Worlds Best Compost

The Keys to a Great Compost

This informative eBook demonstrates the best ways to compost in order to improve your garden, make your vegetables and fruits taste better, and help save the soil and the environment. Over 20% of landfills are simply kitchen waste that could easily be recycled Why waste what you already produce? You have an easy source of organic health for your own garden at home, without having to spend large amounts of money in order to make really healthy soil. With today's composting technology, you can compost as much as suits your needs! If that is a little compost for a small home garden or a large plot that you grow food for your family or business, composting will be an easy and cheap way to improve the quality of your soil and thus your vegetables as well! This guide shows you every method of composting; from free methods you can do with no extra money all the way to elaborate by easy to set up composting rigs. Improve the environment, and get better tasting food!

The Keys to a Great Compost Summary

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Author: Duane Palmer
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Use of Compost to Overcome Biotic Disease Stress

This section of the chapter outlines the suppressive effects of a wide range of compost products against a range of diseases caused by a variety of pathogens. The most commonly studied pathogens and their suppression using compost products in container media or as soil amendments are discussed below. Fusarium is a soil-borne pathogenic fungus, which causes root rot, stem rot and Fusarium wilt of plants. Suppression of Fusarium using composts has been reported by several researchers (Punja et al. 2002). The severity of various diseases caused by Fusarium has been reduced between 20 and 90 using compost amendments. Microbial activity has been considered a key factor in suppression of Fusarium wilt (Cotxarrera et al. 2002) . Composts increased microbial populations (Cheuk et al. 2003), and microbial activity in composts and composted peat mixes increased by 50 (Cotxarrera et al. 2002) . Several microorganisms or biocontrol agents have been isolated from composts or shown to contribute to...

Potential 111 Health Effects among Compost Workers

Many of the micro-organisms found in dust generated during composting are known respiratory sensitisers. Fungi such as Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Cladosporium spp., Rhizopus spp. and Alternaria spp. are well known allergens28'51-53 while Gram-negative bacteria may also be a source of endotoxin.54 Inhalation of organic dust can cause a range of immunological respiratory symptoms which can be divided into four types of respiratory reaction as well as, very infrequently, infection.29'55-57 When a patient is sensitised to airborne allergens, exposure to those allergens can trigger the immunoglobulin E (IgE) pathway of the immune system causing allergic rhinitis (inflammation of the nasal passageways) or allergic asthma (upper respiratory tract broncho-constriction). Rhinitis and asthma frequently coexist in the same patient and both diseases are increasing in prevalence in the general population. Organic dust rhinitis and asthma are not caused by a single allergen present in the...

Issues in the Implementation of Composting Facilities

The principal issues associated with the use of the compost process are related to (1) the production of odors, (2) the presence of pathogens, (3) the presence of heavy metals, and (4) definition of what constitutes an acceptable compost. The blowing of papers and plastic materials is also a problem in windrow composting. Unless the questions related to these issues are resolved, composting may not be a viable technology in the future. Production of Odors Without proper control of the composting process, the production of odors can become a problem, especially in windrow composting. It is fair to say that every existing composting facility has had an odor event and in some cases numerous events. As a consequence, facility siting, process design, and biological odor management are of critical importance. Facility Siting Important issues in siting as related to the production and movement of odors include proper attention to local microclimates as they affect the dissipation of odors,...

The Vermicomposting Process

Composting is a controlled self-heating, aerobic solid phase biodegradative process of organic materials (Ryckeboer et al. 2003). The process comprises mesophilic and thermophilic phases involving numerous microorganisms. In several successive steps, microbial communities degrade organic substrates into more stable, humified forms and inorganic products, generating heat as a metabolic waste product (Mason 2006 Mohee and Mudhoo 2005 Mudhoo and Mohee 2006,2007,2008 Nakasaki et al. 2005 Richard et al. 2006 Ryckeboer et al. 2003). During composting, compounds containing carbon and nitrogen are transformed through successive activities of different microbes to more stable organic matter, which chemically and biologically resembles humic substances. The rate and extent of these transformations depend on available substrates and the process variables used to control composting (Gajalakshmi and Abbasi 2008) . Due to the complexity of substrates and intermediate products, microbial diversity...

Heavy Metals Biosorption by Vermicomposts

Humic Acid Metal Complexation

Composting performance Ability of the earthworms to survive, grow and breed in the vermireactors fed with composted mango tree leaves, and a rising trend in vermicast output inspite of the death of a few worms after 4 months of reactor operation, indicated the sustainability of this type of vermireactors. The studies also indicated that even better vermireactor efficiency could be possible by modifying the reactor geometry Composting performance Kitchen waste, Eiseniafoetida earthworm The increase in TKN for different feed substrates was found in the order textile sludge textile fibre institutional waste agro-residues kitchen waste. Available Phosphorus increased 1.4-6.5-fold in different feed mixtures in comparison to control. Reduction in TOC was highest in agro-residues (threefold) followed by kitchen waste (2.2-fold), institutional waste (1.7-fold) and textile industrial wastes (sludge. Vermicompost is a 'peat-like' material with high porosity, aeration, drainage, water holding...

Compost Process Design and Operational Considerations

The principal design considerations associated with the aerobic biological decomposition of prepared solid wastes are presented in Table 3.18. It can be concluded from this table that the preparation of a composting process is not a simple task, especially if optimum results are to be achieved. For this reason, most of the commercial composting operations that have been developed are highly mechanized and are carried out in specially designed facilities. Because of their importance, pathogen and odor control are considered further below. Additional details on the design and operation of compost processes may be found in Refs. 13 and 16. TABLE 3.18 Important Design Considerations for Aerobic Composting Process Initial C N ratios (by mass) between 25 and 50 are optimum for aerobic composting. At lower ratios ammonia is given off. Biological activity is also impeded at lower ratios. At higher ratios, nitrogen may be a limiting nutrient. Composting time can be reduced by seeding with...

Role of Compost to Combat Stresses

Compost amendment to soil is mostly considered as a way to improve the soil fertility and physical structure, as it helps in stabilization of the aggregated framework which may reduces erosion and runoff process (Bresson et al. 2001 Barzegar et al. 2002 Innerebner et al. 2006). Furthermore, it increases the amount of vital nutrients and soil organic carbon (Filcheva and Tsadilas 2002). Utilization of compost also stimulates the soil micro flora and fauna, particularly in degraded and arid environments (Ouedraogo et al. 2001 Ros et al. 2003). However, the response of the micro-bial community shows variation according to the nature of the organic amendments (Pascual et al. 1998 Garcia-Gil et al. 2000), and the level of compost application (Albiach et al. 2000 Garcia-Gil et al. 2000). The enriched compost carries millions of microorganisms, a tightly knitted soil food web, creating a natural immune system for the plants, acting as a natural predator against most of the known soil borne...

Role of Microbiologically Rich Compost in Reducing Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

Abstract Plant abiotic and biotic stress is related to unfavorable and environmental constraints. These stresses represent the principal cause of crop failure, decreasing average yields of major crops by more than 50 . Compost can be considered as a soil conditioner that contributes to soil fertility, structure, porosity, organic matter, water holding capacity and disease suppression. Composts suppress soil borne diseases and this suppression has been widely reported for Pythium spp., Phytophthora spp., Rhizoctonia spp. and Fusarium spp. Compost amendments also contribute to controlling foliar diseases, such as Puccinia spp., Alternaria solani and Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Disease suppression by composts has been explained mainly by biotic mechanisms. The severity of soil-borne plant diseases is often reduced when microbiologically improved compost used as growth media. Wide variety of rhizosphere micro-organisms have been isolated and used as microbiological inoculants for...

Use of Compost to Overcome Abiotic Water Salt and pH Stress

In addition, authors also did an attempt and used microbiologically rich compost (JNMsC and TERI-5) to minimize abiotic stress. Both types of composts were prepared in combination with Jatropha press cakes. Jatropha press cake cannot be used in animal feed because of its toxic properties, but they are valuable as organic manure due to their high nitrogen content, which is similar to that of seed cake from castor bean and chicken manure. The nitrogen content ranges from 3.2 to 3.8 , depending on the source. Tender branches and leaves are used as a green manure for coconut trees. All plant parts can be used as a green manure. Extracts from different parts of Jatropha curcas show molluscicidal and insecticidal properties. The seed oil, extracts of Jatropha seeds, and phorbol esters from the oil have been used to control various pests, in many cases, successful results. There is a need for research in the utilization of this biopesticidal and manurial property of pressed cakes by...

Compost Site Case Studies

Wheeler et al.14 investigated microbial emissions and worker health at three composting sites in the UK. These included one open windrow site processing green waste, an open windrow site processing mixed green and source separated household organic waste, and an in-vessel system processing mixed green waste, source separated household organic waste and refuse derived fuel production fines. In the investigation a range of aerobiological samplers were used to monitor airborne viable micro-organism levels during the different composting processes on different days. Handling of green waste compost in the open generated levels of airborne bacteria which exceeded 106 colony forming units (cfu a measure of culturable microbial cells) m-3 air sampled on occasions. Levels of Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes each at times exceeded 105 cfu m 3 air sampled. The handling of mixed waste compost generated levels of airborne bacteria at times in excess of 105 cfu m-3. Gram-negative...


