A Cured Meat Guide for Everyone

Meat Preserving And Curing Guide

The meat was originally processed to preserve it, but since the different procedures result in many changes in texture and flavor, it is also a way to add variety to the diet. Processing also makes it possible to mix the least desirable parts of the carcass with lean meat and is also a means of prolonging the meat supply by including other foodstuffs such as cereals in the product. extremely perishable product and quickly becomes unfit for consumption. may be hazardous to health due to microbial growth, chemical change and degradation by endogenous enzymes. These processes can be reduced by decreasing the temperature sufficiently to slow or inhibit the growth of microorganisms, by heating to destroy organisms and enzymes (cooking, canning) or by removal of water by drying or osmotic control (by binding water with salt or other substances so that it is no longer available for organizations). It is also possible to use chemicals to curb growth and, very recently, ionizing radiation (the latter possibility is not allowed in some countries, however). Traditional methods used for thousands of years involve drying by wind and sun, salting and smoking. Canning dates back to the beginning of the 19th century and preserves food for many years because it is sterilized and protected from further contamination. Continue reading...

Meat Preserving And Curing Guide Summary

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Hplctea of nitrosamino acids

In 1984, Tricker et al. 11 described an HPLC-TEA method for determining nonvolatile nitrosamines in cured meats. Cured meat (5 g samples) was blended with ammonium sulfamate and sodium sulfate in 2 M phosphoric acid. Pipecolic acid and a test nitrosamine were added to detect artifact formation (indicated by the appearance of N-nitrosopipecolic acid) and measure recoveries. The resulting slurry was extracted with hexane (to remove fats), which was discarded, and then with ethyl acetate, which was concentrated. Nitrosamino acids in the concentrate were passed through a Bond-Elut aminopropyl column and subjected to HPLC on a cyano-based column with hexane-acetone-acetic acid (81 18 1) as the mobile phase. The HPLC eluate was passed successively through (a) the TEA pyrolyzer run at 480oC to liberate NO, (b) cold traps of dry ice-iso-propanol and liquid nitrogen to freeze out the solvents and (c) the TEA apparatus. Recoveries were 59-88 for 250 mg kg each of the added nitrosamines NSAR,...

Determination of alkylureas

Dried fish and nitrite-preserved meat products are likely risk factors for the etiology of gastric cancer 28 and alkylnitrosoureas and related NOC can induce gastric cancer in laboratory animals (see Section 3.2). Because alkylureas could readily be converted to alkylnitrosoureas in the stomach, the author's group studied the occurrence of alkylureas in aqueous extracts of marine animal products and fried bacon 130 . Methylurea was not detected in the absence of nitrosation, but was detected after the aqueous extracts were ''nitrosated-denitrosated,'' i.e., were treated with very large amounts of nitrite at pH 1 to convert precursors to alkylnitrosoureas, and were then stored at pH 0 to convert the alkylnitrosoureas to alklylureas. This treatment destroys urea itself, which reacts with nitrite to give CO2 and nitrogen (the van Slyke reaction) 131,132 . The resultant alkylureas were extracted with n-butanol. Because alkylureas show pKa values of about 0.7 (the value for methylurea 133...

Occurrence and identity of total ANC

In the U.K., Massey et al. 114-116 reported ANC levels in mmol kg of 0.2-1.0 for dried milk, dried soups, coffee, tea and cocoa chocolate 0.2-18 for beer 14-32 for canned cured meat 11-136 for raw bacon and 8-55 for fried bacon. (The British groups recorded their results as mg of NNO group kg of food. These results are re-expressed here as mmol kg by dividing mg NNO by 44.) In a U.S. study by Haorah et al. 33 , mean NOC and NOCP values in mmol kg were 5.5 and 2,700 for hot dogs, 0.5 and 660 for fresh meat, 3.7 and 1,300 for summer sausage, 6 and 1,100 for canned corned beef 5.8 and 5,800 for salted, dried fish, 2.7 and 6,600 for all sauces (mostly soy sauces), 0.7 and 950 for ketchup, and 29.6 (a very high value) and 7,800 for a Chinese ground bean sauce 33 . In the study by Fiddler et al. 122 on acetonitrile extracts of cured meat, mean results for hot dogs, bacon, fermented salami, dried beef, canned corned beef, canned ham and netted ham were 1.9, 3.5, 9.0, 8.1, 54.6, 5.5 and 6.4...

