Ecotoxicological Effects

Advantages and Limitations of Phytoremediation

The use of plants for the removal of heavy metals from soil and water offers a wide range of advantages. Phytoremediation is a technology which can be applied in situ without moving or excavating large amounts of contaminated soil and leaves the topsoil in an undisturbed and usable condition 239 . It uses solar energy and is in general easy to apply. A variety of metals and radionuclides can be treated. As for the contaminated sites, phytoremediation provides a useful tool for sites, which...

Ecotoxicological Effects Of Waste Water

The term biosolids refers to sewage sludge, animal wastes, municipal solid waste, and some industrial wastes such as paper pulp sludge 2 , These biosolids are used for soil enhancement due to their increased content in nutrients and organic matter (OM), which is favourable for soil tilth, pore space, aeration, and water retention capacity. They contain nutrients, heavy metals, and pathogens such as Escherichia coli. The main heavy metals of concern in sewage sludge are Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, Se, Mo,...

References

Adriano, Trace Elements in Terrestrial Environments, Springer, New York, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2001. 2 M. Wilichowski, in Treatment of Contaminated Soil (R. Stegmann, G. Brunner, W. Calmano and G. Matz, eds.), p. 417-433, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2001. 3 P.C. Hiemenz, Principles of Colloid and Surface Science, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1986. 4 J. Werther, O. Malerius and J. Schmidt, in Treatment of Contaminated Soil (R. Stegmann, G. Brunner, W. Calmano and G. Matz, eds.), p. 435-459,...

Biogeochemical Processes Regulating Heavy Metal Mobility

Heavy metals are mobilized by various physical, chemical, and biological vectors. This chapter introduces the most important biogeochemical processes, which influence and regulate heavy metal mobility and immobility in environmental media. These mechanisms include sorption processes, redox reactions as well as weathering processes and speciation. These processes are influenced by chemical driving factors such as pH, redox potential, or chemical speciation of an element. Sorption processes play...

Pathways of Heavy Metal Access

Klipp Vningar

In order to cause any effect in a living organism, heavy metals have to come into contact with this organism. There are three principal ways, through which this might happen. The first pathway is through the atmosphere or through atmospheric deposition to water and soil, the second is through drinking contaminated water or using it for cooking and crop irrigation, and the third is through accumulation in the food web. Heavy metals can enter organisms by respiration of natural and anthropogenic...

Physical Remediation Techniques

Physical remediation techniques include soil washing, vitrification, encapsulation of contaminated areas by impermeable vertical and horizontal layers, electrokinesis, and permeable barrier systems. Soil washing is a technique widely used for removing heavy metals and organic pollutants from soils. Most of the process steps in soil washing plants have not been developed for the remediation of contaminated soils but have been used for a long time in the mineral processing industry. Fig. 1....

Anthropogenic Sources Of Heavy Metals

Heavy metals are released into the environment by many human activities. They are also used in a large variety of industrial products, which in the long term have to be deposited as waste. Heavy metal release into the environment occurs at the beginning of the production chain, whenever ores are mined, during the use of products containing them, and also at the end of the production chain. Table 6 gives an overview on the multiple uses and products, which contain heavy metals. The natural...

Heavy Metals In The Atmosphere

Heavy metals are carried in the atmosphere as gases, aerosols, and particulates. Sources of heavy metals are mineral dusts, sea salt particles, extraterrestrial matter, volcanic aerosols, forest fires, and industrial sources such as emissions from transportation, coal combustion, and fugitive particulate emissions 26 . There are two major types of aerosols. Primary aerosols are directly emitted into the atmosphere from the earth's surface, while secondary aerosols are formed by chemical...

Outersphere Complex Innersphere Complexes

Schematic sketch of possible sorption complexes at the mineral water interface (represented by the horizontal line). The solid substrate is below this line and the solution is above the line. The circles labelled M represent sorbed metal atoms in various types of sorption configurations. The larger shaded spheres in the substrate and surrounding the metal in the solution phase are oxygen atoms (redrawn after Ref. 35). Increasing the ionic strength, or the concentration of an indifferent...