Flow Diagram Composting Plant

Composting is the controlled decay of organic matter in a warm, moist environment by the action of bacteria, fungi, and other organisms. The organic matter may be in municipal solid waste, wastewater sludge, septage, agricultural waste, manure, leaves and other yard waste, or combinations of these materials and other organic wastes. Composting is becoming an increasingly popular waste management option as communities look for ways to divert portions of the local waste stream from landfills. The principal applications of composting are for (1) yard wastes, (2) the organic fraction of MSW, (3) partially processed commingled MSW, and (4) co-composting the organic fraction of MSW with wastewater sludge. Because of the importance of composting in meeting mandated waste diversion goals, the number of composting facilities has increased significantly over the past 10 years. The uses of compost and constraints to its uses a description of the compost process descriptions of some of the more...

Bioremediation Strategies

Composting It is applied in bioremediation as a means of degrading toxic organic compounds and perhaps lessening the toxicity of metallic contaminants in organic residues, waste and by product. Composting is similar to those that occur biologically in soil by which organic wastes are degraded by microorganisms. Temperatures are generally higher in composts than in soils, resulting in increased solubility of contaminants and higher metabolic activity in compost. High level of substrate in composts can lead to co-metabolism of organic contaminants. Mechanical treatment by grinding, mixing, and sieving out non-degradable or unwanted materials such as metals, plastics, glass, stones gives good conditions for biological treatment of compostable materials. However, the nature of the organic contaminant, composting conditions and procedures, microbial communities, and time all affect the performance of compost mechanism (Barker and Bryson 2002). Biopiles It is a hybrid of land farming and...

Remediation Of Perchlorate In Soilthe New Challenge

Several biotreatment techniques have emerged over the past decade to address perchlorate in soils. The first of these was anaerobic composting, which was first demonstrated at the Aerojet site in California by Cox et al. (1999). Shallow soils containing elevated concentrations of perchlorate (up to 4,200 mg kg) were excavated, mixed with manure, alfalfa and water, and piled to promote biological reduction. The results were encouraging, demonstrating a decline in perchlorate concentrations from 25 mg kg to less than 0.1 mg kg (the detection limit at the time) within several weeks (Figure 2.4). Figure 2.4. (a) Photograph and (b) results of anaerobic composting of perchlorate-impacted soil at the Aerojet Superfund site, Sacramento, California Figure 2.4. (a) Photograph and (b) results of anaerobic composting of perchlorate-impacted soil at the Aerojet Superfund site, Sacramento, California

Waste Collection and Sorting

The way that wastes are collected and sorted influences which waste management options can most effectively be used. The collection method significantly shapes the recovery of materials, compost or energy this in turn determines whether markets can be found. Collection is also the point of contact between generators (e.g. households and commercial establishments) and the waste management system. Collection is rarely independent of subsequent sorting, since the type of Household collection systems are often divided into 'bring' and 'kerbside' collection schemes. Bring systems are those where householders are required to take recyclable materials to communal collection points. Kerbside collection schemes require the householder to place recyclables in a container which they set, on a specified day, outside their property for collection. The extreme bring system is the central collection or Civic Amenity site to which householders transport materials such as bulky items and garden waste....

Future Perspectives

In future a lot of study is needed to understand the role and mechanism of compost against plant stresses. First, understanding mechanisms of pathogen resistance to the action of biocontrol agents is critical to sustain disease suppression with long-term use. Strategies to minimize resistance and prevent its spread should be designed. The second area that is ripe for study is genetic diversity within species of both biocontrol agent and host plant. Exploitation of genetic variation among members of a micro-bial species that suppresses disease may provide a solution to the variability across space and time that has been observed with many biocontrol agents. The genetics of the host should be exploited for supportiveness of biocontrol, and hospitality to bio-control agents should be enhanced through directed breeding or genetic modification of the host plant. The third, and most challenging, area of research needed to explain the biological context for biocontrol is microbial community...

Soil Is a Rich Source of Chitin and Chitinolytic Diversity

Use of culture independent methods led to identification of novel group of bacterial chitinases in alkaline soils (Tsujibo et al. 2003), sandy soils (Williamson et al. 2000) . upland pastures (Metcalfe et al. 2002). intertidal hot springs (Hobel et al. 2005), maize rhizosphere soils (Ikeda et al. 2007), garden and park waste compost (Poulsen et al. 2008) and vermicompost (Yasir et al. 2009). Bacterial chitinases in arable soils are highly diverse and unique groups, based on the comparative analysis

The Cradleto Cradle Model

The biological metabolism is the system of natural processes that support life. These processes are cyclical, ultimately fueled by the energy of the sun, and include the biodegradation (and possibly other forms of degradation) of organic materials and their incorporation into organisms. Materials that contribute to the productivity of the metabolism are biological nutrients that are rapidly renewable, biodegradable, and ecologically safe. Products of industry made from biological nutrients can be integrated into the biological metabolism via organic processing techniques such as composting or anaerobic digestion, leading to soil amendments and potential energy production.

Bohn Biofilter Corporation Bohn Off Gas Treatment Abstract

Biofiltration is the sorption of volatile organic gases (VOCs) from contaminated air by beds of compost or soil and the oxidation of the sorbed materials by existing microorganism populations. Biofilters can treat pollutant gases from food and waste processing, petroleum refining, chemical processing, tank vents, and polishing of air after solvent recovery.

Trends In Waste Management

The European Environment Agency (EEA) predicts that per capita consumption in the EU is expected to continue to increase up to 2010. The baseline scenario used (based on OECD and EC socio-economic business-as-usual scenarios) projects a 45 economic growth between 1990 and 2010, and 50 increase in final consumption between 1995 and 2010. Notwithstanding the current limitations of waste data, the EEA has made predictions of total waste generation. Household waste generation in the EU is estimated to grow by around 20 to 2010 (ETCW, 1999) based on forecast increases in per capita consumption over the period 1995-2010. The growth in recycling and composting for four countries exceeded the underlying growth in municipal waste arisings over the various periods in question. These countries were Austria, Netherlands, Sweden and Germany. Germany however, showed a significant growth in recycling and composting, whilst appearing to decrease the total volume managed by three million tonnes (with...

Biomedical Waste Management in United States of America

Medical centres, hospitals and veterinary clinics in the United States generate over one million tons of bio-medical waste each year. In US, Health Care Facilities are categorized based on the amount of medical waste generated monthly and are grouped into two categories Small Quantity Generators (SQG) and Large Quantity Generators (LQG). LQGs consist of nursing homes, clinics, health departments and laboratories and they are estimated to produce atleast 200 pounds of biomedical waste per day. Physicians, dentists and veterinarians in private practice are classified as SQGs. Although majority of the waste generated at LQGs and SQGs is as harmless as common household waste, as much as 15 of this waste poses a potential infection hazard according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA).

Residential And Institutional

George Tchobanoglous Definition of Terms 178 Integrated Waste Management 180 Source Reduction 180 Recycling and Composting 182 Combustion (Waste-to-Energy) 183 Landfills 183 Characteristics of Solid Waste 185 Commercial and Household Hazardous Waste 189 Construction and Demolition Debris 192 Special Wastes Collected Separately 193 On-Site Handling and Storage 195 Low-Rise Residential Areas 196 Low- and Medium-Rise Apartments 198 High-Rise Apartments 198 Commercial and Institution 199 Solid Waste Collection 199 Type of Service 199 Collection Frequency 199 Types of Collection Systems 202 Personnel Requirements 204 Health Issues 207 Transfer and Transport 209 Economic Analysis of Transfer Operations 209 Types of Transfer Stations 210 Vehicles for Uncompacted Wastes 211 Transfer Station Siting Issues 213 Waste Reduction and Materials Recovery 213 Waste Reduction 214 Materials Recovery and Recycling 217 Processing Technologies for the Recovery of Materials 218 Implementation of Materials...

Bioremediation Options for Metal Contaminated Sites

Composting Composting is a technique that involves combining contaminated soil with non hazardous organic amendments such as manure or agricultural wastes. The presence of these organic materials supports the development of a rich microbial population and elevated temperature characteristic of composting. Composting in prepared beds holds a number of possibilities for bioremediation of metals degrading organic chelating agents, altering pH, redox potential and production of surfactants.

Other Waste Treatment Processes

Whilst waste landfill and incineration of waste remain by far the main options for waste treatment and disposal throughout the world, other established and novel routes are available. Amongst these are such options as, composting, pyroly-sis gasification and recycling of different types of waste components. Such methods are regarded as being more environmentally sustainable and superior to landfill and incineration in relation to the hierarchy of waste management. However, each should be considered in its own right in terms of the emissions from the process. Composting Composting of waste involves the aerobic digestion of the biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste, such as garden and food waste, paper and cardboard etc. The biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste can compose up to 60 of the total mass.18 A typical aerobic composting system for organic waste includes a pre-processing stage, the aerobic biodegradation stage and a maturation stage. Pre-processing of...

Technology Description

Backfill materials suitable for use in biowalls (e.g., tree mulch, compost, sand and gravel) can be readily obtained at relatively low cost compared to other organic substrates commonly used for enhanced in situ anaerobic bioremediation (e.g., emulsified vegetable oil or hydrogen release compound HRC ), or reagents used for chemical reduction (e.g., zero-valent iron ZVI ). The past performance of most biowalls indicates that organic backfill materials such as tree mulch and compost can sustain reducing activity for at least 3 to 5 years. Therefore, biowall systems can be expected to operate effectively over periods of 3 to 5 years with minimal operation, maintenance and monitoring (OM&M) costs other than periodic performance monitoring. Mulch, compost, sand and gravel are relatively inexpensive when purchased in bulk quantities. Tree mulch can often be obtained for the cost of shipping and handling alone.

