Chronic Bronchitis Ebook

Dealing With Bronchitis

Dealing With Bronchitis

If you're wanting to know more about dealing with bronchitis... Then this may be the most important letter you'll ever read! You are About To Read The Most Important Information That Is Available To You Today, You Will Achieve A Better Understanding About Bronchitis! It doesn't matter if you've never had bronchitis before or never known anyone who has, This guide will tell you everything you need to know, without spending too much brainpower!

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Relieve Your Bronchitis Cure

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Author: Richard Jones
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Developmental Effects

Skin lesions are commonly observed in children born to mothers with Yusho or Yu-Cheng exposure. The dermal changes are consistent with those observed in exposed adults (see Section 2.2.2.2) and include hyperpigmentation of the skin, nails and gingivae, deformed nails, conjunctivitis, and acne (Funatsu et al. 1971 Gladen et al. 1990 Hsu et al. 1985, 1993 Rogan et al. 1988 Taki et al. 1969 Yamaguchi et al. 1971 Yoshimura 1974). These effects generally diminished as the babies grew older. Eight of 39 hyperpigmented children born to Yu-Cheng-intoxicated mothers died perinatally due to pneumonia, bronchitis, and prematurity (Hsu et al. 1985). Decreased birth weight is another commonly reported effect of Yusho and Yu-Cheng exposure (Funatsu et al. 1971 Lan et al. 1987 Rogan 1989 Taki et al. 1969 Yamaguchi et al. 1971). A health survey of most (117) living children known to have been in utero during or after Yu-Cheng exposure found that mean birth weight was decreased 15 (Gladen et al. 1990...

Oxidative state of Cr and toxicity

Exposure to hexavalent Cr compounds has been consistently found to be associated with an elevated incidence of respiratory cancers and other adverse health effects.3-5 Squamous cell carcinoma is the most prevalent form of lung cancer among Cr(VI)-exposed workers.6 The genotoxic potential of Cr(VI) has been confirmed in animal experiments and in several cell-based assays6a7 Inhalation of Cr(VI)-containing acid mists in electroplating industry leads to nasal septum ulceration and perforation, as well as impaired lung function such as decreased vital capacity and forced expiratory vol-ume.8 Other health consequences of exposure to Cr(VI) include pulmonary fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and bronchial asthma.9 Ingestion of Cr(VI) can result in the irritation of mucous membranes and, in severe cases, intestinal bleeding. High doses of Cr(VI) cause renal tubular necrosis and can be lethal. Animal studies have also detected teratogenic activity of Cr(VI).9a Cr(VI) is the second most...

Physiological Effects and Toxicity

Pentavalent Transition State

Human vanadium poisoning symptoms are mainly restricted to the conjunctivae and respiratory system, renal and gastrointestinal irritation. Exposure can thus give rise to conjunctivitis, rhinitis, pulmonary inflammation resulting in bronchitis and asthma-like diseases, and dysfunctions of the digestive system. The limit value for immediate danger to health for an average human is about 7 mg V in the case of intravenous application, and 35 mg V m-3 in breathing air. The following compilation lists selected official exposure limits (MAC) and LD50 LC50 values. MAC refers to the maximum allowable concentration at the workplace (40-h week, 8-h time-weighted average). LD50 and LC50 indicate the level of a harmful substance (in mg per kg body weight) causing the death of 50 of the test animals by oral (LD) or inhalative (LC) administration, respectively.

Psychological Impacts of Oil Spills The Exxon Valdez Disaster

Because psychological stress can lead to physiological changes and increased risks for chronic diseases, Palinkas and colleagues examined the impact of the Exxon Valdez spill on physical health. As with the psychological outcomes, researchers found that more-exposed individuals reported more heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, thyroid problems, cancer, asthma, ulcers, bronchitis, chronic coughs, and skin rashes (Impact Assessment, Inc., 1990).

Illnesses Associated with Air Pollution Lung Diseases

The particulate and gaseous contaminants in polluted air may irritate the eyes and respiratory system or damage the clearance mechanism of the lungs, thereby increasing susceptibility to upper respiratory diseases and aggravating existing chronic illnesses. Diseases mentioned as also being associated with air pollution include bronchial asthma (restriction of the smaller airways or bronchioles and increase in mucous secretions), chronic bronchitis (excessive mucus and frequent cough), pulmonary emphysema (shortness of breath), lung cancer, heart diseases, and conjunctivitis (inflammation of the lids and coatings of the eyeballs) (also with lead and carbon monoxide poisoning as previously discussed). In an example of the built environment influencing health, one study found the higher prevalence of asthma in poor neighborhoods of Hartford, Connecticut, to be due in large part to a heavy burden of dust laden with cockroach antigen.73 Chronic bronchitis has many contributing factors,...

Identification of Data Needs

Most of the existing toxicity information for CDFs is available from intermediate duration studies of orally-exposed humans following Yusho and Yu-Cheng poisoning and animals. Dermal and ocular effects mild anemia mild and transient hepatic alterations, including increased serum levels of triglycerides and liver enzymes and related ultrastructural changes and bronchitis and other respiratory effects secondary to infection, were most consistently observed in the exposed humans (Kuratsune 1989 Rogan 1989). Although some estimates of doses associated with some effects of Yusho and Yu-Cheng exposure are available, these probably do not reflect the most sensitive toxic end points, as indicated by studies in rats, guinea pigs, and monkeys (Luster et al. 1979a, 1979b McNulty et al. 1981 Pluess et al. 1988a, 1988b Poiger et al. 1989). Some systemic effects of intermediate duration oral CDF exposure in animals are consistent with the effects observed in humans,...

Atsdr Minimal Risk Levels And Worksheets

Groups of mice (5), guinea pigs (2), rats (4), and rabbits (3) were exposed to vapors of HCCPD (0.13 ppm, 7 hours day, 5 days week, generated from 89.5 pure HCCPD) for 30 weeks. Following exposure, clinical signs and survival were monitored. Gross necropsy was performed. Pulmonary edema and bronchitis were reported in mice. Compound exposure was associated with pneumonia in rats and guinea pigs. Comparable effects were not seen in rabbits survival was not affected following compound exposure in rabbits, rats, and guinea pigs. On the other hand, mice were more sensitive to HCCPD toxicity, with death occurring in 4 of 5 mice.

Definitions

Toxicity, chronic condition An injury that persists because it is irreversible or progressive or because the rate of injury is greater than the rate of repair during a prolonged exposure period (cancer or liver damage). Conditions classified as chronic include major categories of chronic illnesses such as heart disease, hypertension, arthritis, diabetes, ulcers, bronchitis, and emphysema. Any condition lasting three months or more or one of certain conditions classified as chronic regardless of their time of onset.

Systemic Effects

Clinical observations strongly suggest that Yusho and Yu-Cheng patients experienced frequent or more severe respiratory infections (Kuratsune 1989 Rogan 1989). Chronic bronchitis accompanied by persistent cough and sputum production was observed in 40-50 of some examined patients, with symptoms gradually improving during 5-10 years following onset (Nakanishi et al. 1985 Shigematsu et al. 1971, 1977). Physical findings differed from those in usual bronchitis in that many nonsmokers showed no crackles and some showed wheezes without radiologic, physiologic, or immunologic evidence of bronchial asthma or pulmonary emphysema (Nakanishi et al. 1985 Shigematsu et al. 1971). Information on immune status in Yusho and Yu-Cheng patients is discussed in Section 2.2.2.3. The Yusho and Yu-Cheng data provide evidence that CDFs-induced bronchitis and related respiratory effects in humans. There is no evidence of pulmonary histological changes in animals exposed to single doses...