Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

Power Efficiency Guide

The Power Efficiency Guide is a step-by-step guide showing the users how to create their own Home Power Plant. The E-book was created just to explain and help people out of the problem they face because of the lack of electricity. The guide was made to help the users use about 90% of the tools they use regularly in their various houses for the creation of a power generator, which will beneficial to them and their family. The device uses the endless power principle used to make the electric cars constantly charge themselves from the wheels when not being accelerated. It is a unique concept that can be used in every home. It was created in such a way that it would be a quick fix for the users' electricity problem. In other words, when the users purchase it during the day, the users will be able to make use of it before night falls. The process is so easy that even a little child can fix it up. The guide is such that comes at a cheap price and would help in the reduction of the amount the users might have to pay for regular electricity bill due to the number of appliances used at home. Read more...

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I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the writer was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

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Emerging Energy Marketing Firm Inc Low Energy Transmutation Abstract

Emerging Energy Marketing Firm, Inc. (formerly known as Trenergy, Inc.) is developing a technology that causes low-energy transmutation of radioactive wastes by using acceleration of combined charge clusters. According to the vendor, radioactive thorium can be stabilized with less than 5000 V of electricity.

Of Ecological Impact Assessment Using a Virtual Power Plant

The Japanese environmental impact assessment law requires the assessment of power plant impacts on ecosystems. Assessments of the terrestrial ecosystem have been conducted focusing some important or typical species in the target ecosystem. The marine ecosystem, however, has not been included in the standard procedure of power plant impact assessments so far, mainly because assessment technologies applied to the marine ecosystem are not considered to be well developed. Therefore, MERI has been conducting development and systematization of the marine ecosystem survey technologies and has been demonstrating power plant impact assessments, considering a virtual power plant. In the MERI survey, typical fields of the coastal ocean, i.e., macrophyte beds and tidal flats, have been selected as target areas for the assessment. In this survey, field surveys, integration of field data on the GIS map, mathematical simulation of thermal discharge, and the impact assessment on marine organisms...

Ecosystem Around the Power Plant

The thermal plume, intake and discharge currents, and coastal facilities of power plants may be potentially useful for fishery activities and coastal environmental management. MERI has reported catching more sea bass around the thermal plume area of a power plant in the northern part of Japan and studied the behavior of sea urchins (Dotsu et al. 2000) and bigeye trevally (Miura and Yamamoto 2008), Caranx sexfasciatus, a subtropical game fish species, around power plants (Fig. 6). MERI has also been conducting the following projects on coastal environment management the application of discharge currents to restore the lower DO condition of bottom layers often observed in the enclosed coastal sea areas during the summer season and the application of underwater reefs to form new biotopes for macrophytes. These projects have been conducted under contracts with the Fisheries Agency and the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency.

Energy Consumption Modeling

Modeling the Geographic Distributions of Energy Consumption High-resolution data on the geographic distribution of emission and energy consumption are not yet available in China. Energy consumption is a reflection of socioeconomic activities. Consequently, quantitative relationships between energy consumption and some socioeconomic parameters are expected. These kinds of relationships have also been reported in the literature (Nathwani et al. 1992). In our study, by modeling the quantitative relationships between energy consumption and socioeconomic parameters on the provincial level in China, energy consumption at the resolution of 1 x 1 km2 was computed. This high-resolution energy consumption pattern, together with emission factors, provides a basis for constructing an inventory of high-spatial-resolution PAH emissions (see Section 11.3). The model has been described in detail in our previous study (Zhang et al. 2007). 11.2.3. Temporal Variations of Energy Consumption...

Eskoms Energy Efficiency Drive

Eskom have embarked on an external and internal energy efficiency awareness campaign and various programs have been implemented to encourage savings. In some cases, as with the solar water heating and energy efficient motor projects, financial incentives in the form of rebates or discounts have been put in place to encourage take up of new energy efficient technologies. Internally Eskom has a savings initiative which aims to save 1 billion KWh of electricity. Most of the initiatives to date have focused on savings from electrical applications such as energy efficient lighting and thermal insulation in households. More recently this program has been extended to look at process efficiencies and auxiliary or internal power consumption. Lubricant specifications generally do not have any requirements for energy efficiency. As such there are relatively few oils designed specifically with energy saving as a primary objective. An exception would be in the automotive arena where energy...

Sodium Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor Power Plants

Fast breeder reactors, known as liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), use 239Pu as the fissile nuclide, 238U as the fertile material, and fast rather than thermal neutrons. Reactors of this type have been built and operated in France, Japan, the former Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States to demonstrate their feasibility and to gain experience in their operation. The largest LMFBR power plant built up to mid-1998 is the 1240-MWe SuperPhenix located at Creys-Malville, France. These reactors are called breeders because they are designed to produce more 239Pu than they burn by fission. They can breed with 239Pu as the fissile material because 239Pu has a larger cross section than 235U for fission with fast neutrons and because the neutron absorption cross sections for fission products and for structural and other materials in the core usually decrease with increasing neutron energy, making a larger fraction of the neutrons released in fission available for...