Regulatory Compliance

Two regulatory concerns must often be addressed when considering the use of a biowall. One is the potential for contaminants in the mulch or compost material, such as herbicides or pesticides. Fortunately, most commercial pesticides, herbicides, and defoliants are biodegradable and typically degrade within a period of two to four weeks. Stockpiling of mulch usually provides sufficient time for degradation of any residual pesticides or herbicides to occur. However, it may be necessary to sample and analyze organic materials to satisfy regulatory concerns. Perhaps of greater concern is the management of the materials excavated during trenching. Costs associated with off-site disposal of contaminated materials may make the technology more costly than a biobarrier created by injected substrates such as emulsified vegetable oil. Since biowalls are typically installed across contaminated groundwater plumes, and not in source areas, the potential for trench spoils to present a hazard is...

Sustaining the Reaction Zone

However, because mulch and compost are solid substrates and provide an excellent growth medium, an arbitrary TOC threshold alone may not be a good indication that anaerobic degradation is being sustained. For example, the level of TOC necessary to sustain reduction of perchlorate at sites with low nitrate concentrations (less than a few mg L) is likely to be much lower than a site with high nitrate concentrations (perhaps greater than 10 mg L).

Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio

Micro organisms responsible for the decomposition of organic matter require carbon and nitrogen as a nutrient to grow and reproduce. Microbes work actively if carbon nitrogen ratio is 30 1. if carbon ratio exceeded 30, the rate of composting decreases. Decomposition of the organic waste material will slow down if C N ratios are as low as 10 1 or as high as 50 1. FIGURE 13.15. Composting process. FIGURE 13.15. Composting process.

Installation and Trenching Costs

Other factors that impact capital construction costs include permitting requirements, installation of piping or recirculation systems, additional amendments (e.g., compost or vegetable oil), surveying, installation of the monitoring network (number and depth of wells), and site restoration.

Mechanisms of Phytoremediation

In different ways to reclaim the metals or to reduce volume and weight prior to disposal (e.g. composting, compaction, thermal treatment). Three main parameters are vital for the successful use of phytoextraction when remediating a site. First, the selection of a site conducive to phytoextraction is of utmost importance. Second, the solubility and availability of metals in the soils are crucial for metal uptake by the plant, and third, the ability of the plant to accumulate metals in the harvestable plant tissues plays an important role 193 . As metal concentrations in soils may vary in a wide range from lmg kg to 100 000 mg kg depending on parent rock material and deposition it is necessary to define particular values, to which a level of risk has been assigned. Risks vary with the different metals and associated exposure pathways, and regulating limits for heavy metals concentrations in soils vary considerably from country to country. Most limits established in legislation are based...

Forms of Heavy Metals in Biosolids

Biosolids contain organic and inorganic compounds . The content of organic compounds and their chemical composition depends on various factors and mainly on the type of digestion applied Anaerobically digested sludge contains 25 to 30 organic carbon on a dry mass basis, although the content can vary widely. During the process of anaerobic digestion, organic solids are stabilized by the almost complete microbial fermentation of carbohydrates, apart from cellulose, resulting in a reduction of volatile solids at a rate of about 60 to 75 . The remaining organic material consists of a mixture of microbial tissue, lignin, cellulose, lipids, organic nitrogen compounds, and humic compounds (Miller, 1974). When biosolids are applied to soil there is decomposition of organic matter by the action of various factors, especially microorganisms using carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) . The half-life of the decomposition of organic matter has been estimated at about ten years (Bell et al , 1991) During...

Vadose Zone Bioremediation

Near-surface contamination can generally be excavated and treated on site by composting, ex situ bioremediation, or by intrinsic bioremediation (Cox et al., 2000 Cox and Scott, 2003 Evans et al., 2008, Kastner et al., 2001, Nzengung et al., 2001 O'Niell and Nzengung, 2003 USEPA, 2005b). Composting of excavated perchlorate-contaminated soil involves mixing with bulking agents and organic amendments such as wood chips, hay, manure, and vegetative wastes. Selection of proper amendments is necessary to ensure adequate porosity and provide

The Experimental Application

Cuttings of these three hybrid poplar clones were mechanical planted in 2008 in a site of about 0.5 ha. Plant density in 5 replicated parcels of 10x9 m for each treatment was about 8000 ha-1. Treatments were a) poplar clone alone, b) poplar clone inoculated with bacteria, c) poplar clone on the soil amended with commercial compost and with oxygen release compound (ORC, IXPER 75C Calcium Peroxide, Solvay, S.A). The addition of the compost (produced on plant wastes) was due to assess whether its high microbic count could be alternative to the inoculation, which is technologically complicated and a bit more expensive than composting. The simultaneous presence of ORC served to enhance the degrading microbiological activity by the continuum oxygen supply of this compound in presence of water and by its own degradation ability of chlorinated organics (Arienzo, 2000 Cassidy and Irvine, 1999). A drip irrigation system was placed to provide evapotranspired water restitution twice a week....

Fixation and Inactivation Stabilization of the Polluted Soil

Usually, the essence of stabilization is to reduce the amount of phytoavailable metal and thus reduce their toxicities to plants, animals, and soil organisms. Some commonly used chemical immobilization agents include zeolite, gravel sludge, beringite, alkaline materials, organic materials (sewage sludge and compost), phosphate (Conder et al. 2001), and lime stabilized municipal biosolids (Stuczynski et al. 2007 Conder et al. 2001).

Ex Situ Bioremediation Technologies

Bioremediation Background

In many cases, it is necessary to move the contaminated soil or groundwater to a site where a suitable treatment system can be engineered. Contaminated soil may be excavated and moved to landfills to thermal treatment systems, e.g., incinerators or to a variety of bioremediation systems including biopiles, windrows for composting, landfarms, and soil slurry reactors. All have their merits. The choice of which technology to use often is driven by the required performance criteria, i.e., the nature of the contamination and the levels of cleanliness that must be achieved and the cost of remediation, including the cost of transporting Two technologies biopiles and windrow composting currently dominate the ex situ bioremediation market for treatment of contaminated soils. Both are aerobic processes in which the soil is excavated and heaped into a defined space for treatment. In composting, an organic material is added so that microorganisms generate heat through their metabolism, often...

Windrow Forming And Turning

Windrow Formation

Comments similar to those for bed construction pertain to windrow composting and bio-pile construction, except that for windrows there is no added complication of installing piping runs for aeration. Mixing can be done during windrow formation. For example, if wood chips are to be used for bulking, and the soil-to-chips volume ratio has been calculated, then the wood chips can be laid out on the windrow bed along with, say, pellet NPK fertilizer, then the moist soil, and any additional heat-generating organic material, and the windrow turner will mix them together while forming the windrow. In-Vessel Composting At first sight, in-vessel composting, i.e., treatment within a bioreactor, offers some advantages, mostly relating to the higher degree of process control that can be applied, e.g., better temperature control, control of odors, and improved mechanical mixing. However, it is not a popular full-scale practice for at least two reasons. Very often the volumes of soil are too large...

Phytoremediation A Potential Tool of Bioremediation

Sebertia Acuminate

Dushenkov et al. 108 elucidated that the translocation of metals to shoots would decrease the efficiency of rhizofiltration by increasing the amount of contaminated plant residue required for disposal. However, Zhu et al. 110 suggest that the efficiency of the process can be increased by using plants with a heightened ability to absorb and translocate metals. Many aquatic plants have the ability to remove heavy metals from water, including water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, 110, 111 , pennywort (Hydrocotyle umbellata L., 112 , and duckweed (Lemna minor L., 113 . However, these plants have limited potential for rhizofiltration because they are not efficient in removing metals as a result of their small, slow growing roots 108 . The high water content of aquatic plants complicates their drying, composting, or incineration. P. australis has high capability to remove metals from wetlands 114-116 . Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea Czern.) are the most...

Leachate Generation Control and Treatment

Diagram Monitoring Well

Leachate Control It should be noted that if all infiltration is excluded and the solid waste kept dry, biodegradation by bacteria, fungi, and other organisms will cease and the solid waste will be preserved in its original state. Bacterial activity will generally cease when the moisture content drops below 14 to 16 percent. The maintenance of an optimal amount of moisture in the fill, as in controlled composting (an aerobic process), is necessary for biodegradation (an anaerobic process in a landfill), methane production, final stabilization, and possible future recycling of the solid waste or reuse of the site.

Waste Reduction And Materials Recovery

Transfer Landfill Stations

The extent to which solid wastes can be reduced, recovered, and recycled should be an integral part of every solid waste management system study, whether involving composting, a sanitary landfill, or an incinerator. Composting is also considered a form of recycling. The first step, however, should be waste reduction at the point of generation or product formulation. Industrial material, process, and packaging changes can minimize the waste or substitute a less toxic or objectionable material. The amount of waste can then be reduced, and what waste is produced can be recovered, reused, or recycled to the extent feasible, thereby reducing the amount for final disposal. Additional details on source reduction may be found elsewhere.9 In the not-so-distant past, solid-waste processing and disposal methods have included the open dumping, hog feeding, incineration, grinding and discharge to a sewer, milling, compaction, sanitary landfill, dumping and burial at sea (prohibited in the United...

