Professional Makeup For Beginners

Professional Makeup For Beginners

Make-Up for Beginners: Learn Doing Make-Up like a Pro is an online course created by Lana Vallo. It helps individuals do their makeups in a professional way such that they are durable, last for long and enhance beauty. It transforms you into an expert that other people will turn to for help over and over. Subscribing to this program guarantees you more beautiful than ever before. The course was designed following an increasing demand for brand-neutral, timely, and professional advice on the skill of makeup. Enrolling to the course does not require any special tool or requirements. Nonetheless, once you are done with the sessions you will require professional makeup brushes and other necessary tools including a complete makeup kit. It will also be necessary that you find a model for putting into practice all the strategies covered by the video tutorials, especially if you aspire to do makeups for other individuals. This is a fantastic program with thousands of positive reviews. It will significantly improve your skills and make you an expert in the makeup industry. Payment is processed via ClickBank and the product has a 60-day warranty. Continue reading...

Makeup For Beginners Summary


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Estimation of Dermal Exposure to the Main Nitro and Polycyclic Musks from Cosmetics and Hygienic Products

Under the assumptions given above, including 10 absorption in the skin, the systemic exposure (bioavailable fraction) after the dermal use of the musk containing cosmetics hygienic products may be estimated to 1.1 mg MX, 1.8 mg AHTN and 4.6 mg HHCB person-1 day-1. It should however be emphasized that the tentative estimation of the dermal exposure reflects a highly conservative approach in terms of use, skin retention and, particularly the expected absorption rate. In real life the exposure of an average consumer using cosmetic hygienic products may be expected to be substantially lower.

Amphoteric Zwitterionic

Amphoteric surfactants (Fig. 23) are surface-active agents containing both anionic and cationic functional groups or moieties capable of carrying both ionic charges 314 . However, the term amphoteric surfactants or amphoterics is used generally to refer to materials that show amphoteric properties. The term ampholytes or ampholytic surfactants, though synonymous with amphoterics, is used to refer more specifically to surfactants which can accept or donate a proton, such as amino acids. A simple example of this type is 3-dimethyldo-decylaminepropane sulfonate (DMDAPS). Within this group are also a number of important natural triglycerides (e.g., lecithin) and alkylbetaines. The latter are obtained by reacting an alkyldimethylamine with sodium chloroacetate and, because they are compatible with skin, they are used in the cosmetics field 352 .

The Notification of New Substances Regulations

The definition of a New Substance is limited by the enforcement date of the sixth amendment to the Dangerous Substances Directive mentioned earlier (79 831 EEC), which differentiates between new and existing substances. Existing substances are listed in the European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS), which was published in the Official Journal of the European Union on 15 June 1990. The Inventory lists 100,196 entries, which were on the EU market between 1 January 1971 and 18 September 1981. Chemicals introduced after 1981 are listed in the European List of Notified Chemical Substances (ELINCS), which is periodically updated in an Official Journal (OJ). New chemicals in this category do not include pesticides, veterinary medicines, biocides, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, foodstuffs, radioactive materials, chemical wastes and substances used only in scientific research in small quantities.

Key aspects of a quality system based on the Principles of Good Laboratory Practice

In the early 1960s, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) became aware that some studies on the safety of new chemicals performed by TFs for regulatory purposes were basically unreliable. Evidence was in fact provided of major adverse effects of such substances which had not been reported at the time when the authorization for production and commerce was granted. In the early 1970s, the US Congress undertook the re-assessment of studies submitted by some TFs to Regulatory Authorities (RAs) and suspected to be fraudulent. Under such conditions thousands and thousands of safety studies on industrial chemicals, pesticides, herbicides, drugs, cosmetics and food and feed additives were

Forbes Wolfe Nanotech Reports

Given the range of cosmetics using nanoparticulate metal oxides primarily for UV protection it is interesting to note a cosmetics product containing fullerene in the list. In this case the fullerene is claimed to have antioxidant properties. Carbon nanotubes have been used as a reinforcing component in a new baseball bat. Silver nanoparticles feature again, this time in socks where enhanced bonding of the 19 nm silver particles to the polyester fibres is claimed to provide enhanced and longer-lasting antimicrobial and antifungal performance. A novel chewing gum having chocolate flavour, which is apparently difficult to achieve, has been produced using ''nanoscale crystals'' of unknown chemistry to enhance the compatibility of the cocoa butter with the polymers that are used to give the gum elasticity. So-called self-cleaning windows and paint surfaces are also included in the top 10. These are based on photoactive titanium dioxide with the windows gaining a further benefit when it...

The Compelling Need To Understand The Potential Effects Of Oil Spills On Human Health

Finally, Overton described the chemical makeup of oils and oil dispersants and explained what happens when oil spills into the environment he emphasized the dynamic nature of the composition of oil spilled into the environment and how exposure varies across time and space.

Environmental Exposures Excluding Food

While the consumers are using products containing organic and inorganic chemicals indoors, not only can they expose themselves to high chemical concentrations, but increased concentrations can also persist in the air long after the activity is completed. Among the chemicals often found inside are carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, methylene chloride, and tetrachloroethylene. Carbon monoxide is generated as a product of incomplete combustion from sources, which include home furnaces and fireplaces. Similarly, nitrogen dioxide may be found in houses with poorly vented fireplaces and furnaces. Formaldehyde is found in many products used around the house, such as antiseptics, medicines, cosmetics, dishwashing liquids, fabric softeners, shoe-care agents, carpet cleaners, glues, adhesives, lacquers,

Cohesive Energy Density And Solubility Parameter

The sum of the various attractive forces that hold the molecules of a substance in a liquid or solid state is called the coheSive energy. The magnitude of this energy is not only a function of the molecular makeup but also of the molecular size. Types of cohesive forces that operate in uncharged liquids and solids include the induced dipole-induced dipole force (also called the London force), the dipole-dipole force (the Debye force), the dipole-induced dipole force (the KeeSom force), and the H-bonding force. With the possible exception of the H-bonding force, these molecular forces are frequently lumped together as the van der WaalS forceS. The London force, also referred to as the diSperSion force, originates from the momentary distortion of electrons around nuclei and is thus operative in all molecules. This molecular force is temperature independent and is the sole attractive force for nonpolar substances. On the other hand, the involvement of dipolar and H-bonding forces for a...

