References

Abu Al Ragheb S, Salhab AS, Amr SS. 1986 Suicide by xylene ingestion. A case report and review of literature. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 7 (4):327-329.

ACGIH. 2000 Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Limits. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.

Amoore JE, Hautala E. 1983 Odor as an aid to chemical safety: odor thresholds compared with threshold limit values and volatilities for 214 industrial chemicals in air and water dilution. J Appl Toxicol 3 (6):272-290.

Angerer J, Wulf H. 1985 Occupational chronic exposure to organic solvents XI. Alkylbenzene exposure of varnish workers: effects on hematopoietic system. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 56:307-321.

Anshelm Olson B, Gamberale F, Iregren A. 1985 Co-exposure to toluene and p-xylene in man: central nervous functions. Br J Ind Med 42:117-122.

Arthur LJH, Curnock DA. 1982 Xylene-induced epilepsy following innocent glue sniffing [letter]. Br Med J 284:1787.

Astrand I, Engström J, Övrum P. 1978 Exposure to xylene and ethylbenzene I: Uptake, distribution and elimination in man. Scand J Work Environ Health 4:185-194.

Bakinson MA, Jones RD. 1985 Gassings due to methylene chloride, xylene, toluene, and styrene reported to Her Majesty's Factory Inspectorate 1961-80. Br J Ind Med 42:184-190.

Barlow SM, Sullivan FM. 1982 Reproductive Hazards of Industrial Chemicals. An evaluation of animal and human data. Academic Press, London.

Campbell L, Wilson HK, Samuel AM, Gompertz D. 1988 Interactions of m-xylene and aspirin metabolism in man. Br J Ind Med 45:127-132.

Caperos JR, Fernandez JG. 1977 Simultaneous determination of toluene and xylene metabolites in urine by gas chromatography. Br J Ind Med 34:229-233.

Carpenter CP, Kinkead ER, Geary DL Jr, Sullivan LJ, King JM. 1975 Petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity studies. V. Animal and human responses to vapors of mixed xylenes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 33:543-558.

Cohr K-H, Skokholm J. 1979 Toluene. A toxicologic review. Scan J Work Environ Health 5 (2):71-90.

Dean BJ. 1985 Recent findings on the genetic toxicology of benzene, toluene and xylene. Mutat Res 154:153-181.

ECETOC (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals). 1986 Xylenes. Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals No. 6.

Engström K, Husman K, Riihimäki V. 1977 Percutaneous absorption of m-xylene in man. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 39:181-189.

Engström J, Bjurström R. 1978 Exposure to xylene and ethylbenzene II: Concentration in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Scand J Work Environ Health 4:195-203.

Engström K, Husman K, Pfäffli P, Riihimäki V. 1978 Evaluation of occupational exposure to xylene by blood, exhaled air and urine analysis. Scand J Work Environ Health 4:114-121.

Engström J, Riihimäki V. 1979 Distribution of m-xylene to subcutaneous adipose tissue in short-term experimental human exposure. Scand J Work Environ Health 5:126-134.

Engström K, Riihimäki V, Laine A. 1984 Urinary deposition of ethylbenzene and m-xylene in man following separate and combined exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 54:355-363.

Fishbein L. 1985 An overview of environmental and toxicological aspects of aromatic hydrocarbons. III Xylene. Sci Totol Environ 43:165-183.

Gamberale F, Annwall G, Hultengren M. 1978 Exposure to xylene and ethylbenzene III: Effects on central nervous functions. Scand J Work Environ Health 4:204-211.

Gerade HW. 1960 Toxicology and Biochemistry of Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Gerner-Schmit P, Friedrich U. 1978 The mutagenic effects of benzene, toluene and xylene studied by the SCE technique. Mutat Res 58:313-316.

Glass WI. 1961 A case of suspected xylol poisoning. NZ J Med 60:113.

Grant WM, Schuman, JH. 1993 Toxicology of the Eye, 4th edition. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.

Gusev IS. 1965. Reflective effects of microconcentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene and their comparative assessment. Hyg Sanit 30:331-336.