Solid Waste Disposal And Recycling

Rotary Kiln Incinerator

Recycling will reduce the amount of material to be disposed of. It has its own problems of collection, sorting, and cost. Composting of degradable organic materials also reduces disposal while producing a useful product, while anaerobic digestion is a possible source of methane fuel. A mix of these processes will be needed in future solid waste handling techniques. Yard wastes 45.3 (composting) Source L. F. Diaz, G. M. Savage, L. L. Eggerth and C. G. Golueke, Composting and Recycling Municiple Solid Waste, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 1993. Although not nominally considered to contain hazardous materials, toxic substances from household chemicals, batteries, paint solvents, and so on inevitably make up some fraction of household wastes. However, EPA regulations prohibit disposal of hazardous wastes in an ordinary municipal landfill. Hazardous wastes, which include flammable, volatile, toxic, and pathological wastes, include wastes from many industrial operations. Radioactive...

Gel Piling Manual Machine Drawing

Compost Pad

Windrow Composting In the windrow process, after processing the material to be composted is placed in long windrows (see Figure 3.20). The windrows are 3 to 6 feet high (1-2m) and 6 to 15 feet wide (2-5 m) at the base. The windrow process is conducted normally in uncovered pads and relies on natural ventilation with frequent mechanical mixing of the piles to maintain aerobic conditions. The windrow process can be accelerated if the compost is turned over every four or five days, until the temperature drops from about 1500 or 140 F (66 or 60 C) to about 100 F (38 C) or less. Under typical operating conditions, the windrows are turned every other day. The turning is accomplished with specialized equipment (see Figure 3.21) and serves to aerate the pile and allow moisture to escape. To meet the EPA pathogen reduction requirements, the windrows have to be turned five times in 15 days, maintaining a temperature of 55 C. The complete compost process may require two to six months. Because...

Integrated Waste Management

Source Reduction Solid Waste

Integrated waste management (IWM) can be defined as the selection and application of suitable techniques, technologies, and management programs to achieve specific waste management objectives and goals. Because numerous state and federal laws have been adopted, IWM is also evolving in response to the regulations developed to implement the various laws. The EPA has identified four basic management options (strategies) for IWM (1) source reduction, (2) recycling and composting, (3) combustion (waste-to-energy facilities), and (4) landfills. As proposed by the EPA, these strategies are meant to be interactive, as illustrated in Figure 3.1a. It should be noted that some states have chosen to consider the management options in a hierarchical order, as depicted in Figure 3.1b. For example, recycling can only be considered after all that can be done to reduce the quantity of waste at the source has been done. Similarly, waste transformation is only considered after the maximum amount of...

Sources of Soil Contamination

Heavy metals are deposited in soils by atmospheric input and the use of mineral fertilizers or compost, and sewage sludge disposal. It is well known that heavy metals are not biodegraded in contrast to organic pollutants and thus need to be physically removed or be immobilized (Gaur and Adholeya 2004 Mohapatra 2008). To some extent, microorganisms can modify the toxicity of metals by altering the bioavailability through oxidation and reduction. Traditionally, remediation of heavy metals contaminated soils involves either on-site management or excavation, and subsequent disposal to a landfill site. However, this method of disposal merely shifts the contamination problem elsewhere along with the hazards associated with transportation of contaminated soil and migration of contaminants from landfill into adjacent environments. Soil washing for removing contaminants from soil is an alternative to disposal to landfill. This method is, however, costly and produces a residue rich in heavy...

Treatment of Polluted Soils

A number of researchers have reported the immobilization of TNT and its metabolites in complex soil organic matter and clay during composting or during anaerobic and aerobic slurry treatments. The potential of laccase for immobilizing TNT degradation metabolites in a humic matrix was recently demonstrated (Dawel et al. 1997 Thiele et al. 2002 Wang et al. 2002). During reductive transformation of TNT by Trametes modesta (in the presence of 200 mM ferulic acid and guaiacol),

Metal Content of Plants

Water-holding capacity can be improved, for example, by the use of hydrogels applied simultaneously with the inoculum. This saves the inoculum from removal by wind. The application of inorganic fertilizers should be replaced by compost or manure. The use of sewage sludges might be a good choice, but a corresponding increase of toxicity (e.g., Cu) may appear. Moreover, optimization of the fertilizer dosage must be performed with respect to the development of the subterranean microbial consortia. Restoration can also be enhanced by additional inoculations of appropriate symbiotic and saprophytic rhizosphere microorganisms isolated from HM soils.

Production systems for NoTillage vegetables

The application of low herbicide rates may reduce the competitiveness of LMs, allowing their use in vegetable production. However, Walters & Young (2008) found that a NT herbicide suppressed winter rye LM system provided excessive amounts of zucchini squash stunting which significantly reduced yield. Nicholson & Wien (1983) also suggested that light competition between a white clover LM and cabbage probably reduced crop yields due to the shading of lower cabbage leaves by excessive clover growth. In contrast, Infante & Morse (1996) indicated that legumes intentionally seeded (or interseeded) into a standing crop can be effectively established in NT after transplanting broccoli to suppress weeds without reducing crop yield. Although interseeded cover crops often suppress weeds, they also generally result in vegetable crop yield reductions compared to other more conventional weed management practices. These reductions in crop yields are often due to the direct competition between the...

About Unit Operation Of Separation In A Material Recovery Facilities

Unit Operations Mrf

Feedstock derived from source-separated yard waste or processing of commingled wastes facilities include enclosed building with concrete floors, in vessel composting reactors enclosed building for curing of compost product equipment for processing (e.g. screening and bagging) and marketing compost product Unit operation used for the reduction of both commingled MSW and recovered materials. Typical applications include (1) hammermills for shredding commingled MSW, (2) shear shredders for use with commingled MSW and recycled materials such as aluminum, tires, and plastics, and (3) tub grinders used to process yard wastes. (1) reciprocating screens for sizing shredded yard wastes, FIGURE 3.16 Typical manual separation of waste components at a materials recovery facility (a) separating cardboard, paper, plastic, film plastic, glass, tin cans, and aluminum cans from mixed municipal solid waste at a facility with a current capacity of 400 tons day with room to expand to 1200 ton day by...

Cadmium Detoxification

Brown et al. (2004) showed that soil amendments containing phosphorus reduce Cd availability in soils near a former Zn and Pb smelter in Joplin, Missouri, USA. Soil collected from the field was amended in the laboratory with phosphorus added in different ways, including as 1 P-H3PO4, a high-Fe by-product + P-triple superphosphate (TSP) (2.5 Fe + 1 P-TSP), 1 P-TSP, 3.2 P-TSP, 1 P-phosphate rock, sludge compost at 10 + 0.32 P-TSP, and sludge compost at 10 + 1 P-TSP. After treatment of the plots, Ca(OH)2 (71 purity) was applied evenly and rototilled into each plot to bring the pH to 7.0. The amount of lime required ranged from 200 ton ha-1 (3.2 P-TSP) to 50 ton ha-1 (10 compost + 0.32 P-TSP) and no lime for the compost-alone treatment. The indicator plant was tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae), which grew in the field. They found that P-TSP and 1 P-H3PO4 were the most effective treatments for reducing plant concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd. In this study, they applied high amounts of Ca...

Landfill Design and Operation

Generally, more than half of household waste is organic. This degrades gradually through five stages within a landfill aerobic hydrolysis, in which micro-organisms convert some carbohydrates to simple sugars (such as glucose), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water hydrolysis and fermentation, when carbohydrates, lipids and proteins are broken down and fermented yielding volatile acids, acetate, CO2, hydrogen (H2) and inorganic salts acetogenesis, where bacteria turn soluble acids to C02 and H2. These, with carbohydrates are also transformed into acetic acid methanogenesis, in which bacteria convert acetic acid to methane and CO2. Finally, conditions may become aerobic again as the landfill becomes more stabilised.

Utilization of Phytoremediation ByProducts

Composting and compaction has been proposed as a postharvest biomass treatment by some researchers (Raskin et al. 1997 Kumar et al. 1995 Garbisu and Alkorta 2001). Leaching tests for the composted material showed that soluble organic compounds enhanced metal (Pb) solubility (Hetland et al. 2001). Reduction in dry weight of contaminated plant biomass is advantageous, as it will lower the cost of transportation (Blaylock and Huang 2000). One very promising way to utilize the biomass produced by phytoremediation in an integrated manner is to use a thermochemical conversion process. If phytoextraction could be combined with biomass generation and commercially utilized as an energy source, then it can be turned into a profit-making operation, and the remaining ash could be used as bio-ore (Brooks et al. 1998). This is the basic principle of phytomining. Nicks and Chambers (1994) reported a second potential use for hyperaccumulator plants for economic gain in the mining industry. This...