Mass Production and Product Development of a Microbial Pest Control Agent

Abstract The feasibility of economic mass production of the selected strain and the development of a stable product are key factors to a successful microbial pest control product. Two phases are distinguished, the development of the production process, and the development of the product, including formulation, packaging and field testing. The critical technical and economic factors are identified and evaluated for the four types of pathogens. Various production systems are reviewed. Bacteria, fungi and entomopathogenic nematodes are generally produced in vitro. Baculoviruses must be produced in vivo. Advantages and disadvantages in terms of costs, manageability and versatility are provided for each production system. The development of a stable product that is able to deliver effective pest control requires a formulation. The four main objectives in formulation are to stabilize the propagules to make a user-friendly product to protect the propagule, once applied and to minimize risks...

Human Milk as Bioindicator SetUp of a Pilot Study

Human milk and adipose tissue is a widely employed bioindicator of the actual body burden of liphophilic and persistent compounds.While studies of a long-term exposure to organochlorine contaminants as well as studies of time-related trends in environmental contamination have already been conducted for several decades, the occurrence of musk compounds in these matrices were reported as late as at the beginning of the 1990s 22,23a,b . Regarding human exposure to synthetic musks, dietary intake seems to be negligible in this context, since meaningful contamination of food was found only in aquatic organisms (specifically freshwater fish) and not in other food of terrestrial animal origin. The main route of musks uptake is probably via dermal absorption due to frequent and intense dermal contact with fragrances contained in cosmetics and washed textiles 5,23b, 25 . Before the pilot study presented here, no data were available in the Czech Republic for the assessment of human exposure by...

Regulatory Authorities In Health

At the federal level, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has a broader mission, including but not limited to, setting national priorities, providing technical assistance, conducting multistate or rare disease outbreak investigations, and serving as an authority to policy makers and Congress. Parallel organizations fulfilling the same roles exist in all countries, with differing levels of capacity and resources. In the United States, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) fund research on diseases, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates foods, drugs, and cosmetics, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) sets standards for farming and animal husbandry, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets standards for acceptable pollutant levels, funds

Malignant Neoplasms Cancer

Cancer is any malignant growth in the body. It is an uncontrolled multiplication of abnormal body cells. The cause of the various types of cancer is unknown, circumstantial, or unclear except for cigarette smoking and exposure to ionizing radiation. There does not appear to be a dosage or level of exposure to cigarette smoking or ionizing radiation below which there is no risk. Viruses, genetic background, poor health, and exposure to various agents in our air, water, food, drugs, and cosmetics are believed to contribute to the disease. Some environmental substances become carcinogenic only after metabolism within the body, and gene-environment interactions are believed to be crucial in determining an individual's risk to developing cancer from exposure to toxins.

Opportunities For Biotechnology Genetics

The first, most obvious area providing an opportunity for the development and application of a biotechnological approach is that of the genetics of corals. For coral restoration, the first consideration is to be able to produce a source of coral recruits for out-planting into the reef environment and outgrowth in an aquaculture setting for production of young corals for the aquarium trade. In recent years, there has been mass destruction of reefs, particularly in the Pacific, because of indiscriminate acquisition of fish and corals to supply the huge demand of the worldwide aquarium trade. An important consideration when developing a plan for out-planting of new recruits to the reef is the genetic makeup of existing populations of corals, which is still an open question. Recent ecological evidence predicts that most recruitment occurs locally. Sam-marco and Andrews (1988) found that the number of recruited larvae significantly decreased with distance from the source of larvae after a

Dimerisation or Oligomerisation

Dimerisation of unsaturated fatty acid is a liquid phase batch process, which was studied by Jonson et al. 77 with montomorillonite clay as heteregeneous catalyst in the reaction. The major product groups are dimmers, trimers and isostearic acid. These fractions of the product are applied in lubricants, adhesives, epoxy coatings, printing inks and cosmetics. Homogeneous catalysts have been used in Isostearic acid and its derivatives showed good pour point and thermo-oxidative properties like oleic acid, therefore, are ideal raw materials for lubricants, cosmetics and plastic additives 78 .

Industrial Use of Microbial SCOs

SCOs are interesting intermediates for several industrial applications. Due to their chemical functionality available in their structure, they are excellent bioresources for the production of detergents, biopolymers, and other oleochemi-cals -32 . Because of their high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, SCOs are suited for high- value products in the cosmetics, food, and pharmaceutical industry 33 . Gamma linolenic acid (GLA, 18 3(n-6)), for example, is an o> 6 fatty acid with anticancerous and anti-i nflammatory properties and can, therefore, be used as dietary supplement for treating problems with inflammation and autoimmune diseases.