Haglund U, Lundberg I, Zech L. 1980 Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in Swedish paint industry workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 6:291-298.

Harbison RD. 1998 Aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Hamilton and Hardy's Industrial Toxicology, fifth edition. Harbison RD (editor). Mosby, St Louis.

Hipolito RN. 1980 Xylene poisoning in laboratory workers: case reports and discussion. Lab Med 11:593-595.

Holmberg PC. 1979 Central-nervous-system defects in children born to mothers exposed to organic solvents during pregnancy. Lancet 2:177-179.

Hood RD, Ottley MS. 1985 Development effects associated with exposure to xylene: a review. Drug Chem Toxicol 8 (4):281-297.

IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 1999 Re-evaluation of Some Organic Chemicals, Hydrazine and Hydrogen Peroxide. IARC Monograph 71, p 1189.

Inoue O, Seiji K, Kawai T, Watanabe T, Jin C, Cai S-X, Chen Z, Qu Q-S, Zhang T, Ikeda M. 1993 Excretion of methylhippuric acids in urine of workers exposed to a xylene mixture: comparison among three xylene isomers and toluene. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 64:533-539.

IPCS. 1997 Environmental Health Criteria 190. Xylenes. World Health Organization, International Programme on Chemical Safety, Geneva.

Jang J-Y, Droz PO, Berode M. 1997 Ethnic differences in biological monitoring of several organic solvents I. Human exposure experiment. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 69:343-349.

Kaneko T, Koizumi T, Takezaki T, Sato A. 1992 Urinary calculi associated with solvent abuse. J Urol 147:1365-1366.

Kawai T, Mizunuma K, Yasgui T, Horiguchi S, Uchida Y, Iwami O, Iguchi H, Ikeda M. 1991 Urinary methylhippuric isomer levels after occupational exposure to a xylene mixture. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 63:69-75.

Kim SK, Kim YC. 1996 Effect of a single administration of benzene, toluene or m-xylene on carboxyhaemoglobin elevation and metabolism in rats. J Appl Toxicol 16(5):437-444.

Klaucke DN, Johansen M, Vogt RL. 1982 An outbreak of xylene intoxication in a hospital. Am J Ind Med 3:173-178.

Krämer A, Linnert M, Wrbitsky R, Angerer J. 1999 Occupational chronic exposure to organic solvents XVII. Ambient and biological monitoring of workers exposed to xylenes. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 72:52-55.

Kroeger RM, Moore RJ, Lehman TH, Giesy JG, Skeeters CE. 1980 Recurrent urinary calculi associated with toluene sniffing. J Urol 123:89-91.

Laine A, Savolainen K, Riihimäki V, Matikainen E, Salmi T, Juntunen J. 1993 Acute effects of m-xylene inhalation on body sway, reaction times, and sleep in man. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 65:197-188.

Lange A, Smolik R, Zatonski W, Szymanska J. 1973 Serum immunoglobulin levels in workers exposed to benzene, toluene and xylene. Int Arch Arbeitsmed 31:37-44.

Lauwerys RR, Dath T, Lachapelle J-M, Buchet J-P, Roels H. 1978 The influence of two barrier creams on the percutaneous absorption of m-xylene in man. J Occup Med 20 (1):17-20.

Liira J, Riihimäki V, Engström K, Pfäffli P. 1988 Coexposure of man to m-xylene and methyl ethyl ketone. Kinetics and metabolism. Scand J Work Environ Health 14 (5):322-327.

Low LK, Meeks JR, Mackerer CR. 1989 Health effects of the alkylbenzenes. II. Xylenes. Toxicol Ind Health 5 (1):85-97.

Lundberg I, Sollenberg J. 1986 Correlation of xylene exposure and methyl hippuric acid excretion in urine among paint industry workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 12:149-153.

Matthäus W. 1964 Beitrag zur Hornhauterkrankung von Oberflächenbearbeitern in der Möbelindustrie [Report of corneal disturbance of finish-workers in the furniture industry]. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 144:713-717.