Sustainable Use Of Wastewater And Sludge In Jordan Residues Of Persistent Organic Pollutants A Review

Jordan is located in arid to semi arid environment that characterized by low amounts of wet precipitation, hot summer and cold winter. Jordan is facing a future of very limited water resources, among the lowest per capita worldwide. Water scarcity is the single most important natural constraint to the country's economic growth and development. All these factors have negative impacts on the agricultural activities in the area, despite the fact that Jordan soils are characterized by high nutrients contents. Therefore, more attention should be paid for wastewater reuse as alternative water resource for irrigation purposes. In addition, Sewage sludge is still considered a waste product in most developing countries such as in Jordan and its disposal or reuse are listed as one of the major priorities for the wastewater management plans for these countries and particularly the country of Jordan. However, with the realization of sustainable development the recycling and reuse of valuable...

Crop and Cultivation Effects

Medium on the efficacy of the product. Shah et al. (2007b) demonstrated that both the application method and growing medium influenced conidial leaching when conidia of M. anisopliae were applied as a drench or premixed into the medium. Inoculum losses were greater following drench application than premixing irrespective of media type. Ansari et al. (2008a) demonstrated that mortality of soil-dwelling life stages of the western flower thrips with fungal pathogens was similar in different growing media such as peat, coir, bark and mixtures of these with green waste compost. Spores of the fungi M. anisopliae, B. bassiana and I. fumosorosea (P. fumosoroseus), either applied as a drench or incorporated as a mix, caused a high mortality irrespective of the growing medium and the method of application, indicating that these fungi can be used as effective biocontrol agents in a range of growing media. These examples show that factors that are expected to negatively affect efficacy are not...

Stages in the Decomposition of Garbage in a Landfill

There are three stages of decomposition in a municipal landfill. Operating landfills still receiving garbage undergo all three stages simultaneously in different regions or depths. In practice, only food and yard waste biodegrade. Rubber, plastics, and much of the paper content of garbage are very slow to degrade.

Microbial Transformation of PCBs

Some effort has been made to use mixed and pure cultures developed in labs to remediate PCB-contaminated soil. However, these mixed and pure cultures are unable to compete with the autochthonous microflora, and so field results seldom match those obtained under laboratory conditions. To address this issue, Di Toro et al. (2006) introduced a consortium of nonacclimated organisms derived from compost into PCB-contaminated soil and observed intensified PCB degradation in comparison to nonaugmen-ted soil. They indicated that, because of the robust nature of organisms derived from complex microbial systems such as compost or sludge, these organisms have a better chance of colonizing contaminated sites as opposed to pure and mixed cultures, which are unable to compete with the autochthonous microflora. In their research, Di Toro et al. (2006) reported enhanced degradation of 50 -100 as well as increased soil detoxification through the removal of toxic intermediates of PCB degradation....

Previous Research Concerning Waste Handsorting

Savage and G. J. Trezek, Health Aspect Considerations Associated with Resource Recovery, Compost Sci., 1976, 17 (3), 18-24. 22 P. J. Constable and D. J. Ray, Consideration of Health Hazards Associated with the Recycling of Household Waste, Environ. Health, 1979, 87 (9), 193-195. 31 G. Marchand, J. Lavoie and L. Lazure, Evaluation of Bioaerosols in a Municipal Solid Waste Recycling and Composting Plant, J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc., 1995, 45, 778-781. 33 R. Streib, K. Botzenhart, K. Drysch and A. W. Rettenmeier, Dust and Microorganism Count at Delivery, Sorting and Composting of Home Refuse and Home Refuse-like Industrial Waste, Zentralbl. Hyg. Umweltmed., 1996, 198, 531-551. 37 L. Nersting, P. Malmros, T. Sigsgaard and C. Petersen, Biological Health Risk Associated with Resource Recovery, Sorting of Recycle Waste and Composting, Grana, 1991, 30, 454-457. Source segregated waste compared to paper and composting operatives Source segregated waste compared to...

Cadmium Fractionation in Calcareous Soils

Rajaie et al. (2006) studied the effect of incubation time, soil texture, and application of enriched compost on chemical forms of Cd. In this study, a clay loam calcareous soil Fine, mixed (calcareous), mesic Typic Calcixerepts was converted to sandy loam by adding acid-washed pure quartz sand and both the original clay loam and the produced sandy loam were treated with 30 g kg-1 of municipal waste compost. The compost had been enriched with different amounts of CdSO4 to obtain Cd concentrations ranging from 5 to 60 mg Cd kg-1 in treated soils. After 0, 1,2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks of incubation, a sequential extraction scheme was used to fractionate Cd of incubated samples into soluble + exchangeable, carbonate-bound, organically bound, Mn-oxide-bound, amorphous Fe-oxide-bound, crystalline Fe-oxide-bound, and residual forms. They found that Cd mostly was converted to soluble + exchangeable, carbonate-bound, and organically bound Cd forms (82-88 ) and those for carbonate fraction were...

Bioremediation of Heavy Metals

Aimages Advantages Bioremediation

Generally, bioremediation technologies are performed either in situ or ex situ. In situ bioremediation involves treating the contaminated material at the site, while ex situ bioremediation involves the removal of the contaminated material to be treated elsewhere. Some examples of in situ bioremediation technologies are composting, bioventing, bioaugmentation and biostimulation, and ex situ soil bioremediation technologies include soil biopiles, landfarming, and bioreactors (Obed and Kenneth 2002). Composting Compost is the decomposed remnants of organic materials (those with plant and animal origins). Compost is used in gardening and agriculture, where it is mixed in with the soil. It improves soil structure, increases the amount of organic matter, and provides nutrients. Compost is a common name for humus, which results from the decomposition of organic matter. In the presence of large amounts of organic matter, Composting is the controlled decomposition of organic matter....

Treatment Methods for RDX and HMX Contamination

Explosive compounds, including hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and (HMX), pose the largest potential threat to the environment as they are produced and used in defence in very large quantities. RDX and HMX are widespread contaminants at many current and former military facilities. Explosives contamination is of major concern due to the large number of affected sites (Levsen et al. 1993 Griest et al. 1995) and also because of their toxicity and mutagenicity (Lachance et al. 1999 Talmage et al. 1999). Many methods for the remediation of RDX and HMX have been reported. Current practices to treat RDX and HMX contaminated soils include incineration, composting, alkaline hydrolysis oxidation, and aqueous thermal decomposition (Garg et al. 1991). These ex situ approaches, however, are expensive and have technical hurdles. Open burning and open detonation is not encouraged by regulatory agencies for disposal of explosives. Hence, there is need for a safe technology to degrade...

Biodgradation of RDX and HMX

Biodegradation of RDX and HMX has been demonstrated under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions (McCormick et al. 1981 Kitts et al. 1994 Young et al. 1997 Hawari 2000 Price et al. 2001 Fuller et al. 2009 Halasz et al. 2010). RDX and HMX are cyclic nitrogen-containing compounds that are moderately resistant to aerobic degradation and undergo ring cleavage and extensive mineralization (Hawari 2000). Anaerobic degradation of RDX and HMX involves direct microbial reduction of the nitro functional groups on the cyclic structure. This process has been used to develop remedial strategies employing microbial degradation to address RDX and HMX contamination (Doppalapudi et al. 2002 Morley et al. 2002 Kwon and Finneran 2006 Young et al. 2006). Possible microbial metabolic functions of RDX and HMX include (a) electron donor for metabolic and respiratory redox reactions (b) carbon substrate for growth and metabolism, or (c) nitrogen substrate for growth and metabolism (Hawari 2000). The potential...

Municipal Solid Waste

Compost Metabolic Pathway

Recycling (material recovery) can provide a cost-effective waste management approach. This technique can help reduce costs for raw materials and waste disposal and provide income from a salable waste as well as protecting the environment. The type of wastes that is separated and can be recycled easily with high benefits including paper and cardboard aluminum cans and tin cans plastics,- textiles, bones and glass. Organic waste or food waste recycling should be treated with special attention because it contains some rejects such as contaminated plastic bags and small pieces of glass, etc. There are many ways to recycle organic waste and convert it into soil conditioner (fertilizer) such as aerobic fermentation (composting), anaerobic fermentation (biogas), vermin composting and co-composting processes. Composting is the most commonly used method to recycle organic wastes from technical, economical, and environmental point of views. Yard waste

Bioaerosol Components

For the reasons described above, high concentrations of bacteria and fungi are present in composts. For example, Dees and Ghiorse19 reported total counts in the order of lO10 cells per gram of compost dry weight measured using epifluorescence microscopy, with thermophilic heterotrophic aerobes measured in the order of 108 colony forming units (cfu) (g dry wt)_1. Lacey14 reported actinomycetes in mushroom composts in the order of 106 cfu (g dry wt)-1 Strom10 and Millner et a .18 reported concentrations of Aspergillus fumigatus in excess of 105 cfu (g dry wt)-1 in composting sewage sludge, whilst Beffa et a .17 reported concentrations of thermophilic bacteria related to the genus Thermus in the range of 107-1010 cells (g dry wt)-1. A cfu is defined as the unit of one or more cells or spores which when inoculated onto suitable growth medium grows to form a single colony. Whenever composting materials are moved around, for example during the shredding, turning and screening processes,...

Need For The Waste Manggement Preface

Waste management has become a major problem for industrialised societies. It is not that the technologies do not exist they do, and have done for many years. The main issue is that of public acceptability. The public expect to be able to produce household waste in a largely uncontrolled manner and are accustomed to an efficient local service of removal. Beyond this is where the problems begin. Once the waste is removed from the premises of the producer, most members of the public then regard waste as something that others have produced which should not be treated or disposed of in their locality. Consequently, almost every proposal for a waste disposal facility creates massive public resistance whiqh is heavily exploited by environmental pressure groups with their own agendas. In an ideal world there would be no such thing as waste, merely useful raw materials for recycling. The reality is of course rather different. Whilst some materials are well suited to recycling, many are not....

