxide at 60 C. The gas chromatograph used was equipped with a flame ionization detector. A glass column (2m x 3mm i.d.) packed with 5 OV-275 on Chromosorb W was employed at a nitrogen flow rate of 40mL min-1. A temperature-programmed analysis from 160 C to Ochiai pointed out that although natural water contains lipids, amino acids, humic substances, etc. in addition to carbohydrates, the monosaccharides of the dissolved carbohydrates could be measured without clean-up. A typical chromatogram of monosaccharides of the dissolved carbohydrates in natural water is shown in Fig. 3.4.


The affinity that HCCPD (or its products) has for the Clara cells in the lungs and the production of electron-lucent granules in these cells after inhalation exposure situations (Rand et al. 1982b) suggests that HCCPD may interact with the microsomes in rats and monkeys to form a metabolite (possibly a free radical) that binds to secretory molecules and changes their ability to be transported from the cell. When the granular pigments that are found in the lungs and nasal passages after long-term inhalation exposure to HCCPD were stained with reagents to detect mucopolysaccarides, mucoproteins, carbohydrates, iron, reducing substances, and acid fast substances, all tests were negative except those for reducing substances (NTP 1994). These results support the classification of the pigment as lipofuscin or ceroid material (substances that are formed through free-radical-induced crosslinking of cellular lipids. These results do not confirm the presence of either of these complexes.


This efficiency emerges from the well known conservation of energy theory Energy cannot be created or destroyed. There isn't one component of sunlight that is not useful. It is continuously beneficial to the environment. Sunlight gives immediate vision, but it also help produce vitamin D. Sunlight is crucial for photosynthesis that would give benefits to the environment by triggering many beneficial chain reactions. As time progresses, environmental benefit of each photon continues to grow. It is of great value. Even if it is possible create carbohydrates artificially, the quality of this product will be questionable, even if this may not be evident to all. When chemical fertilizers were introduced in the name of a 'Green Revolution', few realized those fifty years later, this would be most important trigger for the non-greening of the Earth. However, the use of solar energy by converting into the electricity through PV systems does translate into the higher efficiency,...


The basic petrochemical feedstocks are ethylene and benzene which are converted to the surfactant intermediates ethylene oxide, linear alkyl benzene (LAB), and detergent alcohols. Oleochemical or natural surfactants are commonly derived from plant oils (coconut and palm oils), from plant carbohydrates such as sorbitol, sucrose, and glucose or from animal fats such as tallow. Nearly half of this amount accounted only for soap. About 3 million tons of all produced surfactants in 2000 were based on renewables such as carbohydrates and or vegetable oils 29 . The primary plant- based materials are coconut, palm, castor, rapeseed, and soybean oil, with the majority being coconut and palm oil. The use of RRMs for surfactant production currently exceeds by far the amount used for all other purposes (polymers, lubricants, and solvents).


Follow the fate of pyrene in a consistent soil matrix with and without microbial activity. Pyrene degradation and association with SOM were quantified by systematic removal and analysis of gas phase traps and soil subsamples from aerated soil chambers. The soil matrix was extensively fractionated to separate soluble SOM (lipids, carbohydrates, and humic fulvic acids) and insoluble SOM (humin). SOM extracts were analyzed by HPLC and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) to determine residual pyrene concentrations and the formation of intermediate products. The 14C activity in soils and SOM fractions was assayed after 270 days for bioavailability by incubating soils or soil fractions with a microbial community shown to mineralize pyrene in static microcosms and measuring the amount of evolved 14CO2 over time. Comparisons were made between soils with and without microbial activity to determine the extent of biological influence on pyrene-SOM interactions and pyrene biodegradation with time.

Water Relation

Heavy metals as micronutrients are essential for biological and physiological functions of plants. These functions include biosynthesis of proteins, nucleic acids, growth substances, chlorophyll and secondary metabolities such as metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, stress tolerance, structural and functional integrity of various membranes and other cellular compounds (Paivoke and Simola 2001 Tu and Ma 2005). However, heavy metals like Cr and Cd interfere with the proper functioning of micronutrients. Reports indicated that higher concentrations of Cr in soil reduced the N content and increased the P concentration in oat plant tissues, slashed the micronutrient (Cu, Zn, Mn, and Ni) uptake in plants, decreased the levels of Fe and Zn with an increase of Mn contents in bush bean, interfered with the uptake of Ca, Cu, B, K, Pb and Mg in soybeans, diminished uptake of Fe, Zn and Mn in maize and reduced the uptake of Fe, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn and Zn in sugar beat (Zayed and Terry 2003 and...

Biogas Technology

Biogas Bacteria Methane

Inside the digester, a mixed consortium of both anaerobic and facultative microorganisms will carry out the transformation of organic compounds into methane. This process, illustrated in three stages, as hydrolysis, acid forming and methanogenesis, is shown in Fig. 9.2. In the first stage, complex insoluble polymers (proteins, lipids and carbohydrates), are converted to simple soluble compounds (aminoacids, fatty acids and monosaccharides). The transformation of these complex substrates is carried out by anaerobic or facultative hydrolytic bacteria. During the acid forming stage, both anaerobic and facultative bacteria will degrade the simple substrates, originated in the hydrolysis step, through a series of fermentative processes. The main products

Wet ashing

Nitric acid is recommended in the case of food samples with high chloride content. Nitric and sulfuric acid mixtures are widely used for the decomposition of samples with low organic matter content, while mixtures nitric-sulfuric-perchloric acids are employed for samples with high fat content. Nitric-perchloric acidic mixtures are generally used in the case of samples rich in proteins and carbohydrates, but in the absence of fat. Hydrofluoric acid has no oxidizing power and finds unique application in the decomposition of organic samples containing silicon or silica in varying amounts, such as corn leaves. Only in this case, because hydrofluoric acid attacks silicon bonds, it is essential to use non-glass apparatus for the sample treatment (generally Teflon apparatus is employed).

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