References

ACGIH. 2000 Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Limits. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.

Aleguas A, Linakis JG, Lewander WJ. 1991 Bell's palsy associated with toluene exposure. Vet Hum Toxicol 33 (4):372.

Ameno K, Fuke C, Ameno S, Kiriu T, Sogo K, Ijiri I. 1989 A fatal case of oral ingestion of toluene. Forensic Sci Int 41:255-260.

Ameno K, Kiriu T, Fuke C, Ameno S, Shinohara T, Ijiri I. 1992 Regional brain distribution of toluene in rats and in a human autopsy. Arch Toxicol 66:153-156.

Amoore JE, Hautala E. 1983 Odor as an aid to chemical safety: odor thresholds compared with threshold limit values and volatilities for 214 industrial chemicals in air and water dilution. J Appl Toxicol 3 (6):272-290.

Angerer J, Krämer A. 1997 Occupational chronic exposure to organic solvents. XVI. Ambient and biological monitoring of workers exposed to toluene. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 69:91-96.

Anshelm Olson B, Gamberale F, Iregren A. 1985 Co-exposure to toluene and p-xylene in man: central nervous functions. Br J Ind Med 42:117-122.

Apostoli P, Brugnone F, Perbellini L, Cocheo V, Bellomo ML, Silvestri R. 1982 Biomonitoring of occupational toluene exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 50:153-168.

Arnold G, Kirby RS, Langendoerfer S, Wilkins-Haug L. 1994 Toluene embryopathy: clinical delineation and development follow-up. Pediatrics 93 (2):216-220.

Astrand I, Ehrner-Samuel H, Kilbom A, Övrum P. 1972 Toluene exposure I: Concentration in alveolar air and blood at rest and during exercise. Work Environ Health 9:119-130.

Ästrand I. 1975 Uptake of solvents in the blood and tissues of man. Scand J Work Environ Health 1:199-218.

Baelum J, Lundqvist GR, Molhave L, Andersen NT. 1990 Human response to varying concentrations of toluene. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 62:65-71.

Baelum J, Molhave L, Hansen ST, Dossing M. 1993 Hepatic metabolism of toluene after gastrointestinal uptake in humans. Scand J Work Environ Health 19:55-62.

Bakinson MA, Jones RD. 1985 Gassings due to methylene chloride, xylene, toluene, and styrene reported to Her Majesty's Factory Inspectorate 1961-80. Br J Ind Med 42:184-190.

Barlow SM, Sullivan FM. 1982 Reproductive Hazards of Industrial Chemicals. An evaluation of animal and human data. Academic Press, London.

Batlle DC, Sabatini S, Kurtzman NA. 1988 On the mechanism of toluene-induced renal tubular acidosis. Nephron 49:210-218.

Bauchinger M, Schmid E, Dresp J, Kolin-Gerresheim J, Hauf R, Suhr E. 1982 Chromosome changes in lymphocytes after occupational exposure to toluene. Mutat Res 102:439-445.

Benignus VA. 1981a Health effects of toluene: a review. Neurotoxicology 2:567-588.

Benignus VA. 1981b Neurobehavioral effects of toluene: a review. Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol 3:407-415.

Bennett RH, Forman HR. 1980 Hypokalaemic periodic paralysis in chronic toluene exposure. Arch Neurol 37:673.

Biscaldi GP, Mingardi M, Pollini G, Moglia A, Bossi MC. 1981 Acute toluene poisoning. Electroneurophysiological and vestibular investigations. Toxicol Eur Res 3 (6):271-273.

Boewer C, Enderlain G, Wollgast U, Mawka S, Palowski H, Bliber R. 1988 Epidemiological study on the hepatotoxicity of occupational toluene exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 60:181-186.

Bosch X, Campistol JM, Montoliu J, Revert L. 1988 Myelofibrosis and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis associated with toluene poisoning. Hum Toxicol 7:357-361.

Brugnone F, Perbellini L, Grigolini L, Cazzadori A, Gaffuri E. 1976 Alveolar air and blood toluene concentration in rotogravure workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 38:45-54.

Brugnone F, Perbellini L, Apostoli P, Locatelli M, Mariotto P. 1983 Decline of blood and alveolar toluene concentration following two accidental human poisonings. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 53:157-165.