Populations That Are Unusually Susceptible

A susceptible population will exhibit a different or enhanced response to chlorophenols than will most persons exposed to the same level of chlorophenols in the environment. Reasons include genetic makeup, developmental stage, age, health and nutritional status (including dietary habits that may increase susceptibility, such as inconsistent diets or nutritional deficiencies), and substance exposure history (including smoking). These parameters may result in decreased function of the detoxification and excretory processes (mainly hepatic, renal, and respiratory) or the preexisting compromised function of target organs (including effects or clearance rates and any resulting end-product metabolites). For these reasons we expect the elderly, with declining organ function, and the youngest of the population, with immature and developing organs, will generally be more vulnerable to toxic substances than healthy adults. Populations who are at greater risk due to their unusually high exposure...

Basics Of The Nmr Toolbox

Nuclear magnetic resonance is best known for its ability to study chemical and spatial structure, thus making it seem like an ideal method for addressing the chemical makeup and conformational issues raised in the preceding section. An understanding of the fundamentals of NMR is essential to understanding how this technique has been so successfully applied in the fields of chemistry, polymer science, and structural biology and the underlying assumptions and manipulations in the application of NMR. The following section highlights the aspects of NMR theory and application that are appropriate to the aim of this chapter for a more comprehensive review of the NMR technique, the reader is referred to a number of excellent monographs on the

Toxicity of the Synthetic Alkalis

Manufacturer, cosmetics, soap and detergent, leather processing industry, metal processing industry, water treatment plants, etc. The estimated worldwide demand of sodium hydroxide was 44 million tons in 1999. The global demand is expected to grow 3.1 per year (SAL 2006). In Figure 14.6, CMAI (2005) reported that 62 million

Risk Evaluation of Dietary and Dermal Exposure to Musk Fragrances

Abstract Synthetic musk compounds comprising nitro musks, polycyclic musks and macro-cyclic musks are used in fragrances which are added to a variety of cosmetic as well non-cosmetic household products. The main source of human exposure to musks is fresh water fish, as a result of water contamination from the sewage plants, and a dermal application of cosmetics. The musks accumulate in human adipose tissue and significant levels are present in breast milk. The most frequently used polycyclic compounds AHTN and HHCB as well as nitro musks musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) show a low acute and subchronic toxi-city and no indication of teratogenicity or reproduction toxicity. The substances do not show a mutagenic potential but MX was found to be tumorigenic in animal experiments probably due to non-genotoxic mechanism based on a significant hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme induction. The hepatic microsomal enzyme induction activity under the development seen in the animal experiments...

HPPO and In Situ HPPO Processes HP Generation by Direct Oxidation of H2 DSHP

The DSHP is carried out in an alcoholic solvent, and produces dilute solutions of HP. The dilute methanol solution obtained might be suitable for selected organic syntheses. Clearly, the direct synthesis might be aimed at covering a small part of the HP market, also because the major use of HP (over 50 for bleaching paper, wood, and textiles, the remainder being distributed among applications in the fields of detergents, disinfectants and cosmetics) requires aqueous solutions with concentrations of between 30 and 70 4 . Chemical applications for HP currently constitute less than 10 of all the applications ofthis product however, a new, cost-effective HP-inorganic solution could be available for chemical oxidation in industrial applications, for example, in phenol and epichlorhydrin manufacture.

Energy Consumption And Capital Cost Comparison For Material Separation Processes

Actual uses of UC include purification and separation of viruses, testing of semiconductors and protein separation in the manufacture of cosmetics, as well as protein separation from human and animal serum. Potential uses include protein or viral and bacterial separation in special food applications, and the analysis of water samples for biomass, pesticide contamination, and minerals.

Changing Demand From Chemical Choosers aka Consumer Goods Companies

The cosmetics industry is another chemical chooser ripe for change. The European Union amended its Cosmetics Directive in January 2003 to outlaw carcinogens, mutagens, and reproductive toxicants in cosmetics. Member states of the European Union are required to comply by September 2004.71 Not only will companies marketing cosmetics in Europe need to change formulations, but companies marketing cosmetics in the United States will either need to follow suit or argue to American women that they need not worry about the risks from such chemicals. These and other such choices will flow down the supply chain to chemical producers.

Introduction The Adipic Acid Market

The major non-nylon uses of AA are in polyester polyols (for polyurethane resins, 25 of AA production), in plasticizers (7 dioctyl adipate, diisodecyl adipate, etc. for vinyl chloride, nitrocellulose and cellulose acetate polymers), resins (2 unsaturated polyesters) and 3 for miscellaneous applications, such as a food ingredient in gelatins, and as a component in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, fertilizers, paper, cements, waxes, and so on.

Environmental Concentrations

Musk ketone and musk xylene, as well as the polycyclic musks, are mostly used in detergents, other cleaning products and cosmetics that finally end up in domestic wastewater. Surface water concentrations are found to vary largely, with higher concentrations clearly related to samples in close proximity to STP discharge points. As for the polycyclic musks, the data for freshwater samples taken in Germany, The Netherlands and Switzerland were combined into a frequency distribution. The median of more than 170 samples was < 0.005 mg L-1 and the 90th-percentile was 0.04 mg L-1 1, 35-37 . The concentrations of musk xylene were considerably lower. The median of the concentrations measured in the highly loaded German River Ruhr was 0.01 g L-1 1 . Likewise, the median and 90th-percentile of the concentrations measured in freshwater fish from Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland and Italy were around 10 and 100 mg kg-1 ww for musk ketone 1,38-42 , whereas the concentrations of musk xylene...

Medical and Pharmaceutical Application

It is produced under recombinant conditions and purified to a level 99 by chromatography and hence pure 100 keratinase is suitable for its application in bio-medicine, pharmacy and cosmetics. This enzyme can be used for treatment of acne, psoriasis, human callus and degradation of skin, depilation and treatment of scars and epithelium regeneration. The enzyme is also reported as good for preparation of vaccine for dermatophytosis therapy (http shop keratinase).

