Case Studies Pollution Histories of Persistent Pollutants in Aquatic Sediment Archives

Since the late 1970s, when dating by radioisotopes made possible the reconstruction of the sedimentary contamination history, a large number of monitoring studies have been performed for the aquatic environment (an overview is given in Table 7.1). Since chemical degradation of pollutants, physical and biological mixing processes or intermittent sedimentation are the main restrictions for the geochronological approach, most of the suitable sedimentary archives have been indentified within the...

References

Afifi NA, Ramadan A, Abd-El-Aziz MI, Saki EE (1991) Influence of dimethoate on testicular and epididymal organs, testosterone plasma level and their tissue residues in rats. Deutsche Tieraerztliche Wochenschrift 98 419-420 Ahel M, Giger W (1993) Partitioning of alkylphenols and alkylphenol polyethoxylates between water and organic solvents. Chemosphere 26 1471-1478 Ahel M, Giger W, Koch M (1994a) Behaviour of alkylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants in the aquatic environment - Occurrence and...

Introduction

The widespread application of the pesticide DDT began in the 1940s but DDT was banned in many countries in the early 1970s. During this time period the intensive and widespread usage combined with a high environmental stability and its tendency for geo- as well as bioaccumulation caused an ubiquitous contamination of nearly all environmental Fig. 6.1 Molecular structure of DDT, an organochlorine insecticide. High structural similarity exists to further pesticides like methoxychlor (insecticide)...

Mytilus galloprovincialis Production

The Mediterranean mussel M. galloprovincialis is mainly cultured in coastal waters from NW Spain to the northern shores of the Mediterranean Sea. The production of this mussel has also been reported from some southern Mediterranean countries, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, South Africa and also China, Lutz et al. (1991), Gosling (2003). Cultured and harvested mussels date back to historic times in many countries, such as in Italy > 2,000years ago, France > 700years ago and the Netherlands...

Gel Template Synthesis

Dextran is an interesting biotemplate molecule as a result of its complex and multi-branched structure. Fig. 5.9 Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of (a) YBa2Cu3O7 sample (b) a dextran template YBa2Cu3O7 sponge and (c) a silver-doped dextran templated YBa2Cu3O7 sponge. Scale bar in part a is 1 mm, in parts (b) and (c) is 10 mm (Reproduced by permission from Walsh et al. 2007a, b, American Chemical Society) Fig. 5.9 Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of (a) YBa2Cu3O7 sample (b) a...

Major Organic Pollutants 821 Organochlorine Insecticides 8211 Background

Organochlorine compounds are widely used as pesticides and are substantial environmental pollutants and carcinogens due to their extensive environmental release. Many pesticides are now suspected of being endocrine disruptors - chemicals that can lead to an increase in birth defects, sexual abnormalities and reproductive failure. An example is formed by the indications that polychlorobiphenyl pollution Fig. 8.1 Organochlorine insecticide Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) Fig. 8.1...

Volatile Compounds Trapping

VOCs are widely used in industry as solvents, dry-cleaning agents, degreas-ers, and intermediates in the production of plastics, synthetic resins or pharmaceuticals. From an environmental point of view, it is necessary to limit and control their emissions because they affect the change of climate, the growth and decay of plants, and the health of human beings and all animals (Khan and Ghoshal 2000). New regulations regarding volatile organic compounds emissions demand more efficient and less...

Environmental Fate of DDT Isomers and Metabolites

Mathias Ricking and Jan Schwarzbauer List of DDX 6.3 o,p'- and p,p'-DDX in 6.4 o,p'- and p,p'-DDX in 6.5 o,p'- and p,p'-DDX in Aquatic 6.6 o,p'- and p,p'-DDT in 6.7 Enantioselective Analysis on 6.8 Conclusions and Abstract It is known for decades that isomeric composition of organic pollutants can be influenced substantially by environmental processes such as biotransformation or transfer between compartments. This accounts also for the pesticide better known as p,p' -DDT, and its accompanied...

