Parkinsonism following chronic inhalation

A 49 year old female worked for 20 years in a leather product company. After this time she continued to work at home for a further 11 years until the onset of illness. At home the working environment was unprotected and uncontrolled. She used two glues one used daily (containing n-hexane 85.5 ) and the other used twice weekly (containing n-hexane 49 , acetone 5 , ethyl acetate 9 , trichloroethylene 7 and 1,2-dichloropropane 5 ). She first developed rapidly progressing disease with severe...

Biomonitoring

A BEI has not been established for carbon tetrachloride by the ACGIH. Measurement of carbon tetrachloride and its metabolites in expired air has been the most convenient way to determine exposure (ATSDR, 1994). Carbon tetrachloride can also be detected by gas chromatography in blood and serum, which may also be used as an indicator of exposure. Any detectable blood concentration indicates exposure, but concentrations do not correlate well with adverse health effects (ATSDR, 1992b). Carbon...

Occupational exposure and persistent headache

A 26 year old man presented complaining of persistent headaches for one month. He had a history of occasional headaches since adolescence, but, during the past four months, his symptoms had increased in intensity and frequency and were no longer relieved by over-the-counter medication. He had worked as a carpenter in a laminated product manufacturing company for the previous six months, where his duties included working with lacquer thinner to clean cabinet surfaces and spraying laminating...

Chronic exposure

There is limited information on the chronic effects of diisobutyl ketone. Headache, vision loss and peripheral neuropathy have been reported in a worker exposed to fumes of heated diisobutyl ketone. Results of neurological and neuropsychological evaluation suggested some affective changes with deficits in manual motor speed, verbal fluency, visuospatial organisation and short-term memory (White et al., 1993). However, there was no measurement of exposure concentrations of diisobutyl ketone or...

Outbreak of peripheral neuropathy in a coated fabrics plant

The first reported cases of neuropathy from methyl n-butyl ketone occurred in 1973 in a US coated fabrics plant (Mendell et al., 1974 Allen et al., 1975 Billmaier et al., 1975). Of 1,157 workers investigated, 28 were suspected and 68 had definite signs, symptoms and electromyographic findings of peripheral neuropathy. These individuals had worked in the department with the highest frequency of, and most severe cases of, neuropathy for between five weeks and 27 years. The company had started to...

Metabolic interactions

Metabolic interactions involving ethanol can be divided into two groups Interference with ethanol metabolism Ethanol is metabolised via liver ADH to acetaldehyde and then via aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) to acetate. Interference with aldehyde dehydrogenase by various factors can lead to an accumulation of acetaldehyde which leads to tachycardia, hypertension and hyperventilation. In the workplace, agents such as amides (e.g., dimethylformamide), oximes, thiurams, carbamates and others, have...

Peripheral neuropathy following chronic inhalation

A 60 year old male was admitted to hospital in 1979 with a five year history of progressive lower extremity weakness and sensory loss. He had worked as a janitor for an adhesive tape manufacturer. The company had used the solvents n-hexane and toluene from February to July 1971. Use of n-hexane was stopped after publication of the first report of n-hexane neuropathy in the United States (Herskowitz et al., 1971). However, the patient found that n-hexane was useful for removing glue stains and...

References

ACGIH. 2000 Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Limits. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Allis JW, Brown BL, Simmons JE, Hatch GE, McDonald A, House DE. 1996 Methanol potentiation of carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity the central role of cytochrome P450. Toxicology 112 131-140 Amoore JE, Hautala E. 1983 Odor as an aid to chemical safety odor thresholds compared with threshold limit values and volatiles for 214...

Carcinogenicity

There is inadequate evidence in humans but sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of carbon tetrachloride. Consequently, carbon tetrachloride is in IARC group 2B and considered possibly carcinogenic to humans (IARC, 1999). Tracey and Sherlock (1968), described a 59 year old man with an episode of carbon tetrachloride related acute renal failure, accompanied by evidence of acute liver damage. He recovered uneventfully and his liver function tests returned to normal....

Acute exposure Inhalation

No discomfort to the upper airways, changes in nasal volume or spirometric data were reported in male adults exposed to up to 50 mg m3 (12.3 ppm) for eight hours (Akesson and Paulsson, 1997). No respiratory effects were described by employees exposed to concentrations of up to 83 ppm (336.6 mg m3) in a study of industrial hygiene at two microelectronics manufacturers (Beaulieu and Schmerber, 1991). Ten of twelve workers in an electrotechnical company developed acute irritant contact dermatitis...

Peripheral sensory neuropathy associated with 111trichloroethane

A 44 year old woman previously in good health, developed perioral tingling and a burning sensation on her tongue, accompanied by discomfort in her hands and feet. The oral and hand symptoms disappeared quickly after removal from work, but she was left with sensations of burning and cramping in her feet, which made it difficult to walk or stand for prolonged periods of time. She had no history of diabetes mellitus or excessive alcohol ingestion or any other conditions associated with peripheral...

Chronic occupational exposure

A sudden outbreak of illness in the industrial setting may occur because of a change in practice. An example of this is reported by Ohi and Wegman (1978). Acetone was used as a solvent for cleaning equipment in a textile printing plant. When this became temporarily unavailable, EGME was used instead. This was used for cleaning by hand without gloves, and, although air flow in the wash area was reduced, the air concentration of EGME was 8 ppm which did not exceed the TLV (25 ppm). Absorption was...

Table 23 Types of cancers reported following exposure to benzene

The role of benzene in some of these cancers is controversial, see text for details. Acute myelogenous leukaemia AML acute myeloblastic leukaemia acute myelomonocytic leukaemia Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma NHL lymphosarcoma Note The terms acute and chronic do not refer to the duration of disease but to the degree of cell differentiation, i.e., little or none and well differentiated, respectively. Some mortality studies on benzene exposure have identified individuals with lung cancer Aksoy, 1985 Yin...