Final Remarks And Perspectives Of A Continuously Changing Market

The economic impact of restrictions on surfactants use in business is very relevant. The four main outlets for surfactants are household, cosmetics and toiletries, food processing and industrial and institutional cleaning which already account for half of the total surfactant market. In these markets, a limited number of surfactant types remains dominant, namely LAS, AEs, alcohol sulfates (ASs) and alcohol ether sulfates (AESs). Despite the repetitive declarations of the surfactant industry classifying LAS as intrinsically environmentally safe 20 with sufficient safety margins 21 posing no significant threat in the long term 13 , Sweden has adopted a substitution of LAS in detergent products. Due to the comparatively high toxicity and the poor anaerobic biodegradability, this country banned the synthetic compound and replaced it with other surfactants, such as AS or AES, capable of fulfilling the same cleaning function 22 . Denmark has likewise demonstrated a move away from widespread...

Introduction Current Industrial Propene Oxide Production

Polyurethane products and formulated systems are used in rigid foams, flexible foams, adhesives, sealants, coatings and elastomers, as well as in many other applications. Propene glycols are used in a wide variety of end-use and industrial applications, from unsaturated polyester resins, cosmetics and household detergents, to paints and automotive brake fluids. Propene glycol ethers are commonly The overall annual growth rate for polyether polyols, propene glycol and propene glycol ethers is more than 3 , which corresponds to a demand of approximately 200 000-300 000 tons of PO. This demand is primarily driven by end-use applications, including unsaturated polyester resins, food, cosmetics, anti-freeze and aircraft de-icing fluids. The improved biodegradability and biocompatibility of propene glycol and polyalkylene glycols, with respect to the analogous products obtained from ethene oxide, allow them to be used in food product additives, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Demand for...

Green Boric Acid Powder Lubricant

To be 23 MPa, and its coefficient of friction has been measured to be less than 0.02 in ambient environments. These values are very similar to the more commonly used and synthetic-based molybdenum disulphide, which has a measured shear strength value of 24 MPa. Two other important characteristics of boric acid for use as a lubricant are that it is readily available and environmentally safe. In its solid form, boric acid is a weakly acidic white powder that is soluble in water (about 27 wt in boiling water and about 6 at room temperature), soft, ductile, stable, free flowing, and easily handled. It is very inexpensive, as finely ground technical grade boric acid powder (> 99 pure) is commercially available for less than US 4.5 per kilogram. The Environmental Protection Agency has established that boric acid is benign 10, 47 and the Clean Water Act does not classify it as a pollutant. In fact, a dilute water solution of boric acid is also commonly used as a mild antiseptic and...

Occurrence of volatile nitrosamines

National Academy of Sciences 6 listed the following values for NOC concentration in foods. In England, fried bacon contained 1-20 (occasionally up to 200), 0.1-0.5 and 0.1-0.25 mg kg of NPYR, NDMA and N-nitrosopiperidine. Cured meat in the United States and United Kingdom contained less than 1 mg kg of volatile nitrosamines. In the U.K., 80 of uncooked and fried fish samples contained detectable NDMA, with about one-third of the samples showing 1-10 mg kg of NDMA and the rest showing lower levels. Japanese broiled salted dried fish and shellfish showed up to 310 and up to 13 mg kg of NDMA and NPYR, with the highest values in dried squid. In 1986, levels in mg kg of home-cooked fried bacon were reported to be 17, 4, 9 and 0.7 for NPYR, NDMA, N-nitrosothiazolidine and N-nitrosopiperidine 158 . The fried-out fat contained somewhat higher levels of these nitrosamines. In the United States, in 1981, the mean daily intake of volatile nitrosamines in mg person was estimated...

Sustainable Energy Development

Different technologies that are sustainable for a long term and do not produce any greenhouse gases are presented. Technology plays a vital role in modern society. The use of thousands of toxic chemicals in fossil fuel refining and industrial processes that make products for personal care, such as body lotion, cosmetics, soaps, and others, has polluted much of the world in which we live (Chhetri et al. 2006 The Globe and Mail 2006). Present day technologies are based on the use of fossil fuels for primary energy supply, production or

Polycyclic Musk Compounds

Fig. 5 Frequency distribution of nitro musks in cosmetics 37,49 Fig. 5 Frequency distribution of nitro musks in cosmetics 37,49 compounds, another group of nitro-free musks. Compared to the nitro musk compounds, they are superior in terms of resistance to light and alkali and in their abilities to bind to fabrics 3,5,6,15 . Accordingly, they are mainly used in cosmetics and detergents. The most important representatives of this class of musks are (AHTN) and (HHCB) followed by (ADBI) and (ATII) 5,51 . HHCB was used in higher amounts than AHTN in the early 1970s, due to more advanced production procedures and lower price. Since the 1980s these parameters have been comparable for both compounds 15 . 1500 tonnes AHTN and 3800 tonnes HHCB are used per year in the USA and in Europe 51 . These production volumes amount to about 95 of the commercially used polycyclic musk compounds 52 . In contrast, (ATTN) (Table 3) is only of historical importance. Owing to its neurotoxic properties,...

Marble And Granite Industry

Marble Mining Ways

Marble and granite industry is considered one of the oldest and largest industries in the world. Marble and granite have been used in Egypt since the time of the ancient Egyptians. Historically, the industry moved from labor-intensive to capital-intensive with the advent of technological advancement, including development of automated production tools such as cranes and diamond-cutting wires. Marble consists mainly of calcite or dolomite, or a combination of these carbonate minerals. Marble is a type of metamorphic rock formed from limestone. It is formed from limestone by heat and pressure in the earth's crust that causes the limestone to change in texture and makeup (recrystallization process). Impurities present in the limestone during recrystallization affect the mineral composition of the marble that forms. The minerals that result from impurities give marble wide variety of colors. The purest calcite marble is white. Marble containing hematite has a reddish color. Marble that...

