Effect of Cell Type

The dependency of cell behaviors on cell types were also studied by testing three different cells (human foreskin fibroblast, NIH-3T3, and smooth muscle cell) on both Nanopillar and Nanograting samples of a hydrophilic surface condition. Figures 4.13, 4.14, 4.15 show the results of microscopy. For the human foreskin fibroblast, the results shown in Figs. 4.2, 4.4, and 4.5 are presented in Figs. 4.13, 4.14, 4.15 again, respectively, to help the comparison.

Figure 4.13 shows the fluorescent microscope images of NIH-3T3 cell viability on hydrophilic Nanopillar after 3 days, compared to human foreskin fibroblast. Contrary to that of human foreskin fibroblast (HFF, Fig. 4.13a-d), no significant difference was observed with NIH-3T3 among the samples (Fig. 4.13e-h), suggesting that the viability of NIH-3T3 should not be affected considerably by the presence of the Nanopillar topographies. Figure 4.14 further shows the SEM images of NIH-3T3 cell morphology on Smooth and Nanopillar samples after 3 days (Fig. 4.14e-h), compared to human foreskin fibroblast (HFF, Fig. 4.14a-d).

Hydrophobic

Smooch Na no pillar-Low Nanopillar-Mid Nanopillar-High

Hydrophobic

Smooch Na no pillar-Low Nanopillar-Mid Nanopillar-High

—50 urn

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Fig. 4.12 Fluorescence microscope images of neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts cultured on hydrophobic samples. Neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts were cultured on Smooth (a, e), Nanopillar-Low (b, f), Nanopillar-Mid (c, g), and Nanopillar-High (d, h) in a hydrophobic surface condition for 2 days (a-d) and 1 week (e-h). Blue and red colors represent nuclei and actins, respectively

Smooth Nanopillar-Low Nanopillar-Mid Nanopillar-High

Smooth Nanopillar-Low Nanopillar-Mid Nanopillar-High

Fig. 4.13 Cell viability of NIH-3T3 (e-h) on hydrophilic Nanopillar surfaces, compared to human foreskin fibroblast (a-d). The fluorescence microscopy images were taken in 3 days for Smooth (a, e), Nanopillar-Low (b, f), Nanopillar-Mid (c, g), and Nanopillar-High (d, h). In the images, green color represents viable cells, while red cells are inactive (indicated with an arrow)

Fig. 4.13 Cell viability of NIH-3T3 (e-h) on hydrophilic Nanopillar surfaces, compared to human foreskin fibroblast (a-d). The fluorescence microscopy images were taken in 3 days for Smooth (a, e), Nanopillar-Low (b, f), Nanopillar-Mid (c, g), and Nanopillar-High (d, h). In the images, green color represents viable cells, while red cells are inactive (indicated with an arrow)

In terms of cell population, size, and shape, no noticeable difference was observed with NIH-3T3 among the samples. Along with the cell viability result (Fig. 4.13), this confirms that cell morphology of NIH-3T3 is not significantly affected by the existence of the Nanopillar topographies. However, NIH-3T3 cells were often detached on Nanopillar-Mid (Fig. 4.14g) and Nanopillar-High (Fig. 4.14h) during the sample preparation for SEM, similarly as human foreskin fibroblast cells were.

Figure 4.15 shows the SEM images of smooth muscle cell morphology on hydrophilic Smooth and Nanograting surfaces after 1 week (SMC, Fig. 4.15a-d), compared to human foreskin fibroblast (HFF, Fig. 4.15e-h). Compared to Smooth

Smooth Nanoplllar-Low Na nop 11 tar-Mid Nanoptllar-High

Smooth Nanoplllar-Low Na nop 11 tar-Mid Nanoptllar-High

Fig. 4.14 Cell morphology of NIH 3T3 (e-h) on hydrophilic Nanopillar surfaces, compared to human foreskin fibroblast (a-d). The SEM images (top view) were taken in 3 days for Smooth (a, e), Nanopillar-Low (b, f), Nanopillar-Mid (c, g), and Nanopillar-High (d, h). Each inset in Nanopillar (b-d, f-h) represents the orientation of the pillar array on each sample

Fig. 4.14 Cell morphology of NIH 3T3 (e-h) on hydrophilic Nanopillar surfaces, compared to human foreskin fibroblast (a-d). The SEM images (top view) were taken in 3 days for Smooth (a, e), Nanopillar-Low (b, f), Nanopillar-Mid (c, g), and Nanopillar-High (d, h). Each inset in Nanopillar (b-d, f-h) represents the orientation of the pillar array on each sample

Smooth

Na nog rating-Low

Na nog rating-Mid

Na nog rating-H Ig h

Smooth

Na nog rating-Low

Na nog rating-Mid

Na nog rating-H Ig h

— 50 jim

(b) = — 50 jim

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(d) = 50 jim

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urn

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Fig. 4.15 Cell morphology of smooth muscle cell (e-h) on hydrophilic Nanograting surfaces, compared to human foreskin fibroblast (a-d). The SEM images (top view) were taken in 1 week for Smooth (a, e), Nanograting-Low (b, f), Nanograting-Mid (c, g), and Nanograting-High (d, h). Each inset in Nanograting (b-d, f-h) represents the orientation of the grating array on each sample

Fig. 4.15 Cell morphology of smooth muscle cell (e-h) on hydrophilic Nanograting surfaces, compared to human foreskin fibroblast (a-d). The SEM images (top view) were taken in 1 week for Smooth (a, e), Nanograting-Low (b, f), Nanograting-Mid (c, g), and Nanograting-High (d, h). Each inset in Nanograting (b-d, f-h) represents the orientation of the grating array on each sample

(Fig. 4.15e), smooth muscle cell on Nanograting exhibited noticeable elongation to the grating direction, which is more pronounced on Nanograting-High. However, the aligned elongation of smooth muscle cell on Nanograting was less significant than human foreskin fibroblast. The cell detachment of smooth muscle cell on Nanograting was also less significant than that of human foreskin fibroblast. However, compared to Smooth surfaces, the smooth muscle cell was often detached on tall Nanograting surfaces during the sample preparation for SEM.

Comparison of the cell morphologies of human foreskin fibroblast, NIH-3T3, and smooth muscle cell suggests that the influence of 3D nanotopographies on the cell morphologies is dependent on cell types. However, the NIH-3T3 and smooth muscle cell were still prone to detachment from the high aspect ratio nanostructure samples during the sample handling in liquid. Thus, the comparison of the cell detachments of human foreskin fibroblast, NIH-3T3, and smooth muscle cell suggests that the influence of 3D sharp-tip nanotopographies on the mechanical cell adhesion is independent of cell types. As long as the cell is much larger than the lateral dimension (i.e., pitch) of the nanopatterns, the contact area between the cell and the solid is reduced on the nanostructured substrates regardless of cell types, resulting in a weaker cell adherence to the sample surface.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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