Miller MJ, Edwards JW. 1999 Possible preferential metabolism of xylene isomers following occupational exposure to mixed xylenes. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 72:89-97.

Morley R, Eccleston DW, Douglas CP, Greville WEJ, Scott DJ, Anderson J. 1970 Xylene poisoning: a report on one fatal case and two cases of recovery after prolonged unconsciousness. Br Med J 3:442-443.

Ogata M, Tomokuni K, Takatsuka Y. 1970 Urinary excretion of hippuric acid and m- or p-methylhippuric acid in the urine of persons exposed to vapours of toluene and m- or p-xylene as a test of exposure. Br J Ind Med 27:43-50.

Palmer KT, Rycroft RJG. 1993 Occupational airborne contact urticaria due to xylene. Contact Dermatitis 28:44.

Pap M, Varga C. 1987 Sister-chromatid exchanges in peripheral lymphocytes of workers occupationally exposed to xylenes. Mutat Res 187:223-225.

Richer C-L, Chakrabarti S, Senecal-Quevillon M, Duhr MA, Zhang XX, Tardif R. 1993 Cytogenetic effects of low-level exposure to toluene, xylene and their mixture on human blood lymphocytes. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 64:581-585.

Riihimäki V, Pfäffli P, Savolainen K, Pekari K. 1979 Kinetics of m-xylene in man. General features of absorption, distribution, biotransformation and excretion in repetitive inhalation exposure. Scand J Work Environ Health 5:217-231.

Riihimäki V, Savolainen K. 1980 Human exposure to m-xylene, kinetics and acute effects on the central nervous system. Ann Occup Med 23:411-422.

Riihimäki V, Savolainen K, Pfäffli P, Pekari K, Sippel HW, Laine A. 1982 Metabolic interaction between m-xylene and ethanol. Arch Toxicol 49:253-263.

Riihimäki V, Hänninen O. 1987 Xylenes. In: Ethel Browning's Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents, 2nd edition, Volume 1: Hydrocarbons. R Snyder (editor). Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Roberts FP, Lucas EG, Marsden CD, Trauer T. 1988 Near-pure xylene causing reversible neuropsychiatric disturbance [letter]. Lancet 2:273.

Rosengren LE, Kiellstrand P, Aurell A, Haglid KG. 1986 Irreversible effects of xylene on the brain after long term exposure: a quantitative study of DNA and the glial cell marker proteins S-100 and GFA. Neurotoxicology 7 (3):121-136.

Ruijten MWMM, Hooisma J, Brons JT, Habets CEP, Emmen HH, Muijser H. 1994 Neurobehavioral effects of long-term exposure to xylene and mixed organic solvents in shipyard spray painters. Neurotoxicology 15 (3):613-620.

Ruth JH. 1986 Odor threshold and irritation levels of several chemical substances: a review. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 47:A142-A151.

Sarmiento Martinez J, Guardiola Sala JJ, Campana Casals E. 1989 Renal tubular acidosis with an elevated anion gap in a 'glue sniffer'. Hum Toxicol 8:139-140.

Savolainen K, Vainio H, Helojoki M, Elovaara E. 1978 Biochemical and toxicological effects of short-term, intermittent m-xylene inhalation exposure and combined ethanol intake. Arch Toxicol 41:195-205.

Savolainen K, Riihimäki V, Seppäläinen AM, Linnoila M. 1980 Effects of short-term m-xylene exposure and physical exercise on the central nervous system. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 45:105-121.

Savolainen K, Riihimäki V, Laine A, Kekoni J. 1982 Short-term exposure of human subjects to m-xylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Arch Toxicol 5:96-99.

Savolainen K, Kekoni J, Riihimäki V, Laine A. 1984 Immediate effects of m-xylene on the human central nervous system. Arch Toxicol 7:412-417.

Schmid E. 1956 Die Augenhornhauterkrankung der Möbelpolierer [Corneal damage due to furniture polishes]. Arch Gewerbepathol Gewerbehgy 15:37-44.