Aerosol Sources Composition and Size Fractions

In any given ambient atmosphere, the aerosols present come in many shapes and sizes and from many different sources. Understanding the makeup, composition, and origin of atmospheric aerosols is quite a complex and broad field, and the field of aerosol science is an extensive branch of science in its own right. Here, we will focus briefly on particular aspects that are of direct relevance to ambient gas particle partitioning. Readers interested in further details are referred to relevant textbooks as a good starting point, such as those by Hinds (1999) and Seinfeld and Pandis (2006).

Hybrid Unit Operations

The next generation of commercial processes using catalytic distillation technology will be in the manufacture of oxygenates and fuel additives or in the synthesis of a range of fatty acid esters used in the manufacture of cosmetics, detergents and surfactants 49 . In general, many reactions in the field of use ofbioresources can gain significant advantage from using reactive distillation for PI.

Waxes 1411 Introduction

Waxes are used as additives into lubricants, adhesives, coatings, sealants, impregnation materials and adjuvants, etc. A wide range of commercial products rely on waxes, including automobiles, textiles, papers and specialty inks, pesticides, candles, plastics and wood-plastic composites, furniture and shoe polish, household cleaners, cosmetics, dental treatment products, drugs and food (chewing gum, cheese packaging, confectionery coating) 2 . Waxes are currently generated by (1) chemical syntheses, (2) obtained from geological deposits originating from fossils, or (3) obtained from living organisms (recent waxes). The vast majority of waxes are based either on alkane or on ester structures. Synthetic waxes are mainly generated by the Fischer-Tropsch process (CO + H2) and olefin (ethylene, propylene) polymerization, producing mixtures of normal and branched alkanes 3 . Fossil waxes are extracted from crude oil and coal deposits, and consist of alkanes and alkyl ester mixtures...

New Raw Materials for White Biotechnology

According to Busch et al. 18 , agriculture currently generates large quantities of residues and by-products in Europe, which have only to be added to the value chain shown in Figure 5.1 at a lower level. These residual substances include, for example, whey, molasses, potato proteins, and loppings, which in turn contain a variety of compounds, which could form an inexpensive basis for new, premium products, for example, in the pharmaceutical, food, feed, and cosmetics industries. According to Soetaert and Vandamme 1 , the following industrial sectors supply the most important renewable raw materials (i) the sugar and starch sector-it produces carbohydrates such as sugar, glucose, starch, and molasses from plant raw materials such as sugar beet, sugarcane, wheat, corn, potatoes, sweet cassava, rice, etc. (ii) the oil and fat processing sector - it produces numerous oleo-chemical intermediates such as triglycerides, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, and glycerol from plant raw materials like...

Manganese removal

Diagram Specie Manganese Versus

Thus it follows that virtually all raw waters entering a treatment plant will contain some manganese the extent of the manganese concentration in the water will depend in particular on the geochemical makeup of the environment from which the water (surface or sub-surface) is drawn, and (usually) to lesser extents on the fauna composition of any catchment, and on the possibility of anthropogenic inputs associated with agricultural processes or waste dumping.

Manganese Associated Problems

In-plant removal of manganese can be achieved by use of chemical oxidants, including air, or by microbial oxidation both Knocke et. al. 34 and Degremont 10 have extensively reviewed the various approaches. The choice of point of oxidation will depend upon the actual physical makeup of equipment of the plant and upon the nature of input water. Chemical oxidation may be undertaken, often with pH raising, upon raw water entering the plant, or upon water that has undergone flocculation prior to, or during, filtration. Aeration of incoming raw water, if physically possible, is a useful initial approach to manganese removal it can be seen as an extension replacement for reservoir destratification. Both chlorine and permanganate can be added to the raw water, usually with pH elevation above 8, to remove manganese in flocculation, although it should be noted that pre-chlorination of this type is very likely to yield chlorinated organics.

Theres Something in the

Later I'll drive through neighborhoods surrounding the factories that turn fossil fuel into the ingredients of plastics solvents fertilizers pesticides lubricants synthetic fibers surfactants pharmaceuticals moisture, stain, and flame repellants cosmetics and household cleaning and personal care products. Families in these neighborhoods carry the chemical constituents of these products in their bloodstreams.2 Hospitalization rates in their communities are significantly higher than elsewhere in Canada as are rates of respiratory and cardiovascular disease. People who live here also have notably higher incidences of certain cancers Hodgkin's disease and leukemia than do other Ontario residents.3 It's becoming increasingly clear that these illnesses are related to the thousands of tons of airborne pollutants that circulate through these communities. These chemicals may also impact residents' health in far less overt or acute ways, prompting subtle but significant changes in how genetic...

Polyurethane Degradation

Santerre et al. (1994) studied the amount of degradation products released by varying the physical makeup of the polyester PU, as coatings on glass tubes or as films. This implied that while urethane and urea groups are susceptible to hydrolysis, they are not always accessible to the enzyme and degradation may never proceed past the polymer surface. Although the polyether PU showed no significant degradation, they consistently showed higher radiolabel products release from soft-segment-labeled, enzyme-incubated samples than controls. The author has attributed these results to the shielding of ester sites by secondary structures and hydrogen bonding within the hard segment. Santerre and Labow (1997) tested the effect of hard segment size on the stability of PU against cleavage. Analysis was performed with polyether PU and their susceptibility to cholesterol esterase. Three polyether PU were synthesized with varying molar ratios of 14C -diisocyanate to chain extender and constant...

