The IARC has concluded that there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of 1,1,1-TCE either in humans or in experimental animals (IARC, 1999). 1,1,1-TCE is therefore classed in IARC Group 3 and is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity in humans.

The results from a cohort study of workers exposed to 1,1,1-TCE in Finland indicated an increased risk for central nervous system cancer (not specified) and multiple myeloma. These findings were not confirmed by two case control studies carried out in the United States and Canada, however an increased risk for cancer of the lung and kidney was shown in the Canadian study (IARC, 1999).

In a carcinogenicity study, rats and mice were orally administered 1,1,1-TCE in two different dose levels, five days a week for 78 weeks. Both male and female test animals exhibited early mortality compared with untreated controls, and a variety of neoplasms were found in both treated animals and controls. Although rats of both sexes demonstrated a positive dose-related trend, no relationship was established between the dosage group and the species, sex, type of neoplasm or sites of occurrence (National Cancer Institute, 1977).

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