N C Vieceli E R Lovatel E M Cardoso I N Filho

Plasticizers are organic esters added to polymers to facilitate processing and to increase flexibility and toughness of the final product by internal modification of the polymer molecule. Due to their use in packaging, clothes, films, paints, adhesives, cosmetics, ink printers and many other products, plasticizers compounds are widespread in all environments. Several plasticizers were detected in mineral, ultra pure and tap waters 1 , municipal solid waste compost 2 Gonzalez-Vila, F.J., Saiz-Jimenez, C. & Martin, F., Identification of free organic-chemicals found in composted municipal refuse. Journal of Environmental Quality, 11, pp. 251-254, 1982. 5 Bauer, M.J. & Herrmann, R., Estimation of the environmental contamination by phthalic acid esters leaching from household wastes. Science of the Total Environment, 208 (1-2), pp. 49-57, 1997. Nascimento, I.F, von Muhlen, C., Schossler, P. & Caram o, E.B., Estudo de compostos org nicos em lixiviado de aterros sanit rios por EFS E CG EM....

Bioamelioration Restoring Ecohabitats

Amelioration technologies can be divided into two groups based on the physical location of the remedial action (i) in situ remediation, where treatment of the contaminated media takes place by actions in its actual location in the subsurface, and (ii) ex situ remediation, wherein contaminated media is removed from the site for subsequent treatment in an above ground treatment facility (on-site) or disposal elsewhere (off-site) (Gerhardt et al. 2009). Ultimate objectivity of both technologies is to degrade organic chemicals to concentrations below the permissible limits established by regulatory authorities and preferably to undetectable levels (Kulkarni and Chaudhari 2007) . Amelioration technologies for in situ removal of contaminants include soil washing, soil vapor extraction, landfarming, composting, bio-piles, bioventing, bioslurping and biosparging which are time tested and generally cost-effective. In case of in situ technologies viz. (i) natural attenuation (NA) and enhanced...

Sludge application and contaminated soils

Like Cu, also Zn enters the soil environment in a growing extent, due to the increasing use of Zn-containing mineral and organic fertilisers, sewage sludge and compost in agriculture, beside atmospheric deposition of Zn-loaded particulates originating from power plants, extractive industries and other types of combustion activities. Ciba et al. (1997) performed composting experiments to follow up the change of chemical forms of Zn added as metallic Zn and ZnS to a municipal solid waste material during the composting process under oxygen conditions (exothermic process) by means of sequential extraction (according to Rudd 1988, cited in Ciba et al. 1997). The authors conclude from their composting experiments that composting is increasing Zn mobility mainly due to an increase of Zn associated with carbonates. In general, Zn added as metallic Zn dust remained in mobile and bioavailable forms (organic and carbonate), while Zn added as ZnS remained mainly in a not easily plant-bioavailable...

Metal Dynamics in Soil

Various metals, including heavy metals and metalloids, are common contaminants in soil and can reach critical levels in terms of human health, food safety, soil fertility, and ecological risks (Sharma and Agrawal, 2005) . The presence of metals in soil is due to natural processes, for example the formation of soil, and anthropogenic activities such as the use of sludge or municipal compost, pesticides, and fertilizers, industrial manufacturing processes, residues from metalliferous mines and smelting industries, car exhaust, and emissions from municipal waste incinerators (Yadav et al ., 2009) .

Coalbed Methane Produced Water In The Western Us

Vance et al. (2008) examined the effects of irrigation with CBM produced water on soils and plants of the Powder River Basin by comparing soil and plant conditions following various irrigation practices with those from nonirrigated sites. Irrigation with CBM produced water significantly increased the production and cover of native perennial grasses, but overall plant community diversity and uniformity of species across the landscape decreased. The researchers concluded that adverse changes in soil quality with CBM irrigation can restrict plant growth and cause plant water stress. Salinity has the potential to have significant impact on plant communities, plant community sustainability, and livestock and wildlife forage compatibility (Soil Improvement Committee, 1995). High salt content of soil pore water can also reduce the availability of water for plants and cause agricultural crops to expend more energy extracting water from the root zone than would be required in the absence of...

Energy Recovery Options

There were 122 EfW plants in America in 1999, an increase of three on the previous year. Overall, the proportion of waste incinerated declined from 9 in 1997 to 7.5 in 1998, largely as a result of increased recycling and composting. Data from the US Environmental Protection Agency show that in relative and absolute terms the most recent data indicate that both materials recycling and energy recovery have reached a peak, together.

Cd Cr and Pb Accumulation in Fungi at the Test Field Site

Leucoagaricus leucothites abundantly produced fruiting bodies on the compost amended plot of our test field site in 2008 and 2009. Thus, we compared metal uptake characteristics for samples from each subplot (Fig. 18.6). On subplots C2 and C3, fruiting bodies were only present in 2008, while none were produced on subplot M1 in 2008 or 2009. In 2010, no fruiting of Leucoagaricus leucothites occurred in the area. Productivity on average slightly decreased in 2009, but variation among

Phytoremediation Methods

Clemente et al. (2006) showed that active Phytoremediation of Brassica juncea followed by spreading organic amendmends such as cow manure and compost as well as lime for fixation of arsenic in a site affected by the toxic spill of pyrites at Aznalc llar in Spain. In aerobic soils, the retention of arsenic is mainly dependent on iron oxides and hydroxides and these could have been formed in the soil compartment (Kabata-Pendias and Pendias 2001) Sorghum was studied by Haque et al. (2009) as a potential hyperaccumulator for arsenic removal in hydrophonic media and they showed that uptake is completely dependent on arsenic speciation. Use of sedges for arsenic phytoremediation demonstrated that they can be considered as potential species for phytostabilization and rhizofiltration (Alarcon-Herrera et al. 2009).

Diversity of Fungal Fruiting Bodies at the Test Field Site

Nitrophilic species (Lange 1982, 1991), such as Marasmius oreades, Lycoperdon pretense, Leucoagaricus leucothites, and certain Agaricus species are especially abundant, indicating the influence of the surrounding agriculture. However, certain parts of the study area are rather dominated by nitrophobous (Lange 1982, 1991) species, such as Rickenella fibula and Entoloma sericeum. These species accompany more open vegetation dominated by mosses and lichens rather than herbs. This indicates a heterogenous distribution of nitrogen. On the test field plots, fruiting bodies of nitrophilic species are becoming more abundant with the addition of nutrient-rich substrates. While on the control plot fruiting bodies were never observed, addition of top soil led to occasional growth of Agaricus semotus, which is known from humus-rich habitats (Vellinga 2001). The compost plot yielded abundant fruiting bodies of Leucoagaricus leucothites and Cyathus olla, both clearly...

Releases To The Environment

The combustion processes can be divided into two categories, large systems and small systems. Municipal waste incineration (Bonafanti et al. 1990 Brna and Kilgore 1990 des Rosiers 1987 Hutzinger and Fiedler 1989 Siebert et al. 1987 Tiernan et al. 1985 Tong and Karasek 1986), incineration of industrial and hazardous wastes (des Rosiers 1987 Muto et al. 1991), and power plants with fossil fuels (des Rosiers 1987 Hutzinger and Fiedler 1989) are examples of large systems. Small combustion systems include home heating and fireplaces (Clement et al. 1985 Safe 1990a), household waste incineration (Harrad et al. 1991a), automobile exhaust (Ballschmiter et al. 1986 Marklund et al. 1987), and medical waste incineration (des Rosiers 1987 Glasser et al. 1991 Lindner et al. 1990). Incineration of industrial and hazardous wastes that produce CDFs include wastes containing PCBs (Choudhury and Hutzinger 1982 Hutzinger and Fiedler 1989 Sedman and Esparza 1991), polychlorinated...

Soil Factors 11231 pH

Similarly, many other studies have shown that organic amendments (with municipal waste, compost, biosolid compost, leonardite, gyttja, and litter) reduce the toxicities of heavy metals to soil enzymes (de Mora et al. 2005 Karaca et al. 2006). Tejada et al. (2008) found that increasing Ni levels reduced soil enzyme activities, and that soil amendment with organic wastes (crushed cotton gin compost, poultry manure) reduced the toxicity of nickel to soil enzyme activities (urease, BBA-protease, alkaline phosphatase, b-glucosidase and arylsulfatase). Organic amendments enhance soil enzyme activity for the following reasons (1) intra- and extracellular enzymes stimulate microbial activity in the added materials, (2) carboxyl, phenolic, alcohol, and carbonyl functional groups in the humic substances react with toxic ions, forming metal-humate complexes (metal chelation) and stabilizing them (Nannipieri 1994 Dick 1997 Pascual et al. 1998). acids (Hayes 1991). Tejada et al. (2008) concluded...