Synthetic Musk Compounds

Musk compounds traditionally belong to the most important substances used in the fragrance industry 28 . On one hand this is due to their odor properties which can be divided into types such as animal-like, flowery, and fruity. On the other hand,they are appreciated because of their abilities to improve the fixation of compounds and to round off fragrance compositions 3,29 . Increased fixation improves the effectiveness of fragrances by slowing down the release of volatiles, thus contributing to a defined and stable quality over an extended period 2 . They are also known to bind fragrances to fabrics. Therefore, they are added as perfumery ingredients not only to cosmetics but also to detergents 30 .

N C Vieceli E R Lovatel E M Cardoso I N Filho

Plasticizers are organic esters added to polymers to facilitate processing and to increase flexibility and toughness of the final product by internal modification of the polymer molecule. Due to their use in packaging, clothes, films, paints, adhesives, cosmetics, ink printers and many other products, plasticizers compounds are widespread in all environments. Several plasticizers were detected in mineral, ultra pure and tap waters 1 , municipal solid waste compost


Esters of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (phthalic acid esters, PAEs, phthalates) comprise a group of organic compounds used in large quantities by present day society (Fig. 17). The worldwide production of PAEs was estimated to be 4.2 x 109 kg during 1994 and has increased by roughly 50 during the last 20 years 214 . PAEs are mainly used as plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics and may constitute up to 67 of their total weight. They are also used in a variety of other products such as cosmetics, ammunition, inks, etc. 215 . Due to their broad range of applications, PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. In 1975, the rate of PAEs entering the environment was estimated at approximately 2.3 x 107 kg annually as a result of leaching from plastic wastes and the direct application of various formulations 216 .


Surfactants (Fig. 23) represent one of the major and most versatile groups of organic compounds produced around the world 314 . Their main uses are industrial, 54 (cleaning products, food, and industrial processing), household, 29 (laundry, dishwashing, etc.) and personal care, 17 (soaps, shampoos, cosmetics). The worldwide production in 1988 315 was 2.8 million tons. Surfactants, natural 316,317 or synthetic, change the solubility and physico-chemical state of other environmental micro-constituents 318, 319 and influence their accumulation and spreading at phase boundaries 320 .

Starch Production

Organic acids, and enzymes, and also by the chemical industry for the production of surfactants, polyurethanes, resins, and in biodegradable plastics. Starch is also used in the construction industry, for concrete admixtures, plasters, and insulation, as well as in oil drilling, mineral, and metal processing. The paper and board industries are the largest nonfood starch-using sector, using approximately 60 of the total industrial starch. Starch is also used quite extensively in cosmetics and health care products. One product made directly by the fermentation of starch, cyclodextrin, is especially interesting as a fermentation product. In 1998 the global market was estimated between 1800 and 3600 tonnes. As stated by the company, Wacker Chemie had at that time a production capacity of 3000 tonnes. Today, 10 years later, they have increased their production capacity to 7500 tonnes of cyclodextrins a year. These molecules are used as stabilizers and excipients in the pharmaceutical, life...


One of the best understood biosynthetic pathways for terpenoids is the biosynthesis for menthol in mint plants. All the enzymes are identified, cloned, and characterized 43 . Menthol plays an important role as aroma in food, cigarettes, and medications for the pulmonary tract and in cosmetics. Improvements of yield or

Amino Acids

The production of amino acids such as cysteine is sometimes made from plant-based raw materials in a fermentative production process 45 . Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is primarily used in the food industry, for example, for baked goods and flavored production, but it is also used for drugs and cosmetics. Since it is manufactured from purely plant-based and inorganic starting materials, it is also characterized as halal, kosher, and vegetariamgrade. This process has been nominated for the EU Commission's European environmental prize competition and has received the Environmental Prize for Vegetarian Cysteine from the Federation of German Industries. But the main producer of amino acids by fermentation is Evonik Industries, who has established a sophisticated process where 14 different amino acids are currently produced in large-scale industrial production size by fermentation 46 .

Petrochemicals Today

During the past century, petrochemicals have become a vital part of industrial and economic activity around the world. Synthetic polymers are an important part of numerous industrial products, consumer goods, and healthcare applications. Materials such as polystyrene, polyester, and polyvinyl chloride are used in an enormous range of products across a wide variety of market sectors 5 . Textile production, food packaging, construction materials, and communication and entertainment technologies are all reliant on a plentiful supply of plastics. Petrochemicals have also been used extensively as food preservatives, vitamin supplements, refrigerants, antifreeze solutions, cosmetics, detergents, pharmaceuticals, and disinfectants. Chemicals derived from oil have enormous industrial, economic, and social importance.


Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll which has inherent properties like antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic, as well as Vitamin A precursor (Stepnowski et al. 2004). Due to its outstanding antioxidant activity, astaxanthin has been attributed with extraordinary potential for protecting organisms against a wide range of ailments such as cardiovascular problems, different types of cancer and some diseases of the immu-nological system (Quan and Turner 2009) .This pigment finds wide applications in aquaculture, food colorant and cosmetics (Gimeno et al. 2007 Bhaskar et al. 2007). Recently, Sachindra and Mahendrakar (2010) reported that the carotenoids extracted from shrimp waste could be successfully used as coloring agent in fish sausage. In addition, it also enhanced the flavor of the product.

Case Studies

Furthermore, the perfluorinated surfactants, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), used in the production of fire-fighting foams, fabric treatments, cosmetics, and many other consumer products were qualitatively identified POCIS extracts from each site at levels above associated controls 28 .