Brugnone F, de Rosa E, Perbellini L, Bartolucci GB. 1986 Toluene concentration in the blood and alveolar air of workers during the workshift and the morning after. Br J Ind Med 43:56-61.

Byrne A, Zibin T. 1991 Toluene-related psychosis. Br J Psychiatry 158:578.

Campbell L, Marsh DM, Wilson HK. 1987 Towards a biological monitoring strategy for toluene. Ann Occup Hyg 31 (2):121-133.

Caperos JR, Fernandez JG. 1977 Simultaneous determination of toluene and xylene metabolites in urine by gas chromatography. Br J Ind Med 34:229-233.

Carder JR, Fuerst RS. 1997 Myocardial infarction after toluene inhalation. Pediatr Emerg Care 13 (2):117-119.

Caravati EM, Bjerk PJ. 1997 Acute toluene ingestion toxicity [letter]. Ann Emerg Med 30 (6):838-839.

Carlisle EJF, Donnelly SM, Vasuvattakul S, Kamel KS, Tobe S, Halperin ML. 1991 Glue-sniffing and distal renal tubular acidosis: sticking to the facts. J Am Soc Nephrol 1 (8):1019-1027.

Carlsson A. 1982 Exposure to toluene. Uptake, distribution and elimination in man. Scand J Work Environ Health 8:43-55.

Cherry N, Hutchins H, Pace T, Waldron HA. 1985 Neurobehavioural effects of repeated occupational exposure to toluene and paint solvents. Br J Ind Med 42:291-300.

Cohr K-H, Stokholm J. 1979 Toluene. A toxicologic review. Scan J Work Environ Health 5 (2):71-90.

Cunningham SR, Dalzell GWN, McGirr P, Khan MM. 1987 Myocardial infarction and primary ventricular fibrillation after glue sniffing. Br Med J 294:739.

Dean BJ. 1985 Recent findings on the genetic toxicology of benzene, toluene and xylene. Mutat Res 154:153-181.

Deleu D, Hanssens Y. 2000 Cerebellar dysfunction in chronic toluene abuse: beneficial response to amantadine hydrochloride. Clin Toxicol 38 (1):37-41.

De Rosa E, Bartolucci GB, Sigon M, Callegaro R, Perbellini L, Brugnone F. 1987 Hippuric acid and ortho-cresol as biological indicators of occupational exposure to toluene. Am J Ind Med 11:529-537.

Echverria D, Fine L, Langolf G, Schork A, Sampaio C. 1989 Acute behavioural effects of toluene. Br J Ind Med 46:483-495.

Einav S, Amitai Y, Reichman J, Geber D. 1997 Bradycardia in toluene poisoning. Clin Toxicol 35 (3):295-298.

Foo SC, Jeyaratnam J, Koh D. 1990 Chronic neurobehavioural effects of toluene. Br J Ind Med 47:480-484.

Forni A, Pacifico E, Limonta A. 1971 Chromosome studies in workers exposed to benzene or toluene or both. Arch Environ Health 22:373-378.

Funes-Cravioto F, Zapata-Gayon C, Kolmodin-Hedman B, Lambert B, Lindsten J, Norberg E, Nordenskjöld M, Olin R, Swensson A. 1977 Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchange in workers in chemical laboratories and a rotoprinting factory and in children of women laboratory workers. Lancet 2:322-325.

Garriott JC, Foerster E, de la Garza F, Mendiola I, Curoe J. 1981 Measurement of toluene in blood and breath in cases of solvent abuse. Clin Toxicol 18 (4):471-479.

Gerarde HW. 1960 Toxicology and Biochemistry of Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Gerkin RD, LoVecchio F. 1998 Rapid reversal of life-threatening toluene-induced hypokalaemia with hemodialysis. J Emerg Med 16 (5):723-725.

Gerner-Schmit P, Friedrich U. 1978 The mutagenic effects of benzene, toluene and xylene studied by the SCE technique. Mutat Res 58:313-316.

Ghittori S, Imbriani M, Pezzagno G, Capodaglio E. 1987 The urinary concentration of solvents as a biological indicator of exposure: proposal for the biological equivalent exposure limit for nine solvents. Am Ind Hyg Assoc 48:786-790.

