The Clean Air Act (CAA) (42 U.S.C. ยงยง7401 et seq. [2000]) is the comprehensive federal law that regulates air emissions from area, stationary, and mobile sources. The Act has various aspects that have been significantly modified since it was first promulgated in 1970, with the most significant changes occurring as a result of the 1990 amendments to the CAA. A detailed description of the CAA and its requirements is beyond the scope of this chapter. There are certain aspects of the Act which could impact bioremediation activities and which should be highlighted.

The current version of the CAA is composed of 11 titles:

Title I, Attainment and Maintenance of National Ambient Air Quality Standards;

Title II, Mobile Sources;

Title III, Hazardous Air Pollutants;

Title IV, Acid Deposition Control;

Title V, Permits;

Title VI, Stratospheric Ozone Protection;

Title VII, Enforcement;

Title VIII, Miscellaneous;

Title IX, Clean Air Research;

Title X, Disadvantaged Business Concerns; and

Title XI, Clean Air Employment Transition Assistance

Bioremediation activities under the CAA can be either a source of emissions or a treatment technology utilized to control emissions from an emissions source.

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