Metabolic interactions

• Enzyme inducers

Animal studies have shown that phenobarbital (an enzyme inducer) enhances the liver toxicity of chloroform. Pretreatment with ethanol did not influence the potentiating effect of phenobarbital (Cornish et al., 1977).

Animal studies have shown that ethanol potentiates the liver toxicity of chloroform (Klassen et al., 1966; Klassen et al., 1967). Another study found no potentiation but this may have been because the doses of ethanol used were too small (Cornish et al., 1977).

• n-Hexane n-Hexane can potentiate the hepato- and nephrotoxicity of chloroform in animals (Hewitt et al., 1980).

Toxicology of Solvents • Methyl ethyl ketone

Methyl ethyl ketone has been show to potentiate the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of chloroform in rats. The extent of liver and renal injury was dose related, but at the highest dose there was a reduction in the degree of potentiation. The mechanism of potentiation is unknown, but at high doses ketones may reduce the metabolism of chloroform and so reduce toxicity. Alternatively, high doses of ketones may damage the cells in such a way as to reduce the toxicity of chloroform (Brown and Hewitt, 1984).

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