Sedivec V, Flek J. 1976 The absorption, metabolism and excretion of xylenes in man. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 37:205-217.

Senczuk W, Orlowski J. 1978 Absorption of m-xylene vapours through the respiratory tract and excretion of m-methylhippuric acid in urine. Br J Ind Med 35:50-55.

Seppäläinen AM, Laine A, Salmi T, Verkkala E, Riihimäki V, Luukkonen R. 1991 Electroencephalographic findings during experimental human exposure to m-xylene. Arch Environ Health 46 (1):16-24.

Sevcik P, Hep A, Peslova M. 1992 Intravenous xylene poisoning. Intensive Care Med 18:377-378.

Sikora H, Gala J. 1967 Uszkodzenie miesnia sercowego w przebiegu ostrego zatrucia ksylenem [Damage of cardiac muscle in the course of acute xylene poisoning]. Med Pracy 18 (1):75-77

Smolik R, Grzybek-Hryncewicz K, Lange A, Zatonski W. 1973 Serum complement level in workers exposed to benzene, toluene and xylene. Int Arch Arbeitsmed 31:243-247.

Sukhanova VA, Makar'eva LM, Boiko VI. 1969 Investigation of functional properties of leukocytes of workers engaged in manufacture of xylene. Hyg Sanit 34:448-450.

Tardif R, Lapare S, Plaa GL, Brodeur J. 1991 Effects of simultaneous exposure to toluene and xylene on their respective biological exposure indices in humans. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 63:279-284.

Tardif R, Goyal R, Brodeur J. 1992 Assessment of occupational health risk from multiple exposure: review of industrial solvent interaction and implication for biological monitoring of exposure. Toxicol Ind Health 8 (1/2):37-52.

Tardif R, Lapare S, Krishnan K, Brodeur J. 1993 A descriptive and mechanistic study of the interaction between toluene and xylene in humans. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 65:S135-S137.

Tardif R, Sato A, Lapare S, Brodeur J. 1994 Ethanol induced modification of m-xylene toxicokinetics in humans. Occup Environ Med 51:187-191.

Taskinen H, Anttila A, Lindbohm M-L, Sallmen M, Hemminki K. 1989 Spontaneous abortions and congenital malformations among the wives of men occupationally exposed to organic solvents. Scand J Work Environ Health 15:345-352.

Taskinen H, Kyyrönen P, Hemminiki K, Hoikkala M, Lajunen K, Lindbohm M-L. 1994 Laboratory work and pregnancy outcome. J Occup Med 36 (3):311-319.

Toftgärd R, Nilsen OG. 1982 Effects of xylene and xylene isomers on cytochrome P-450 and in vitro enzymatic activities in rat liver, kidney and lung. Toxicology 23:197-212.

Toftgärd R, Halpert J, Gustafsson J-A. 1983 Xylene induces a cytochrome P-450 isozyme in rat liver similar to the major isozyme induced by phenobarbital. Mol Pharmacol 23:265-271.

Tomaszewski R, Gandurski P, Chmielewski J. 1978 Rytm wezlowy w zatruciu ksylenem [Nodal rhythm in xylene intoxication]. Wiad Lek 31 (3):193-194.

Uchida Y, Natasuka H, Ukai H, Watanabe T, Liu Y-T, Huang M-Y, Wang Y-L, Zhu F-Z, Yin H, Ikeda M. 1993 Symptoms and signs in workers exposed predominantly to xylenes. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 64:597-605.

Von Burg R. 1982 Xylene. J Appl Toxicol 2 (5):269-271.

Wolf MA, Rowe VK, McCollister DD, Hollingsworth RL, Oyen F. 1956 Toxicological studies of certain alkylated benzenes and benzene. Arch Ind Health 14:387-398.

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

This guide will help millions of people understand this condition so that they can take control of their lives and make informed decisions. The ebook covers information on a vast number of different types of neuropathy. In addition, it will be a useful resource for their families, caregivers, and health care providers.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment