Atsdr Minimal Risk Levels And Worksheets

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) 42 U.S.C. 9601 et seq. , as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Pub. L. 99-499 , requires that the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) develop jointly with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in order of priority, a list of hazardous substances most commonly found at facilities on the CERCLA National Priorities List (NPL) prepare toxicological...

Ongoing Studies

No on-going studies regarding the development analytical methods for the chlorophenols were identified. The international, national, and state regulations and guidelines regarding chlorophenols in air, water, and other media are summarized in Table 7-1. Occupational standards (OSHA) or guidelines (ACGIH) have not been set for any of the eight chlorophenols discussed in this profile. The chlorophenols as a group have been classified as an IARC group 2B carcinogen (IARC 1987). This classification...

Results

Chinese hamster ovary cells Chinese hamster V79 cells Sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations Chromosomal - negative result + positive result + - borderline mutagen DNA deoxyribonucleic acid NS not specified 2.4.5-TCP did not increase DNA damage in mice given a single oral dose (164 mg kg) as indicated by alkaline elution of DNA from white blood cells and the liver (Kitchin and Brown 1988). 2,4,5-TCP was predominantly negative in standard S. typhimurium reversion bioassays...

Immunological and Lymphoreticular Effects

No studies were located regarding immunological and lymphoreticular effects in humans after oral exposure to any of the eight chlorophenol isomers discussed in this profile. Rats fed 50 mg kg day 2-CP for up to 16 weeks and mice fed 69 mg kg day 2-CP for 14 days showed no changes in humoral or cell-mediated immunological assays (Borzelleca et al. 1985a Exon and Koller 1983, 1985). Indices assessed in the Exon and Koller (1983, 1985) studies include antibody production, delayed type...

Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect

Currently, no specific biomarkers for chlorophenols are known. The presence of chlorophenols or their metabolites in urine is not necessarily diagnostic for chlorophenol exposure because these compounds are also detectable in urine after exposure to other pesticides (Hill et al. 1989 Karapally et al. 1973 Shafik et al. 1973) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (Engst et al. 1976 Koransky et al. 1975). Well-designed animal metabolism studies involving the kinetics of urinary chlorophenol...

What Are Chlorophenols

Chlorophenols are a group of chemicals in which chlorines (between one and five) have been added to phenol. Phenol is an aromatic compound derived from benzene, the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon, by adding a hydroxy group to a carbon to replace a hydrogen. There are five basic types of chlorophenols mono one chlorophenols, di two chlorophenols, tri three chlorophenols, tetra four chlorophenols, and penta five chlorophenols. In all, there are 19 different chlorophenols. Eight are discussed in...