University employs pollution prevention strategies to minimize solid, hazardous, and radioactive waste and seeks to maximize waste recovery (e.g., reuse, recycling, composting, etc) Determine levels of solid, hazardous, and radioactive waste Annual per capita waste generation and breakout by type (paper, glass, aluminum, plastics, hazardous, radioactive) and final destination at end of life products and materials Full composting of organics and recycling of appropriate

Abiotic Stress

Fig. 5.1 Compost and its possible responses towards reducing plant stresses and in improvement of soil quality by enhancing nutrient availability and stabilizing microbial population Fig. 5.1 Compost and its possible responses towards reducing plant stresses and in improvement of soil quality by enhancing nutrient availability and stabilizing microbial population

Thermal Treatment

Household waste has up to half the energy potential of coal. Recovering energy from the non-recyclable portion of household waste makes economic and environmental sense. The 230 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) created in Europe each year could meet 5 of Europe's energy needs. The main virtues of energy recovery are A national study by the Swiss Environment Agency concluded that the largest source of dioxins in Switzerland is now the burning of household waste at home or in the garden. Controlled incineration of MSW results in the annual emission of 16 g dioxins, while domestic rubbish burning emits 27-30 g pa. Material versus energy. There is concern over whether materials recycling and energy recovery should be considered equally valuable. Most people agree that materials recycling should generally be considered before energy recovery, but that energy recovery is a valuable option within an integrated approach to resource and waste management. Because many recyclable...

Landfill Bans

A key policy development which builds on the concept of the landfill ban has been the European Union Landfill Directive (1999 31 EC). The main provision of this directive is the progressive banning of municipal biodegradable waste from landfills, to 35 of 1995 levels by 2020. In the UK this means at least 6 Mt pa must be diverted (this could reach 33 Mt pa if arisings continue to grow). Currently, more than 80 of MSW in Britain is landfilled, which means that more than 60 composting facilities, up to 120 materials recovery facilities and perhaps 50 energy from waste plants will be needed. necessary. However much we endeavour to reduce wastes, to increase re-use and recycling, to compost and to recover energy, the laws of nature mean that there will be some residual matter for which society can find no further use.


The amount of municipal waste collected increased by 6 between 1993 and 1997 in the Netherlands. The amounts of household waste increased by 66 between 1985 (5.2 Mt) and 1997 (7.9 Mt) accounting for 81 of the municipal waste collected in 1997. On average, the production of waste per inhabitant increased slightly by 4 between 1993 (595 kg) and 1997 (618 kg).


MSW collected increased by 29 between 1989 and 1998 (from 2.5 to 3.2 Mt). This increase took place largely between 1993 and 1996. Subsequently, amounts seem to have begun to decrease. In 1998, household waste accounted for 100 of the waste collected in all regions except Tirol (59 ), Burgenland (68 ) and Wien (85 ). In 1989, at national level, the percentage was 86 , falling to 59 in 1993. The average production of waste per inhabitant increased by 22 between 1989 and 1998 (from 326 kg to 399 kg). In 1993, 55 of municipal waste was landfilled (1.37 Mt) whereas 75 of waste was landfilled in 1989 (1.83 Mt). The amounts of waste composted and recycled increased on average by one third between 1989 and 1993, accounting for 31 and then 44 of municipal waste.

Figure 524

Water and are constructed from porous materials, so that the water can pass through the wall. Yet the wall contains materials that prevent the passage of the pollutants. The pollutants are either degraded within the wall or retained in a concentrated form. The wall materials are various and often consist of zero-valent metals mostly zero-valent iron, Fe(0) , chelators, sor-bents, or compost. It is clear that this is not a bioremediation technology, then. However, an inevitable consequence of flowing water containing a low concentration of pollutants entering a porous material of high surface area is that the materials will become colonized by microorganisms. Thus, with time, it is likely that a contribution to the treatment is biological. A short leap of the imagination, then, has led to attempts to deliberately create biological PRBs, which Kalin (153) has termed passive bioreactive barriers. It should be stressed at this point that this is a long way from being proven full-scale...


Biomass feedstocks not in competition with feed or food should be available at low costs and on a very large scale. The development of so - called energy plants optimal for the production of biofuels and chemicals by common breeding methods will take at least one decade. GMP could be an option, but in Europe, presently, green biotechnology is a controversial issue. The production of cellulosic crops, such as short rotation coppices, winter cover crops, or perennial grasses, could have substantially more positive environmental attributes than production of corn, soy, or other annual row crops 19 . The use of other biomass feedstocks, such as solid waste including green waste, food waste, and biodegradable fractions of municipal solid waste, will require a pretreatment in all cases. A high cell-density cultivation and use of microalgae biomass having a much lower content of lignin in comparison to the plant materials mentioned still requires a strong R&D input.


After the harvest, the volume of the contaminated plant material can be later reduced by incineration, composting or stored as dangerous material or, if economically viable, used for the metal recovery (Gardea-Torresdey et al., 2005 Yang et al., 2005). In the case of woody species, such as Princess-tree (Paulownia tomentosa), the wood can be industrialized (Pilon-Smits, 2005, Doumett et al., 2008). Two basic strategies of phytoextraction have been developed (i) phytoextraction assisted by synthetic chelants, called induced phytoextraction (Huang et al., 1997 Salt et al., 1998 Wu et al., 1999) and (ii) continuous, long run phytoextraction (Salt et al., 1998).

Surface reactions

Was further found by others (also cited by Martinez and McBride, 1999) that mineral-bound organic matter enhances the adsorption of Cu and Co at pH values 6.5, and so decreases their solubility. However, at neutral pH values, more mineral components control metal solubility, while organic matter increases metal dissolution by forming soluble metal-organic complexes. Due to competition among multiple and mixed solid phases, it is very often difficult to asses what soil component is responsible for the long-term solubility control of metals in soils. In their study Martinez and McBride (1999) showed that the organic adsorbent they used (i. e. leaf compost) was very efficient in removing Zn and Cd.


The sources of CDFs in the environment are combustion processes mainly involving municipal and industrial incineration combustion of fossil fuels by power plants, home heating and fireplaces automobile exhaust medical waste incineration yard waste composting accidental fires or malfunction of PCB-filled transformers and capacitors improper disposal of chlorinated chemical wastes use of certain chemical products (e.g., chlorinated phenols) certain high temperature industrial processes, such as copper smelting, electrical arc furnaces in steel mills, and production of metallic magnesium and refined nickel chlorine bleaching of pulp and paper and photochemical processes involving certain products, such as chlorinated diphenyl ethers. Some of these sources emit CDFs in the air, while others discharge CDFs as eMuents in surface water. The source of these compounds in soil is disposal of chemical wastes containing CDFs as contaminants. The deposition of atmospheric CDFs is also an important...

Biowall Materials

Mulch is an excellent growth medium for microorganisms, and will maintain its structure under saturated, anaerobic conditions for many years. Wood mulch is composed primarily of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose is readily degraded under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. However, lignin is not readily degraded under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions and much of the cellulose within the plant cell wall is bound in lignin. It is not unusual to find wood materials in landfills that are 20 years or more old. Because wood mulch is degraded very slowly under anaerobic conditions, biowalls are often amended with other sources of organic materials that provide a greater amount of bioavailable organic carbon. Examples include compost, cotton gin trash (leaves and hulls from removing the cotton bolls), and vegetable oil.


The development of alternative plastics and materials based on renewable resources is already providing opportunities today, and will definitely continue to do so in future. Based on the current state of technology at 5-10 of the plastics market, biobased plastics' long-term potential is significantly higher. This will not merely involve replacing conventional plastics in individual application areas but also completely new ones will be developed. Biobased plastics' success will not only be based on compostable types, but also on durable biobased plastics. Bio-based plastics will move into new application segments, which traditionally use conventional polymers. It is very uncertain how rapidly this can be realized and depends on multiple factors, as, for example, the legislative framework conditions, price developments of raw materials, and the general economic climate 16 . It should be noted though that this list includes biodegradable and compostable polymers. European bioplastics...


The activity of bacteria and other micro-organisms produce heat while decomposing (oxidize) organic material. The ideal temperature range within the compost to be efficient varies from 32 C to 60 C. If the temperature outside this range, the activity of the micro-organisms slow down, or might be destroyed. The increase of temperature while composting above 55 C, kill the weeds, ailing microbes and diseases including Shigella and Salmonella-, this help to reduce the risk of diseases' transmission from infected, and contaminated materials. The outside temperature has an effect on the composting process. In winter, the composting process is slower than spring and summer.

Oxygen Aeration

A continuous supply of oxygen through aeration is a must to guarantee aerobic fermentation (decomposition). Proper aeration is needed to control the environment required for biological reactions and achieve the optimum efficiency. Different techniques can be used to perform the required aeration according to the composting techniques. The most common types of composting techniques are natural composting, forced composting, passive composting and vermin-composting. Natural Composting Piles of compost are formed along parallel rows as shown in Figure 13.15 and continuously moisturized and turned. The distance between rows can be determined according to the type and dimension of the turning machine (Tchobanoglous et al. 1993). Piles should be turned about three times a week at summer and once a week at winter to aerate the pile and achieve homogenous temperature and aeration throughout the pile (Fig. 13.16). This method needs large surfaces of land, many workers, and running cost.

Health Hazards

Exposure of workers to dust at a wastewater sludge and other composting site might cause nasal, ear, and skin infections, burning eyes, skin irritation, and other symptoms, pointing to the need for worker protection safeguards. Other concerns are possible leachate contamination of groundwater and surface water, toxic chemicals remaining in the finished compost, insect and rodent breeding, noise, and survival of pathogens, including molds and other parasite spores and eggs. Pathogens may be spread by leachate, air, insects, rodents, and poor housekeeping and personal hygiene. Tests for pathogens, and the toxic level of chemicals and metals listed in Table 3.16 should be made periodically. Precautions are indicated in view of the potential hazards. Workers should be advised of the infectious and hazardous materials likely to be present in the solid waste handled and the personal hygiene precautions to be taken and be provided with proper equipment, protective gear, and housing. Their...