Ubiquitous Persistent Organic Pollutants in Marine Sediment Archives

In order to determine historical trends of anthropogenic contaminants a group of most frequently investigated contaminants can be compiled (Vink et al. 1999). In addition to heavy metals, the group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), especially chlorinated organic substances and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are some of the ubiquitous contaminants of predominant anthropogenic origin within aquatic sediments. PAH are of major interest. Hereby POPs typically appear within the...

Sediment Dating

Various approaches for sediment dating are still utilised particularly with regard to an adequate time-stratigaphic classification of the sediment archives (e.g. summarized by Alderton 1985). By now 210Pb chronometric dating has become the most important technique. In this context Smith (2001) emphasises for 210Pb geochronology the need to validate at least one independent tracer (for a tracer flux model) that separately provides an unambiguous time-stratigraphic horizon, such as 137Cs. In...

Mediterranean Mussel as a Seafood 931 World Mussel Production

The population is increasing rapidly, which means simply more food production and more jobs are required. Although, vegetable production is sufficient for the present population and is likely to be for the future population, the intake of animal protein is inadequate in spite of attempts made during the last 60 years. This gap has not yet been closed. For this reason, the world aquaculture production has grown tremendously over the past 50 years from a production of less than one million tonnes...

Carbon Nanotubes for Sorbents

Carbon is well known as one of the better adsorbents for gases. This property is due to (i) the ability of this material to exist in a very fine powdered form with highly porous structure and (ii) the existence of particular interactions between carbon atoms and gas molecules. During recent decades, many improvements have been accomplished to obtain micro porous and ultra micro porous carbonaceous materials having very high adsorbing properties for the most current gases Graphite has a...

The Role of the Polysaccharides in Metal Oxides Synthesis

Polysaccharides are used for a long time in the water-soluble polymers domain as thickening, gelling emulsifying, hydrating and suspending polymers. Polysaccharide-based oxides, with biocompatible and non-toxic features, represent a new class of hybrid materials with potential applications in medicine, pharmacy, biology, agriculture, on waste water and water treatment. Polysaccharides biomaterials were already used tissue engineering, drug vehicles, controlled release of drugs (Liu et al....

Structural Model of Magnetic Nanophotocatalysts 441 Features of Magn etic Particles

The first magnetic separation was described by William Fullarton, who used a magnet to separate iron minerals in 1792 (Yavuz et al. 2009). In 1873, Hay received the first US patent for a water treatment device that employed a magnetic field (Hay 1873). Currently, magnetic separation techniques are used in a variety of areas, ranging from steel production to biotechnology and environmental protection (Ambashta and Sillanpaa 2010). During the fabrication process of the magnetic photocatalysts,...

Solar Cells

Solar energy has a great potential as a clean and sustainable energy source due to its abundance and more evenly distribution in nature than any other renewable energy sources (Wijewardane 2009) . Photovoltaic is the technical term for a solar power technology that uses solar cells to convert energy from the sun into electricity. Conventional silicon solar cells can reach efficiencies as high as 24 , but high production costs limit their potential for economical applications (Green et al....

Fuel Cells

The urgent needs for environmental friendly and sustainable energy has resulted in a tremendous increase of research effort on fuel cell technology, as fuel cells provide a clean alternative to other types of energy (Xu et al. 2008). Low temperature fuel cells, such as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) are promising alternative source of electrical power, owing to their high power density, low operating temperature and water as the only...

The Bioaccumulation of the Toxic Elements in Mussels

Intertidal areas are the natural habitats of marine mussels and they are usually close to estuaries. Therefore, the chance of exposure to many contaminants from land-based activities through the reverine systems as well as sea-based sources is high, and one of its attributes is the possible usage of mussels as a biomonitoring agent for the estimation of pollutant metal concentrations in a sea environment. Among the environmental pollutants, trace metals represent natural constituents in tissues...

Mediterranean Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis 921 Distribution

Mytilus Evolution

Three Mytilus mussel taxa are present in European coastal sea waters Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel), Mytilus edulis (Blue mussel), and Mytilus trossulus (Baltic mussel), Gosling (1992), Smietankaetal. (2004). The Mediterranean mussel M. galloprovincialis is a temperate, warm-water mussel, occurring in more exposed locations which do not experience pronounced salinity variations and also in southern areas such as the Black Sea, the Mediterranean and the Iberian Atlantic coast....