Gill R, Hatchett SE, Osselton ND, Wilson HK, Ramsey JD. 1988 Sample handling and storage for the quantitative analysis of volatile compounds in blood: the determination of toluene by headspace gas chromatography. J Anal Toxicol 12:141-146.

Goldbloom D, Chouinard G. 1985 Schizophreniform psychosis associated with chronic industrial toluene exposure: case report. J Clin Psychiatry 46:350-351.

Goodwin TM. 1988 Toluene abuse and renal tubular acidosis in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 71 (5):715-718.

Grant WM, Schuman, JH. 1993 Toxicology of the Eye, fourth edition. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.

Gupta RK, van der Meulen J, Johny KV. 1991 Oliguric acute renal failure due to glue-sniffing. Scand J Urol 25:247-250.

Gusev IS. 1965. Reflective effects of microconcentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene and their comparative assessment. Hyg Sanit 30:331-336.

Guzelian P, Mills S, Fallon HJ. 1988 Liver structure and function in print workers exposed to toluene. J Occup Med 30 (10):791-796.

Haglund U, Lundberg I, Zech L. 1980 Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in Swedish paint industry workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 6:291-298.

Harbison RD. 1998 Aromatic hydrocarbons. in Hamilton and Hardy's Industrial Toxicology, fifth edition. Harbison RD (editor). Mosby, St Louis.

Hayden JW, Peterson RG, Bruckner JV. 1977 Toxicology of toluene (methylbenzene): review of current literature. Clin Toxicol 11 (5):549-559.

Hersh JH, Podruch PE, Rogers G, Weisskopf B. 1985 Toluene embryopathy. J Pediatr 106 (6):922-927.

Hobara T, Okuda M, Gotoh M, Oki K, Segawa H, Kunitsugu I. 2000 Estimation of lethal toluene concentration from the accidental death of painting workers. Ind Health 38:228-231.

Holmberg PC. 1979 Central-nervous-system defects in children born to mothers exposed to organic solvents during pregnancy. Lancet 2:177-179.

Hong J-J, Lin J-L, Wu M-S, Huang C-C, Verberckmoes R. 1996 A chronic glue sniffer with hyperchloremia, metabolic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis, irreversible quadriplegia, central pontine myelinolysis, and hypothyroidism. Nephrol Dial Tranplant 11:1848-1849.

Hormes JT, Filley CM, Rosenberg NL. 1986 Neurological sequelae of chronic solvent abuse. Neurology 36:698-702.

Hunnewell J, Miller NR. 1998 Bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia related to chronic toluene abuse. J Neuro-Ophthalmol 18 (4):277-280.

Hussain TF, Heidenreich PA, Benowitz N. 1996 Recurrent non-Q-wave myocardial infarction associated with toluene abuse. Am Heart J 131 (3):65-616.

IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 1999 Re-evaluation of Some Organic Chemicals, Hydrazine and Hydrogen Peroxide. IARC Monograph 71.

Ikeda N, Takahashi H, Umetsu K, Suzuki T. 1990 The course of respiration and circulation in 'toluene-sniffing'. Forensic Sci Int 44:151-158.

Inoue O, Seiji K, Watanabe T, Kasahara M, Nakatsuka H, Yin S, Li G, Cai S, Jin C, Ikeda M. 1988 Mutual metabolic suppression between benzene and toluene in man. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 60:15-20.

IPCS. 1985 Environmental Health Criteria 52: Toluene. World Health Organization, International Programme on Chemical Safety, Geneva.

Jones HE, Balster RL. 1997 Neurobehavioral consequences of intermittent prenatal exposure to high concentrations of toluene. Neurotoxicol Teratol 19 (4):305-313.

Kamijima M, Nakazawa Y, Yamakawa M, Shibata E, Hisanaga E, Ono Y, Toida M, Takeuchi Y. 1994 Metabolic acidosis and renal tubular injury due to pure toluene inhalation. Arch Environ Health 49 (5):410- 413.

Kamijo Y, Soma K, Hasegawa I, Ohwada T. 1998 Fatal bilateral adrenal hemorrhage following acute toluene poisoning: a case report. Clin Toxicol 36 (4):365-368.

