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The total numbers of observation were 39 for fly ash and 40 for bottom ash, respectively. Modified after Ref. 2. The total numbers of observation were 39 for fly ash and 40 for bottom ash, respectively. Solid wastes are produced worldwide in immense amounts of thousands of millions of tons annually. The most important sources of heavy metals stem from wastes from industrial activities, especially energy generation, from mining, agricultural activities (animal manure), and...

References

Adriano, Trace Elements in Terrestrial Environments, Springer, New York, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2001. 2 M. Wilichowski, in Treatment of Contaminated Soil (R. Stegmann, G. Brunner, W. Calmano and G. Matz, eds.), p. 417-433, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2001. 3 P.C. Hiemenz, Principles of Colloid and Surface Science, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1986. 4 J. Werther, O. Malerius and J. Schmidt, in Treatment of Contaminated Soil (R. Stegmann, G. Brunner, W. Calmano and G. Matz, eds.), p. 435-459,...

Anthropogenic Sources Of Heavy Metals

Heavy metals are released into the environment by many human activities. They are also used in a large variety of industrial products, which in the long term have to be deposited as waste. Heavy metal release into the environment occurs at the beginning of the production chain, whenever ores are mined, during the use of products containing them, and also at the end of the production chain. Table 6 gives an overview on the multiple uses and products, which contain heavy metals. The natural...

Pathways of Heavy Metal Access

In order to cause any effect in a living organism, heavy metals have to come into contact with this organism. There are three principal ways, through which this might happen. The first pathway is through the atmosphere or through atmospheric deposition to water and soil, the second is through drinking contaminated water or using it for cooking and crop irrigation, and the third is through accumulation in the food web. Heavy metals can enter organisms by respiration of natural and anthropogenic...

Advantages and Limitations of Phytoremediation

The use of plants for the removal of heavy metals from soil and water offers a wide range of advantages. Phytoremediation is a technology which can be applied in situ without moving or excavating large amounts of contaminated soil and leaves the topsoil in an undisturbed and usable condition 239 . It uses solar energy and is in general easy to apply. A variety of metals and radionuclides can be treated. As for the contaminated sites, phytoremediation provides a useful tool for sites, which...