Risk Groups

Individuals with pre-existing liver damage may be more at risk of hepatotoxicity if exposed to DMF.

Cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 is involved in the biotransformation of many chemicals, including DMF. Several polymorphisms of CYP2E1 have been identified. In a study of DMF metabolism investigating the effect of the Pstl/Rsal polymorphism, there was no difference in the urinary concentration of NMF in c1 homozygotes (RsaI/RsaI), c2 heterozygotes (PstI/RsaI) or c2 homozygotes (PstI/PstI). The urinary half-life of NMF after respiratory exposure was slightly longer in the single c2 homozygote subject than in the other two groups. This may have been due to individual variation or a lower CYP2E1 expression. In view of the wide variation in the other groups, the former explanation is more likely (Nomiyama et al., 2001).

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