Kao K-C, Tsai Y-H, Lin M-C, Huang C-C, Tsao C-Y, Chen Y-C. 2000 Hypokalemic muscular paralysis causing acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis with renal tubular acidosis in a chronic glue sniffer. Clin Toxicol 38 (67):679-681.

Kawai T, Mizunuma K, Yasugi T, Horiguchi S, Ikeda M. 1994 Toluene in blood as a marker of choice for low-level exposure to toluene. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 66:309-313.

Kawamoto TK, Matsuno Y, Kodama Y, Murata K, Matsuda S. 1994 ALDH2 polymorphism and biological monitoring of toluene. Arch Environ Health 49 (5):332-336.

Keane JR. 1978 Toluene optic neuropathy. Ann Neurol 4 (4):390.

King MD. 1982 Neurological sequelae of toluene abuse. Hum Toxicol 1:281-287.

Kira S. 1977 Measurement by gas chromatography of urinary hippuric acid and methylhippuric acid as indices of toluene and xylene exposure. Br J Ind Med 34:305-309.

Kirk LM, Anderson RJ, Martin K. 1984 Sudden death from toluene abuse. Ann Emerg Med 13:68-69.

Kim SK, Kim YC. 1996 Effect of a single administration of benzene, toluene or m-xylene on carboxyhaemoglobin elevation and metabolism in rats. J Appl Toxicol 16(5):437-444.

Knight AT, Pawsey CGK, Aroney RS, Lawrence JR, Jones DB, Newland RC. 1991 Upholsters' glue associated with myocarditis, hepatitis, acute renal failure and lymphoma. Med J Aust 154 940:360-362.

Kroeger RM, Moore RJ, Lehman TH, Giesy JG, Skeeters CE. 1980 Recurrent urinary calculi associated with toluene sniffing. J Urol 123:89-91.

Lange A, Smolik R, Zatoüski W, Szymahska J. 1973 Serum immunoglobulin levels in workers exposed to benzene, toluene and xylene. Int Arch Arbeitsmed 31:37-44.

Larsen F, Leira HL. 1988 Organic brain syndrome and long-term exposure to toluene: a clinical psychiatric study of vocationally active printing workers. J Occup Med 30 (11):875-878.

Lavoie FW, Dolan MC, Danzi DF, Barber RL. 1987 Recurrent resuscitation and 'no code' orders in a 27 year old spray paint abuser. Ann Emerg Med 16:1266-1273.

Lazar RB, Ho SU, Melen O, Daghestani AN. 1983 Multifocal central nervous system damage caused by toluene abuse. Neurology 33:1337-1340.

Lewis JD, Moritz D, Mellis LP. 1981 Long-term toluene abuse. Am J Psychiatry 138 (3):368-370.

Löf A, Wigaeus Hjelm E, Collmsjö A, Lundmark B-O, Norström A, Sato A. 1993 Toxicokinetics of toluene and urinary excretion of hippuric acid after human exposure to 2H8-toluene. Br J Ind Med 50:55-59.

Low LK, Meeks JR, Mackerer CR. 1988 Health effects of the alkylbenzenes. I. Toluene. Toxicol Ind Health 4 (1):49-75.

Luderer U, Morgan MS, Brodkin CA, Kalman DA, Faustman EA. 1999 Reproductive endocrine effects of acute exposure to toluene in men and women. Occup Environ Med 56:657-666.

Maas EF, Ashe J, Spiegel P, Zee DS, Leigh RJ. 1991 Acquired pendular nystagmus in toluene addiction. Neurology 41:282-285.

Mäki-Paakkanen J, Husgafvel-Pursiainen K, Kalliomäki P-L, Tuominen J, Sorsa M. 1980 Toluene-exposed workers and chromosome aberrations. J Toxicol Environ Health 6:775-781.

McDonald JC, Lavoie J, Côté R, McDonald AD. 1987 Chemical exposures at work in early pregnancy and congenital defect: a case-referent study. Br J Ind Med 44:527-533.

McGregor D. 1994 The genetic toxicology of toluene. Mutat Res 317:213-228.