Thermal Breeder Power Plants [LWBRs

Breeding of nuclear fuel also can be achieved in an LWR by using 233U as the fissile material and 232Th as the fertile material. The nuclear power plant in Shippingport, Pennsylvania (footnote 32), was operated at a power level of 60MWe (net) from 1977 to 1982 to demonstrate the feasibility of breeding of 233U in an LWR. Much of the technology that will be needed in the distant future when the 233U 232Th fuel cycle becomes a competitive source of energy is now known. Source World list of nuclear power plants, Nucl. News, 44(3), 61 (2001) (revised annually). Source World list of nuclear power plants, Nucl. News, 44(3), 61 (2001) (revised annually).

Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants

A nuclear power plant is obviously not a source of greenhouse gases. If a 1000-MWe nuclear power plant is substituted for a coal-fired plant of the same size, the annual production of such gases is reduced by approximately the following amounts, depending on the composition of the coal and the type of pollution control equipment installed about 7 million tons of C02, about 100,000 tons of S02, about 25,000 tons of N0*, and about 1500 tons of particulates. In addition, there would be about 1 million tons less coal ash. 0n the other hand, a nuclear power plant has its own characteristic effluents that are of environmental concern. The amount of radioactivity a nuclear power plant is allowed to release into the environment by discharge as gas through a stack or as contaminated water is restricted by its license. The systems for preventing excess discharge of gases are complex, with holdup tanks for compressed gas containing short-lived radionuclides, filters to retain particulate matter,...

Zero Waste Energy Systems

Modern civilization is synonymous with the waste generation (Islam 2004 Khan and Islam 2006). Waste production has the most profound impact on energy and mass utilization. Conventional energy systems are mostly inefficient technologies (Farzana and Islam 2006). The more that is wasted, the more inefficient the system is. Almost all

Twelve Principles of Green Tribology

Minimization of heat and energy dissipation. Friction is the primary source of energy dissipation. According to some estimates, about one-third of the energy consumption in the US is spent to overcome friction. Most energy dissipated by friction is converted into heat and leads to heat pollution of the atmosphere and the environment. The control of friction and friction minimization, which leads to both energy conservation and the prevention of damage to the environment due to the heat pollution, is a primary task of tribology. It is recognized that for certain tribological applications (e.g., car brakes and clutches) high friction is required however, ways of effective use of energy for these applications should be sought as well.

The Concept of Tribofatigue

The concept of tribofatigue (or ''tribofatika'') was suggested and developed since the early 1990s by Dr. L. Sosnovsky from Gomel, Byelorussia. The concept implies the coupling between the wear damage and fatigue damage. It stresses the fact that in engineering calculations of lifetime of components it may not be sufficient to consider the two modes separately. Sosnovsky and Sherbakov 64 provide several examples when ''the normative documents and methods of calculation'' could not predict a catastrophic failure in a machine, such as a gigantic turbine of the 1.2 GW power plant, which he calls a ticking ''tribofatigue bomb.'' Apparently, the phenomenon is a manifestation (or even just another mane) of the fretting fatigue.

Sustainable Nanotribology

There are four major ways to implement this principle (1) Multi-functional design ensures the meeting of multiple needs with one solution. Comparable to the pluripotency of stem cells, for example surface textures or formulations of additives or tribological processes can be designed in a way that is sustainable. If now the textures, formulations and processes are pluripotent, and can easily be adjusted for the respective tribosystem, the advantage would be that there are already established green routes of production, usage and disposal, and no new research to make the new approaches green would have to be performed. In nature, we have very often just slight variations in the same material, structure or function, to accommodate totally different needs. One example is collagen that occurs in bones, skin, tendons and the cornea 67 . (2) The usage of low energy processes ensures minimum energy consumption. This can be realized, e.g. by temperature, pressure or time reduction. One...

Surface Topography and Surface Forces 8431 Scanning Electron Microscopy

Secondary electrons are low energy electrons which are used to form the 3D images of the surface with a resolution of less than 1 nm. Backscatter electrons are high energy ( 50 eV) electrons that are reflected directly from the specimen by elastic scattering. Backscatter electrons can be used in analytical SEM along with the characteristic X-rays analysis, and provide information about the distribution of different elements on the surface.

Low Emission Automobiles

The adoption of vehicle emissions standards in California that are more restrictive than the national standards has forced the U.S. automobile companies to develop automobiles that have very low emissions and to produce zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) as well. At present the only ZEVs are electrically powered, and there is a major emphasis in this area since the adoption by eleven eastern states of the California emission standards. The ZEVs must be an increasing number of the vehicles each auto-maker sells each year, starting in 2003. Strictly speaking, electrically powered cars do not emit pollutants during operation, but electricity from a power plant, which has emissions (see Chapter 15), is required to charge their batteries. Studies carried out in 1992 show that the emissions resulting from the use of electric vehicles will be much lower than those from gasoline-powered automobiles even when the emissions from the power plants are taken into account. The net decreases in emissions...