CoPrecipitation Synthesis

The co-precipitation methods, in situ (Wang et al. 2008 Varma et al. 2004 Feng et al. 2009) or post-synthesis (Podzus et al. 2009 Zhu et al. 2008 Pan et al. 2009 Dnekbas et al. 2008) , are available and suitable routes to obtain hybrid magnetite (Fe3O4)-chitosan materials, and are by far the most investigated systems (Liang et al. 2007 Wang and Tan 2007 Zhao et al. 2006 Lin and Leu 2005 Hrbac et al. 2007 Zhang et al. 2007 Kaushik et al. 2008). A mixed in situ co-precipitation and chitosan...

Soil and Groundwater Clean Up

Every year, millions of tonnes of hazardous waste are generated in the world. Due to inefficient waste handling techniques and hazardous waste leakage in the past, thousands of sites were contaminated by heavy metals, organic compounds and other hazardous materials, which made an enormous impact on the quality of groundwater, soil and associated ecosystems (Virkutyte et al. 2002). Among existing methods, in situ technologies have become very attractive for treating contaminated soils and...

Gas Sensors

Air pollutants have been the major factor contributing to the degradation of air quality, leading to chronic effects on human health, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, and cancer (Yang and Omaye 2009 Kampa and Castanas 2008). Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2 ), sulphur oxides (SOx ), nitrogen oxides (NOx ), ozone (O3 ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), heavy metals, and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) are...

Levels of DDT and HCH in Sediments

Sundarban India

The data on the accumulation of pesticides in marine sediments is limited, especially considering the length of India's coastline. We have chosen Sundarban mangrove wetland, which is located in the estuarine part of Hugli River, as an example to demonstrate the pollution status of Indian coastal systems with these contaminants. Guzzella et al. (2005) documented distribution of various organochlorine pesticides in the surface sediments (< 63 mm particle size) along the stretch of the Ganges...

Electrochemical Supercapacitors

Electrochemical supercapacitors are considered as the ideal energy storage and power output technologies for portable electronic devices, digital communications, hybrid electric vehicles, and renewable energy systems, due to the advantages of high power and energy density characteristics, high cycle efficiency and long cycle life (Simon and Gogotsi 2008 Winter and Brodd 2004). Electrochemical supercapacitors based on carbon are of two different mechanisms of energy storage, namely the...

Surface Sol Gel Synthesis

Nanosized particles of cellulose-based oxides with large surface areas, enhanced stability have been obtained following a surface sol-gel procedure (Caruso and Antonietti 2001) ZrO2 (Huang and Kunitake 2003 Caruso and Schattka 2000), SnO2 (Huang et al. 2005), SnxInyOz (Aoki et al. 2006), TiO2 (Huang and Kunitake 2003 Caruso and Schattka 2000)Zand Au-TiO2 (Huang et al. 2004). The oxide particles are hierarchically organized into nanostructures, the mechanism of the adapted surface sol-gel method...

Impact of Mussel Consumption to Human Health 9441 Beneficial Effects If Mussel Consumption

By 2002, fish fisheries and aquaculture products contributed 12 to the total protein for human consumption, although there are no detailed global statistics on the provision of other essential minerals and components, FAO (2006). The total content of minerals in raw marine fish and invertebrates is in the range of 0.6-1.5 wet weight, Ozden et al. (2010). An epidemiological study in Japan showed that seafood was the largest source of vitamin B6 (16-23 of the total intake) and B12 (77-84 ) in the...

Modern Contaminants

The occurrence of common contaminants, like heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs, can be recorded within sediment profiles covering a long period of time, mostly in a range of 50 years up to more than 200 years. The group called as modern contaminants occur only in sediment layers representing a time period since the 1970s (Warren et al. 2003 Heim et al. 2004). Whereas the most of the common contaminants show decreasing sediment concentrations up to now, especially since environmental protection has...