Meulenbelt J, de Groot G, Savelkoul TJF. 1990 Two cases of acute toluene intoxication. Br J Ind Med 47:417-420.

Monster AC, Kezic S, van de Gevel I, de Wolff FA. 1993 Evaluation of biological monitoring parameters for occupational exposure to toluene. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 65:S159-S162.

Morata TC, Nylen P, Johnson A-C, Dunn DE. 1995 Auditory and vestibular functions after single or combined exposure to toluene: a review. Arch Toxicol 69:431-443.

Moss AH, Gabow PA, Kaehny WD, Goodman SI, Haut LL, Haussler MR. 1980 Fanconi's syndrome and distal renal tubular acidosis after glue sniffing. Ann Intern Med 92:69-70.

Murata M, Tsujikawa M, Kawanishi S. 1999 Oxidative DNA damage by minor metabolites of toluene may lead to carcinogenesis and reproductive dysfunction. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 261:478-483.

Muttray A, Wolters V, Jung D, Konietzko J. 1999 Effects of high doses of toluene on color vision. Neurotoxicol Teratol 21 (1):41-45.

Nakatsuka H, Watanabe T, Takeuchi Y, Hisanaga N, Shibata E, Suzuki H, Huang M-Y, Chen Z, Qu Q-S, Ikeda M. 1992 Absence of blue-yellow colour vision loss among workers exposed to toluene or tetrachloroethylene mostly at levels below occupational exposure limits. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 64:113-117.

Ng TP, Ong SG, Lam WK, Jones MG, Cheung CK, Ong CN. 1990 Urinary levels of proteins and metabolites in workers exposed to toluene. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 62:43-46.

Ng TP, Foo SC, Yoong T. 1992a Menstrual function in workers exposed to toluene. Br J Ind Med 49:799-803.

Ng TP, Foo SC, Yoong T. 1992b Risk of spontaneous abortion in workers exposed to toluene. Br J Ind Med 49:804-808.

Nise G, Attewell R, Skerfving S, Orb^k P. 1989 Elimination of toluene from venous blood and adipose tissue after occupational exposure. Br J Ind Med 46:407-411.

Nise G. 1992 Urinary excretion of o-cresol and hippuric acid after toluene exposure in rotogravure printing. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 63:377-381.

Nomiyama K, Nomiyama H. 1974 Respiratory elimination of organic solvents in man. Int Arch Arbeitsmed 32:85-91.

O'Brien ET, Yeoman WB, Hobby JAE. 1971 Hepatorenal damage from toluene in a 'glue sniffer'. Br Med J 2:29-30.

Ogata M, Tomokuni K, Takatsuka Y. 1970 Urinary excretion of hippuric acid and m- or p-methylhippuric acid in the urine of persons exposed to vapours of toluene and m- or p-xylene as a test of exposure. Br J Ind Med 27:43-50.

Övrum P, Hultengren M, Lindqvist T. 1978 Exposure to toluene in a photogravure printing plant. Concentration in ambient air and uptake in the body. Scand J Work Environ Health 4:237-245.

Patel R, Benjamin J. 1986 Renal disease associated with toluene inhalation. Clin Toxicol 24 (3):213-223.

Pearson MA, Hoyme HE, Seaver LH, Rimsza ME. 1994 Toluene embryopathy: delineation of the phenotype and comparison with fetal alcohol syndrome. Pediatrics 93 (2):211-215.

Pekari K, Riekkola M-L, Aitio A. 1989 Simultaneous determination of benzene and toluene in the blood using headspace gas chromatography. J Chromatog 491:309-320.

Pitarque M, Vaglenov A, Nosko M, Hirvonen A, Norppa H, Creus A, Marcos R. 1999 Evaluation of DNA damage by the Comet assay in shoe workers exposed to toluene and other organic solvents. Mutat Res 441:115-127.

Plenge-Bönig A, Karmaus W. 1999 Exposure to toluene in the printing industry is associated with subfecundity in women but not in men. Occup Environ Med 56:445-448.

Pyykkö K, Tähti H, Vapaatalo H. 1977 Toluene concentrations in various tissues of rats after inhalation and oral administration. Arch Toxicol 38:169-176.