Prospective Research

The cosmetic industry is the largest user of wax today. Jojoba is a main source for wax in this industry. The other major industry using waxes is the pharmaceutical sector. Cost and availability suggest a need to develop alternative waxes to petroleum oil the dominating raw material for lubricants. Jojoba-type of wax is a suitable choice. Unlike most seed-bearing plants, the oil accumulating in the jojoba seed contains almost all wax esters (97 ) and less than 3 TAGs 42-44 . The main wax esters in jojoba oil are C38-C44, which are in turn composed of mono unsaturated fatty acids and fatty alcohols of 20 and 22 carbon chain length (with one double bond on each side of the ester bond). Jojoba oil contains no trans isomers and is highly resistant to oxidation. In particular, it requires little or no purification and can absorb larger amounts of sulfur. It also imparts unique and beneficial properties when used for a variety of industrial purposes. This oil has outstanding qualities for...

Real World Samples

Real-world solid matrix sorbates are complex mixtures. In SMNOM-oriented studies the remainder of the solid matrix plays a support role literally (as discussed in Section and figuratively. The focus of this discussion will be on the figurative role and its elimination. Solid matrix sorbates consist of a range of components, which can be broken down into biological, inorganic and organic, as discussed in Section 13.2.1. As a whole, the living biological component is viewed as a nuisance in association-based studies and is eliminated with either HgCl2 or NaN3. Either treatment affects the SMNOM however, this alteration is considered acceptable. Another nuisance within the matrix is due to its inorganic components. These components are problematic for two reasons (1) they dilute the SMNOM, and thus, limit AOCs loading, and hence, lower the SNR of the NMR experiments and (2) there are inorganic paramagnetic centers, which are of great concern from the NMR perspective as they...

Exposure Analysis

However, as the material leaves the pipe and enters the ecosystem, it is almost immediately affected by both the biotic and abiotic components of the receiving system. All of the substrate and medium heterogeneity as well as the inherent temporal and spatial characteristics of the biota affect the incoming material. In addition to the state of the system at the time of pollution, the history of the environment as contained in the genetic makeup of the populations plus additional stressors in the past or present all impact the chemical-ecosystem interaction. The goal of the exposure analyses is to quantify the occurrence and availability of the stressor within the ecosystem.

Polycyclic Musks

Use in Cosmetics and Other Non-Food Products Hydroalcoholic cosmetics such as eau de toilettes contain highest level of fragrances with a high percentage of the polycyclic musks. Face creams and body lotions are also an important source of the exposure due to their retention in the skin. The estimated maximum concentration of AHTN and HHCB in the final products has been estimated to 0.96 and 2.4 respectively 6 .


Exposures to phthalate esters have been estimated by numerous government agencies. Based on concentrations of phthalates in the air, water, and food supply, the primary source of exposure is thought to be food. Minor levels of low- and high-MW phthalates can migrate into food from packaging or inks. These levels and the total exposures from food are generally low (estimated to be less than 30 g kg1 d1). Recent studies in the United States conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have measured the levels of excreted monoester in approximately 300 individuals as a means of evaluating total exposure 23 . The study was extended to about an additional 1000 individuals with similar findings. The CDC results indicate that exposure to high-MW phthalate esters is lower than estimated by consumption of food. Conversely, exposure to low-MW phthalates is higher than estimated from levels in food. This finding should not be startling because low-MW phthalate esters are...

Dermal Exposure

Under the assumption of the worst case situation in terms of use and particularly in respect to the absorption through the skin the expected systemic exposure from the cosmetics may be estimated to approximately 18 g MX kg-1 bw, 30 g AHTN kg-1 bw and 77 g HHCB kg-1 bw,respectively. This is about 2.5 times higher than the proposed PTDI, for the MX (7 g MX kg-1 bw), in the same range as PTDI for the AHTN (50 g kg-1 bw) and about 6.5 times lower than the PTDI for HHCB (500 g kg-1 bw) (Table 5). It should be pointed out that there are considerable uncertainties in the assumptions employed in the intake calculations particularly as concerns the absorption of various musk compounds after the topical application. The real life exposure for the musks from fragrances in cosmetics may be expected to be lower. However, because of the incomplete toxicological data the potential risks from the direct use of fragrances in cosmetics should be viewed with caution. In conclusion the toxicological data...

Risk Management

Taking into account the ubiquitous presence of the compounds in the aqueous environment and a low biodegradability of the substances the precautionary principle should be applied in the risk assessment and risk management of musk compounds. The importance of cosmetics as a major source of body exposure to synthetic musks has been recognized by the EU authorities. Recently maximum authorized concentrations in cosmetic products were established for MX and MK (MX 1.0 in fine fragrances, 0.4 in eaux de toilette and 0.03 in other products, MK 1.4 in fine fragrances, 0.56 in eaux de toilette and 0.042 in other products) 60 . Furthermore, the nitro musks MA, MM and MT have earlier been banned from the use in cosmetic products in the EU member states 61, 62 . In addition, the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products intended for Consumers (SCCNFP) of the EU Commission gave opinions on the safe use of the polycyclic musks AHTN and HHCB in cosmetic products 63,64 . Given...

Risk Communication

The professional counselling at, e.g. maternity units should be available in order to explain the conclusions and process of risk analysis. This would hopefully help to calm down possible concerns among women of child bearing age about the health risks arising from the dietary intake of the musk compounds. Accompanying information about the sources of musk compounds as well as the advisory about how to reduce the exposure via, e.g. cosmetics would be a part of the risk communication with this group.