Hydrogen Storage

Hydrogen is seen as an important new source of energy due to its inherent pollution free nature from clean combustion, resource availability and provision of the highest energy efficiency (Lim et al. 2010). However, hydrogen storage is a major barrier in the development towards feasible commercial use of hydrogen in fuel cells. Current strategies for hydrogen storage include compression and liquefaction, which have high storage volume efficiencies but fail to meet the criteria for on-board...

List of DDX Abbreviation

DDD 2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1, 1 -dichloroethane DDE 2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1, 1 -dichloroethene DDMS 2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1 -chloroethane DDMU 2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1 -chloroethene DDT 2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1, 1, 1-trichloroethane DDA bis(chlorophenyl)acetic acid DDX sum of DDT and all of its metabolites

Characteristic Features of the Persistent Organic Compounds

India is a generics giant (Dave 1996) . It is one the few remaining countries still engaged in the large scale manufacture, use and export of some of the toxic chlorinated pesticides (e.g., DDT, HCH etc.). Even in the 1990s more than 70 of the gross tonnage of pesticides used in agricultural applications in India consisted of formulations which are banned or severely restricted in the east and west (Iyer 1993 Gupta 2004) . According to a Green Peace report, India is now producing 90,000 metric...

Why Geochronology

The increase in the concentrations of many anthropogenic contaminants (e.g. persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals) discharged into the environment by human activities is obvious, especially in river and coastal ecosystems during the last 200 years (Vink et al. 1999). Since the dawn of industrialization and a related growth of population, particularly rivers have been affected by anthropogenic activities and recorded different stages of water quality problems. Numerous studies have...

Dioxins

Dioxins are persistent and bioaccumulative, and the most studied dioxin, 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (Fig. 8.8) is confirmed to cause cancer in humans (McGregor et al. 1998) . Dioxins are also endocrine disrupters, and are able to modify the immune system (Grassman et al. 1998). The World Health Organization recommended safe limit for dioxins are 1-4 pg kg day. Research by the UK Ministry of Agriculture has shown that adults are already taking in enough dioxin (including dioxin-like...

Pesticides

Agriculture has played an important role in the development of human civilization. Pesticides are used in agricultural activities to increase the production yield and for the purpose of pest control. However, pesticides are well known as toxic pollutants, which are hazardous to human health. Current studies are concentrating on the detection of organophosphate pesticides. Many researchers have introduced CNTs into Acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-based electrochemical biosensor for pesticides...

Comparison of Photocatalytic Activities

As mentioned above, in the case of Fe3O4, y-Fe2O3, MFe2O4 as the magnetic core, the activity of the core insulator shell magnetic photocatalysts is greater than that of the corresponding core shell magnetic photocatalysts because the insulator between the magnetic core and the photocatalyst shell can inhibit the recombination of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs. In the case of the direct contact core shell structure, the heterojunction structure formed is shown in Fig. 4.4 . The bandgaps...

Organometallic Compounds

The occurrence of heavy metals in the environment has obtained a great deal of awareness due to their high toxicity and the potential to get translocated through the food chain. Natural sources of Hg include volcanoes, geologic deposits of Hg, and volatilization from the ocean. The majority of environmental Hg exposure occurs through atmospheric deposition of Hg released from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Anthropogenic sources of mercury include those associated with its use in the...

Phytoestrogens 8271 Background

Phytoestrogens can be described as, any plant substance or metabolite that induces biological responses in vertebrates that mimic or modulate the actions of endogenous estrogens by binding to estrogen receptors (McClatchy et al. 1995). Phytoestrogens consist of more than 20 compounds and can be found in more than three hundreds of plants including herbs, grains, and fruits (Moon et al. 2006). Three main classes of compounds are currently recognized as phytoestrogens the isoflavones, coumestans,...

Organophosphorus and Carbamate Insecticides 8241 Background

The organophosphate and carbamate insecticides were developed to replace the persistent organochlorine insecticides, due to their rapid breakdown and low environmental persistence. These two classes of insecticides have the same mechanism of action inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase which hydrolyses the neu-rotransmitter substance acetylcholine at nerve synapses. Although the equations depicting the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by a carbamate and organophospho-rus ester are...