Technology Costs

Weber et al. (1999) researched the costs of various technologies suited for treating soils contaminated with heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (hPAHs). Cost information was collected for slurry-phase biological treatment and for the following technologies intermittently mixed batch reactors landfarming composting composting with mechanical mixing excavation, retrieval, and off-site disposal soil flushing solidification stabilization vitrification biopile chemical extraction chemical oxidation reduction thermal desorption and pyrolysis. This information, which was attained from various federal sources, indicated that slurry-phase biological treatment was one of the least expensive methods (D194723, pp. 79, 80).

Box 84

Anaerobic Cells (Compost Bioreactors) Underground chambers were filled with straw and sawdust as long-term sources of organic carbon to promote sulfate reduction, while manure was added as an inoculum for sulfate-reducing bacteria. This form of anaerobic metabolism was used to increase alkalinity and precipitate dissolved metals as insoluble sulfides. This proved successful if a conditioning phase was used to allow the reactors to stabilize, as identified during a 12-month shutdown of the compost bioreactors when the main mine water feed pipe fractured in 2001. After this shutdown, the pH of the effluent was consistently between 6 and 7, with concentrations of sulfide, Zn, and Fe below levels of detection, even without pre-treatment of the mine water. Without the initial conditioning phase, the anaerobic cells did not operate effectively, even in the lime dosing or anoxic lime drain pretreatment streams. mote algal growth andprecipitate metals via the generation of alkalinity (driven...

Active Treatment

Sulphate reduction and precipitation of metals (Kar et al. 1992 Drury 1999 Chang et al. 2000). Various workers have developed pilot scale rectors for H2S production and metal precipitation using straw, wood shavings, spent mushroom compost and gravel substrates (Bechard et al. 1989 Dvorak et al. 1991 Lyew et al. 1994). The proprietary processes currently available in market are PAQUES THIOPAQ process and NTBC Research Crop- the biosulphide process. Glombitza (2001) has described a pilot scale process for the treatment of mine water from a lignite mine in Germany. In this process SRB were immobilized on porous media and methanol was used as a carbon source. During process, metal removal ability reached to 100 and pH increased from 3.0 to 6.9. Apart from strictly anaerobic process aerobic bioreactors are used to oxidize ferrous iron, as a part of multi-stage process employed for the treatment of mine water. Microbial biomass dead or alive is used as biosorbent for the sorption of metals...

Removal From Wwtp

WWTPs and drinking-water suppliers are deeply interested in such technological developments to improve the quality of the water. The limiting factors are the costs of all these technologies when they need to be implemented at real scale, since they will have a direct cost for the consumer, therefore increasing water prices. So, compromises will always be needed in selecting the most appropriate technology that is cost-effective. It is also clear that more efforts should also be directed towards reducing the contaminants loads to WWTPs, so, for instance, by not throwing away unused pharmaceutical into the waste or into the toilet. 33 and 25 of the unused drugs in Germany and Austria, respectively, are disposed with the household waste or down the drain. Such compounds will enter the environment intact. Disposal habits of the American public indicate that only 1.4 of Americans returned unused medication to the pharmacy, whereas 54 threw them away and 35.4 disposed...


Packaging comprises several types of products transportation packaging, loose-fill packaging, bags and foils, as well as one-way cups and dishes 49 . As to all applications connected with transport, weight of the packaging as well as transportation distances are of major importance for results of studies, for example, Madival et al. 51 . General conclusions can only be drawn ifassessment is restricted on the material where, for example, loose- fill packaging from corn starch is shown to have advantages compared to expanded polystyrol 49 or PLA drinking cups from corn are shown to perform better compared to polystyrene drinking cups 52 . For comparison of one- way to returnable packing, the number of cycles is a crucial issue. A study on bags for collection of compostable waste identifies an auxiliary process, that is, cleaning of sacks and provision of hot water and detergent, as the most influencing factor 49 .


- Several workers recommended a promising strategy by boosting the bio-remediation of contaminated soil with cheap biomass products such as alfalfa, sawdust, chopped potato waste, apple pomace, cow and chicken manure, straw, or molasses in compost systems 215, 415-417 . These applications have led to transformations of TNT of more than 95 414,415, 417 and were often accompanied by detoxification effects 414,418 .

Liquid Delivery

Electron donors are often injected into the groundwater, and similar solutions can be directly applied to the vadose zone. Application methods could include sprinkler irrigation (O'Niell and Nzengung 2003 AWMA 2003), direct injection or periodic flooding via infiltration galleries. One method, known as Surface Application and Mobilization of Nutrient Amendments (SAMNAS), has been studied at the bench, pilot and field scale (Kastner et al., 2001 Nzengung et al., 2001 O'Niell and Nzengung, 2003 AWMA 2003). In this approach, liquid and solid amendments are mixed in with surface soils (0-1 meters m or 0-3 feet ft ) and mobilized or leached with water to greater depths to stimulate perchlorate biodegradation. The liquid and solid amendments evaluated included ethanol, acetate, molasses, mushroom compost tea , mushroom compost, cow and horse manure, and chicken manure. The liquid nutrient amendments generally perform better at sites where the contamination is deep or the clay content is...

Case Studies

Two full-scale and three pilot-scale demonstrations of anaerobic composting or ex situ bioremediation for treatment of perchlorate in soil have been identified. Three demonstrations of in situ bioremediation of perchlorate-contaminated vadose zone soils have been performed. These case studies are summarized in Table 11.1. (7.5 mg kg), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (130 mg kg), 2-nitrotoluene (11 mg kg) and 4-nitrotoluene (9.5 mg kg) were treated with mushroom compost and cow manure on a 0.4 hectare (ha) (1 acre) site to the water table at 2 m (7 ft) bgs. The shallow groundwater contained perchlorate at 230 mg L, and other co-contaminants, such as chlorinated organic solvents, including perchloroethene (PCE) and its reductive dechlorination products. The site was subdivided into three sections 2 3 of the southern section of the plot was treated with 459 m3 (600 yd3) of mushroom compost 1 3 of the northern portion of the plot separated into a northeast section (1 6 of the total area) was...

Food Industry

Remote Developing Methane Digester

Food waste recycling can take place through aerobic fermentation (composting) or anaerobic fermentation (biogas) processing. Composting is a process that involves biological decomposition of organic matter, under controlled conditions, into soil conditioner or organic fertilizer through aerobic fermentation.10 While anaerobic fermentation process involves biological decomposition of organic waste under controlled conditions to produce fertilizer and biogas.11 Aerobic fermentation is the decomposition of organic material in the presence of air. During the composting process, microorganisms consume oxygen, while CO2, water, and heat are released as result of microbial activity, as shown in Figure 1.21. Four main factors control the composting process moisture content, nutrition (carbon nitrogen ratio), temperature, and oxygen (aeration). FIGURE 1.21 Composting process. FIGURE 1.21 Composting process. 2. Carbon to nitrogen ratio. Microorganisms responsible for the decomposition of...

Who Pays

Local authorities are increasingly charging householders in proportion to the quantity of waste they produce - commonly known as variable rate charging. Variable rate charging does lead to increased participation in recycling composting programmes, or to consumers actively seeking products that generate less waste. In Oostzaan (Netherlands) the introduction of variable rate charging in 1998 led to a 38 reduction in waste arisings, and a 60 fall in the generation of residual waste (waste neither recovered nor recycled). Variable rate charging schemes can reduce the amount of household waste generated and also reduce the actual per capita cost for the service, while increasing recycling rates. In Hainaut province, Belgium, increased landfill costs and high waste collection taxes prompted the authorities to raise additional monies via variable rate charging. Unit pricing (per bag put out for collection) resulted in 40 less waste going to landfill. In some areas those who exceeded a...


A potential alternative to remove heavy metals from wastewater is to use naturally-occurring humic substances as sorbent due to their richness in organic functional groups such as carboxylic acid, and others. Chromium can be removed from water with both aquatic plants and dead biomasses, or humic substances. Vegetable-based waste materials have been used as natural adsorbent for Cr6+ coirpith (Sumathi et al. 2005) , sawdust (Acar and Malkoc 2004) , rice husk and rice husk carbon (Bishnoi et al. 2004) , hazelnut shell carbon (Kobya 2004) and debris of aquatic plants (Hu et al. 2003). Batch tests on gravel, compost, sterilized compost and mixture of gravel + compost formerly carried out by the authors proved that the gravel contribution to the Cr6+ removal is quite negligible. Besides, the removal observed was predominantly due to the biomass activity, which converted Cr6+ into Cr3+ under a stable form, such as Cr(OH)3. The Freundlich isotherm has been particularly used to model the...

Lca Techniques

The solid waste from the biological process is exclusively biomass, which is returned to the soil as a nutrient after composting. The compost contains the predominant part of the nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients used in fermentation. The chemical process produces, in addition to a reduced amount of biomass, solid chemical wastes (distillation and filter residues) which have to be incinerated. Source Roche

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