Reisin E, Teicher A, Jaffe R, Eliahou HE. 1975 Myoglobinuria and renal failure in toluene poisoning. Br J Ind Med 32:163-168.

Richer C-L, Chakrabarti S, Senecal-Quevillon M, Duhr MA, Zhang XX, Tardif R. 1993 Cytogenetic effects of low-level exposure to toluene, xylene and their mixture on human blood lymphocytes. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 64:581-585.

Rosenberg NL, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, Davis KA, Dreisbach JN, Hormes JT, Filley CM. 1988 Toluene abuse causes diffuse central nervous system white matter changes. Ann Neurol 23:611-614.

Ruth JH. 1986 Odor threshold and irritation levels of several chemical substances: a review. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 47:A142-A151.

Ryu YH, Lee JD, Yoon PH, Jeon P, Kim DI, Shin DW. 1998 Cerebral perfusion impairment in a patient with toluene abuse. J Nucl Med 39 (4):632-633.

Saito K, Wada H. 1993 Behavioral approaches to toluene intoxication. Environ Res 62:53-62.

Sato A, Nakajima T. 1978 Differences following skin or inhalation exposure in the absorption and excretion kinetics of trichloroethylene and toluene. Br J Ind Med 35:43-49.

Sato A, Nakajima T. 1979 Dose-dependent metabolic interaction between benzene and toluene in vivo and in vitro. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 48:249-256.

Shibata K, Yoshita Y, Matsumoto H. 1994 Extensive chemical burns from toluene. Am J Emerg Med 12:353-355.

Smolik R, Grzybek-Hryncewicz K, Lange A, Zatoiiski W. 1973 Serum complement level in workers exposed to benzene, toluene and xylene. Int Arch Arbeitsmed 31:243-247.

Streicher HZ, Gabow PA, Moss AH, Kono D, Kaehny WD. 1981 Syndromes of toluene sniffing in adults. Ann Intern Med 94:758-762.

Svensson BG, Nise G, Englander V, Attewell R, Skerfving S, Möller T. 1990 Deaths and tumours among rotogravure printers exposed to toluene. Br J Ind Med 47:372-379.

Svensson BG, Nise G, Erfurth EM, Olsson H. 1992a Neuroendocrine effects in printing workers exposed to toluene. Br J Ind Med 49:402-408.

Svensson BG, Nise G, Erfurth E-M, Nilsson A, Skerfving S. 1992b Hormone status in occupational toluene exposure. Am J Ind 22:99-107.

Suzuki T, Kasmiura S, Umetsu K. 1983 Thinner abuse and aspermia. Med Sci Law 23 (3):199-202.

Taher SM, Anderson RJ, McCartney R, Popovtzer MM, Schrier RW. 1974 Renal tubular acidosis associated with toluene 'sniffing'. N Engl J Med 290 (14):765-768.

Takeichi S, Yamada T, Shikata I. 1986 Acute toluene poisoning during painting. Forensic Sci Int 32:109-115.

Tan WP, Seow E. 1997 Case reports on acute toluene poisoning during parquet flooring. Ann Acad Med Singapore 26:138-140.

Tardif R, Lapare S, Plaa GL, Brodeur J. 1991 Effects of simultaneous exposure to toluene and xylene on their respective biological exposure indices in humans. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 63:279284.

Tardif R, Goyal R, Brodeur J. 1992 Assessment of occupational health risk from multiple exposure: review of industrial solvent interaction and implication for biological monitoring of exposure. Toxicol Ind Health 8 (1/2):37-52.

Tardif R, Lapare S, Krishnan K, Brodeur J. 1993 A descriptive and mechanistic study of the interaction between toluene and xylene in humans. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 65:S135-S137.

Tarsh MJ. 1979 Schizophreniform psychosis caused by sniffing toluene. J Soc Occup Med 29:131-133.

Taskinen H, Anttila A, Lindbohm M-L, Sallmen M, Hemminki K. 1989 Spontaneous abortions and congenital malformations among the wives of men occupationally exposed to organic solvents. Scand J Work Environ Health 15:345-352.