Analytes, such as phenols are only measured under specific conditions in negative mode with a neutral eluent. If this type of compound would have been present in an unknown sample, and different conditions would have been used, the compound would not have been detected 39 . Gramshaw et al. 40 use a dynamic headspace GC-MS method to detect volatiles from dual-ovenable cookware articles made of crystalline PET, thermoset polyester, poly(ethersul-fone) and poly(4-methyl-pent-1-ene) (TPX). Volatiles were concentrated on a cooled TENAX TA trap. Non-volatiles were analysed by a combination of solvent extraction techniques and hydrolysis of the large molecular weight components. Thermoset polyester was found to emit the highest number and quantity of chemicals. Soto-Valdez et al. 41 investigated the release of migrants from nylon microwave and roasting bags. Dynamic headspace GC-MS was used for the volatile compounds whereas non-volatiles were extracted from the material using olive oil. A...

Alkyl Phenols

Alkyl phenol ethoxylates are non-ionic surfactant components of industrial and domestic detergents, paints, cosmetics and pesticide formulations. Nonylphenol-polyethoxylates and octylphenol-polyethoxylates represent the greater part of all alkyl phenol ethoxylates. Biodegradation by sewage treatment process results in the formation of alkyl phenols such as nonylphenol (Fig. 8.10) and octylphenol (Gross et al. 2001). Nonylphenol and octylphenol are hydrophobic and lipophilic and thus can accumulate in sediment and fish adipose tissue. Both alkyl phenol ethoxylates and alkyl phenols are known to have estrogenic properties.

Nitro Musk Compounds

In order to locate potential sources of contamination, the content of nitro musk compounds in low-priced cosmetics and detergents marketed in Germany was surveyed in 1992. It was found that 55 of the investigated cosmetics (perfumes, shaving lotions, shower gels, shampoos, creams) and 41.5 of the detergents contained nitro musks. There were significant differences in the amounts detected, e.g., musk ketone concentrations in cosmetics ranged from 4.0 to 2200 mg kg-1. Musk ketone dominated in cosmetics musk xylene was the main representative in detergents (Fig. 4). Musk ambrette could only be found in one cosmetic product 37 . This is in agreement with results reported by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 38,39 . It reflects the voluntary compliance of the Fig. 4 Frequency distribution of nitro musks in cosmetics and detergents in 1992 37 Fig. 4 Frequency distribution of nitro musks in cosmetics and detergents in 1992 37 In 1993 the public discussion on nitro musks resulted in a...


Every PEG from oligomers up to polymers with a molecular weight (MW) of a few million is completely water-soluble. Commercially available PPG can be divided into two groups, the diol and triol types, based on the straight or branched chain structure of the polymer. The water solubility of PPGs is lost when the MW is increased to more than approximately 700 (triol type) and 1,000 (diol type) due to the inclusion of a methyl group in each monomer unit. Therefore, copolymers of PEG and PPG are used as detergents, where PEG is a hydrophilic constituent and PPG a hydrophobic one. Another copolymer is also used as a water-soluble flame-resisting pressure liquid, where ethylene oxide and propylene oxide are randomly copolymerized. PBO is an oily polymer due to its pendant ethyl groups. In general, PTMG is a waxy substance, from which water-soluble oligomers have been removed as impurities. PEG was the first member of the polyether group to be manufactured in large quantities and to be used...

Metal Oxides

Modified forms of titanium dioxide have also found markets. Oxonica has developed and is selling a manganese-doped titanium dioxide that exhibits significantly enhanced UVA absorption and minimises the generation of free radicals resulting from the absorption of UV light by the titanium dioxide.47 49 This product is already being used commercially in sunscreens and cosmetics and is being evaluated for applications in coatings and plastics. 3.4.3 Aluminium Oxide. Nanoparticulate aluminium oxide has been produced in platelet form and has found use in cosmetics. The benefits are achieved through a uniform platelet morphology that provides superior transparency and soft focus properties.57 Fumed silica has a chain-like particle morphology. In liquids, the chains bond together via weak hydrogen bonds forming a three-dimensional network, trapping liquid and effectively increasing viscosity. The effect of the fumed silica can be negated by the application of a shear force, e.g. by mixing or...

Dietary Intake

Cosmetics Women of childbearing age and breast-fed infants represent the most important risk groups as concerns the dietary exposure due to mobilization of musk compounds from the body fat into breast milk. Relatively high levels of musks detected in breast milk may be related at least partly to the use of cosmetics since a significant contamination of mother's milk is seen even in the geographical area such as, e.g. Scandinavia, where the levels of musk compounds in the sea fish normally consumed are generally low.

Oil Crops

Linolenic, palmitic, and oleic acid and is used as salad oil. Coconut oil is obtained from the coconut palm grown in the tropics and contains mainly saturated fatty acids. Whereas nutritional uses of coconut oil dominate, the cosmetics industry uses a certain amount for soap production 2 .


The European Commission defines biobased products as nonfood products derived from biomass (plants, algae, bacteria, crops, trees, marine organisms, and biological waste from households, animals, and food production). They may range from high value - added fine chemicals such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food additives, etc., to high volume materials such as general biopolymers or chemical feed stocks. The concept excludes traditional biobased products, such as pulp and paper, wood products, and biomass as an energy source 3 .

Woodrow Wilson

This is the first online inventory of nanotechnology consumer products and contains some 212 manufacturer-identified nanoproducts. The inventory can be accessed online at consumerproducts and at least some of the products and applications described here are listed in this inventory. Others include reinforced tennis, squash and badminton racquets containing carbon nanotubes, cultured diamonds, non dirtying clothes, razors, automotive and other coatings, cosmetics, microprocessors, golf balls, silver colloids and photographic paper.

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