Occurrence of alkylureas and alkylnitrosoureas

In the study of methylurea levels in nitrosated-denitrosated dried fish and fried bacon 130 (Section 4.12), methylurea levels after nitrosation-denitrosation were 350 mmol (25 mg) per kg for both foods. In the study on NMU determination in nitrosated food extracts 109 (Section 4.13), NMU levels were up to 140 ng kg for fish sauces, up to 34 mg kg for crab and lobster paste, and somewhat lower for other marine animal products. I emphasize that these figures do not indicate actual occurrences, but rather show yields in the foods after nitrosation-denitrosation (for methylurea) or after nitrosation alone (for NMU).

Occurrence of volatile nitrosamines

National Academy of Sciences 6 listed the following values for NOC concentration in foods. In England, fried bacon contained 1-20 (occasionally up to 200), 0.1-0.5 and 0.1-0.25 mg kg of NPYR, NDMA and N-nitrosopiperidine. Cured meat in the United States and United Kingdom contained less than 1 mg kg of volatile nitrosamines. In the U.K., 80 of uncooked and fried fish samples contained detectable NDMA, with about one-third of the samples showing 1-10 mg kg of NDMA and the rest showing lower levels. Japanese broiled salted dried fish and shellfish showed up to 310 and up to 13 mg kg of NDMA and NPYR, with the highest values in dried squid. In 1986, levels in mg kg of home-cooked fried bacon were reported to be 17, 4, 9 and 0.7 for NPYR, NDMA, N-nitrosothiazolidine and N-nitrosopiperidine 158 . The fried-out fat contained somewhat higher levels of these nitrosamines. In the United States, in 1981, the mean daily intake of volatile nitrosamines in mg person was estimated...

Determination of total ANC

Massey et al. reported ANC levels in beer, cured meat and other foods 114-116 . Beer was treated with SA and passed through an anion exchange column to remove nitrite and nitrate before the ANC determination 115 . For cured meat and other foods 114 , 0.1-1.0 g minced food was shaken for 30 s with ethyl acetate, the mixture was treated with acetic acid and HBr, and NO evolution was monitored by TEA to measure ANC. This method is similar to the ANC method described below. ANC levels in ethyl acetate extracts of human gastric juice were positively correlated with gastric pH 117 . In 1993 Xu and Reed 118 examined the relationship between gastric ANC levels in un-extracted fasting gastric juice and gastric pH. They obtained two peaks of ANC concentration, at pH 1.2-2.5 and at pH 6.2-8.3. Mean ANC levels for the two pH ranges were 1.45 and 3.37 p.M. This result suggests that both acid-catalyzed nitrosation at pH 1.2-2.5 and bacteria-mediated nitrosation at pH 6.2-8.3 produce...

Human studies

In a 1967 review on NOC, Magee and Barnes proposed that NOC may be significant causes of human cancer 26 . More recent laboratory and epidemio-logic studies indicate that dietary NOC are etiological agents for human cancer of the oesophagus, nasopharynx, stomach, colon, brain and urinary bladder 8,27 . Salted dried fish and fish sauce are established risk factors for gastric cancer 28 , perhaps due in part to NMU produced by the nitrosation of creatinine (CRN) and methylguanidine (see Section 4.12). The occurrence of polymorphic forms of enzymes that activate nitrosamines show correlations with the incidences of certain cancers. For example, increased incidences of nasopharyngeal cancer were observed in individuals with certain polymorphic forms of a DNA repair enzyme and of cytochrome P450s 2E1 and 2B6, which are known or suspected of being involved in nitrosamine metabolism 29 . In addition to dietary NOC, nitrosamines in cigarette smoke are a probable cause of cancer of...

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