Taskinen H, Kyyrönen P, Hemminki K, Hoikkala M, Lajunen K, Lindbohm M-L. 1994 Laboratory work and pregnancy outcome. J Occup Med 36 (3):311-319.

Taverner D, Harrison DJ, Bell GM. 1988 Acute renal failure due to interstitial nephritis induced by 'glue-sniffing' with subsequent recovery. Scot Med J 33:246-247.

Teelucksingh S, Steer CR, Thompson CJ, Seckl JR, Douglas NJ, Edwards CRW. 1991 Hypothalamic syndrome and central sleep apnoea associated with toluene exposure. Q J Med 78 (286):185-190.

Toutman C, Lippmann S. 1979 Fetal solvents syndrome. Lancet 1:1356.

Truchon G, Tardif R, Brodeur J. 1996 Gas chromatograph determination of urinary o-cresol for the monitoring of toluene exposure. J Anal Toxicol 20:309-312.

Ukai H, Watanabe T, Nakatsuka H, Satoh T, Liu SJ, Qiao X, Yin H, Jin C, Li G-L, Ikeda M. 1993 Dose-dependent increase in subjective symptoms among toluene-exposed workers. Environ Res 60:274-289.

Urban P, Lukas E. 1990 Visual evoked potentials in rotogravure printers exposed to toluene. Br J Ind Med 47:819-823.

Veulemans H, Masschelein R. 1978a Experimental human exposure to toluene. I. Factors influencing the individual respiratory uptake and elimination. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 42:91-103.

Veulemans H, Masschelein R. 1978b Experimental human exposure to toluene. II. Toluene in venous blood during and after exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 42:105-117.

Von Burg R. 1993 Toluene. J Appl Toxicol 13 (6):441-446.

Vrca A, Boziccevic D, Karaccic V, Fuchs R, Prpicc-Majicc D, Malinar M. 1995 Visual evoked potentials in individuals exposed to long-term low concentrations of toluene. Arch Toxicol 69:337-340.

Wahlberg JE. 1984 Erythema-inducing effects of solvents following epicutaneous administration to man -studied by laser Doppler flowmetry. Scand J Work Environ Health 10:159-162.

Waldron HA, Cherry N, Johnston JD. 1983 The effects of ethanol on blood toluene concentrations. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 51:365-369.

Wallen M, Näslund PH, Byfält Nordqvist M. 1984 The effects of ethanol on the kinetics of toluene in man. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 76:414-419.

Weinstein S, Scottolini AG, Bhagvan NV. 1985 Low neutrophil alkaline phosphatase in renal tubular acidosis with hypophosphatemia after toluene sniffing. Clin Chem 31 (2):330-331.

Wiebelt H, Becker N. 1999 Mortality in a cohort of toluene exposed employees (rotogravure printing plant workers). J Occup Environ Med 41 (12):1134-1139.

Wilkins-Haug L, Gabow PA. 1991 Toluene abuse during pregnancy: obstetric complications and perinatal outcomes. Obstet Gynecol 77 (4):504-509.

Wilkins-Haug L. 1997 Teratogen update: toluene. Teratology 55:145-151.

Woiwode W, Wodarz R, Drysch K, Weichardt H. 1979 Metabolism of toluene in man: gas-chromatograph determination of o-, m- and p-cresol in urine. Arch Toxicol 43:93-98.

Wolf MA, Rowe VK, McCollister DD, Hollingsworth RL, Oyen F. 1956 Toxicological studies of certain alkylated benzenes and benzene. Arch Ind Health 14:387-398.

Yücesoy B, Yücel A, Erdem O, Bergaz S, Imir T, Karakaya AE, Karakaya A. 1999 Effects of occupational chronic co-exposure to n-hexane, toluene, and methyl ethyl ketone on NK cell activity and some immunoregulatory cytokine levels in shoe workers. Hum Exp Toxicol 18:541-546.

Zee-Cheng C-S, Mueller CE, Gibbs HR. 1985 Toluene sniffing and severe sinus bradycardia [letter]. Ann Intern Med 103 (3):482.

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

This guide will help millions of people understand this condition so that they can take control of their lives and make informed decisions. The ebook covers information on a vast number of different types of neuropathy. In addition, it will be a useful resource for their families, caregivers, and health care providers.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment