Bulk density is defined as the mass of dry soil per total soil volume and may be estimated from the dry weight of a soil core sample. Particle density is the ratio of dry soil mass to unit volume of soil particles, the latter of which may be determined from the volume of water displaced by the soil particles. Moisture content is the mass of water per mass of dry soil and may be determined by gravimetry after oven drying. The density of water is assumed to be 1 g ml-1.
The soil gas diffusion constant (Ds) can now be calculated as a function of soil moisture content and porosity:
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