Cyclodextrin Derivatives

The presence of 3n reactive hydroxyl groups on CDs allows various modifications of such macrocycles (Khan et al. 1998 Jicsinszky et al. 1996 Easton and Lincoln 2000). It becomes thus possible to modify the CD features such as solubility, inclusion ability or to induce new properties e.g. chromophore introduction, immobilization on solid support. S elective modifications might be realized, with the aim to control the number and position of introduced groups. It is indeed possible to activate...

Contributors

Alam Department of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta West Bengal 700 019, India Lalit M. Bharadwaj Biomolecular Electronics and Nanotechnology, Central Scientific Instruments Organization (CSIR), Chandigarh, India A. Bhattacharya Department of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta, West Bengal 700 019, India B.D. Bhattacharya Department of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road,...

Advanced Oxidation Processes

Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) attract increasing interest as promising powerful methods to efficiently removing non bio-degradable pollutants from contaminated water or soils. Thus, AOPs are environmentally friendly methods, which are based on the in-situ production of hydroxyl radicals ('OH) as the main oxidizing agent. Among the different approaches to generate the active oxidizing radicals, much attention has been devoted to the environmental applications of CDs in Fenton-based...

Sol Gel Synthesis

One of the remarkable feature of the starch is its gelling abilities in aqueous solution in the temperature range of 50-80 C, due to its content of linear amylose component. The mechanism of starch gelatinization is still an issue question, but nowadays it is accepted that gelation causes starch anionic, either by producing fatty acids or causing -OH group to dissociate (Yamamoto et al. 2006 Whistler et al. 1984 Chen and Jane 1994 Bertuzzi et al. 2007). This special characteristic of starch...

Carbon Nanotubes in Green Nanocomposites Design

Advancements in nanotechnology and the widespread of environmental friendly products have found the potential application of CNTs as reinforcement material in green nanocomposites. Green nanocomposites mainly comprised of biodegradable polymer and CNTs, which is viewed as a wave of next generation materials. CNTs in green nanocomposites design have received a considerable interest from the researches worldwide since synthetic polymers create a lot of issues in waste management and if without...

Environmental Chemistry Letters

We founded the journal Environmental Chemistry Letters in 2003 to fill the science gap between chemistry and environment (www.springer.com 10311). Despite a tough selection by the Thomson Reuters agency to enter the Science Citation Index, we got our first impact factor of 0.814 for 2006, only 3 years later. The impact factor increased steadily to reach 2.109 in 2009 (Fig. 2) (www.thomsonreuters.com). The increase of the impact factor can be explained by a higher quality of articles, as a...

Alkyl Phenols

Alkyl phenol ethoxylates are non-ionic surfactant components of industrial and domestic detergents, paints, cosmetics and pesticide formulations. Nonylphenol-polyethoxylates and octylphenol-polyethoxylates represent the greater part of all alkyl phenol ethoxylates. Biodegradation by sewage treatment process results in the formation of alkyl phenols such as nonylphenol (Fig. 8.10) and octylphenol (Gross et al. 2001). Nonylphenol and octylphenol are hydrophobic and lipophilic and thus can...

Op and ppDDT in Biota

Since biological samples cover a wide range of organisms, environmental analyses applied to biota are inhomogeneous and the corresponding data exhibit a high variety. Both facts hinder a reasonable comparison of environmental data on DDT residues in organisms. Regarding the substitution isomers of DDT and its metabolites, there are only a limited number of publications presenting individual concentration values or calculated o,p'- p,p'-ratios as presented in Table 6.8. Table 6.8 Literature...

Structure of Magnetic Photocatalysts

The first magnetic photocatalyst was designed by Hiroshi et al. and was prepared through the deposition of titanium dioxide onto a magnetite core in 1994 Hiroshi et al. 1994 , Atsuya and Mutsuo developed photocatalyst particles containing ferromagnetic metal particles in 1997 Atsuya and Mutsuo 1997 . In 1998, Beydoun synthesized titania-coated magnetic photocatalysts, in which titanium dioxide particles were directly coated with the Fe3O4 magnetic material Beydoun et al. 1998, 2000 to form the...