Implanted Sources Used in Medical Therapy

Ever since radium became available, small radioactive sources have been implanted in or near tumors to destroy them. Both 226Ra (encapsulated in a needle) and 222Rn (encapsulated in a glass or gold seed) have been used with limited success. Today, this type of radiation therapy, called brachyther-apy, utilizes small rods, beads, seeds, or rice-sized pellets containing radionuclides emitting low-energy ionizing radiation such as 103Pd (16.99 d, EC, e , x rays 21 keV), 125I (59.4 d, EC, e , E7 35.49 keV), 90Y (2.67 d, 0 ), 192Ir (73.83 d, EC, 0 , 7 rays, mainly 0.316 MeV) and 252Cf (2.646 y, a,e , low-intensity 7-rays and neutrons from spontaneous fission). Because of the limited depth of penetration of the radiations from these radionuclides, the risk of irradiation of nearby healthy tissue is low. The availability of imaging methods and improved delivery techniques facilitates precise positioning of the implants.

Reducing Power Consumption in Helical Gear Drives Using Synthetic Lubricants A Case Study

The use of energy efficient gear oils to reduce power consumption has been tested and shown to produce significant and measurable results. In a program that included a laboratory trial and an extensive in-service trial energy reduction of at least 2.2 have been demonstrated in helical gearboxes. The potential impact of these savings if expanded to South African Industry could save in excess of 200 MW. This saving could have significant impact on the need to install additional generating capacity in the future. This case study shows a detailed methodology for the laboratory and in-service testing of lubricants that may reduce energy consumption. Energy consumption is an increasingly important topic globally. Increasing electricity prices driven by demand and supply constraints have forced companies globally to initiate projects and measures that will reduce specific power consumption. In South Africa, this problem has been highlighted by recent supply constraints in which power cuts...

Dose Received by Workers

0bviously a nuclear power plant is a very complex system, with many regions containing sources of ionizing radiation. During shutdowns for refueling and so on, and during normal operation and maintenance, workers must follow set procedures to limit their exposure to values that are, hopefully, below those specified in the operating license for the plant. During routine operation, workers must properly handle radioactive effluents of the type described in the next section. The radiation dose received by workers at nuclear power plants in the United States has decreased steadily since 1980.39 For PWR plants the median value for the man-rem dose per unit decreased from 417 in 1980 to 82 in 2000. The corresponding change in dose for BWR plants was from 859 to 150.

Tribological and Mechanical Design Considerations for Wave Energy Collecting Devices

Abstract Creating new sources of renewable and sustainable energy is a critical problem in the world today and will continue to be so in the future. A major sector of renewable energy is the hydro energy, and in particular, harvesting wave energy of seas and lakes. Various types of designs have been suggested for marine energy sources. These new applications bring new problems for mechanical engineers and tribologists. Operating in marine conditions is difficult due to the biofouling, water contamination, particulate contamination, and other tribological issues. Efficiency and optimization are major issues in the energy generation industry are. In this chapter, we review offshore marine and lake wave energy systems and discuss in more detail wave energy collector (WEC) that is being developed and optimized at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM).

Tribo Chemical Activation of Green Eco Cements

Melamine Formaldehyde Flowchart

Abstract Due to growing global demand for cement, the production of cement worldwide has significantly increased in the past 15 years, and this trend is the most significant factor affecting the technological and manufacturing advancements in the cement industry. While the increase in demand for cement reflects the growth of national economies, the production of cement clinker is ecologically harmful because it consumes considerable energy and natural resources, and it emits many pollutants into the atmosphere. Therefore, new ways to produce high volumes of cement clinker with less energy and less impact on the environment is greatly needed. One such approach is the production of tribo-chemically activated, high-volume mineral additive (HVMA) cement, which helps to improve the ecological compatibility of cements. This green technology is based on the intergrinding of portland cement clinker, gypsum, mineral additives, and a special complex admixture. Tribo-chemical activation...

The Relation of Green Nano Tribology and Global Challenge 13 Energy

The World Bank estimates that countries with underperforming energy systems may lose up to 1-2 of growth potential every year, while billions of gallons of petroleum are wasted in traffic jams around the world. Innovations are accelerating concentrator photovoltaics that dramatically reduce costs waste heat from power plants, human bodies, and microchips to produce electricity genomics to create hydrogen-producing photosynthesis buildings to produce more energy than consumed solar energy to produce hydrogen microbial fuel cells to generate electricity and compact fluorescent light bulbs and light-emitting diodes to significantly conserve energy, as would nanotubes that conduct electricity. Solar farms can focus sunlight atop towers with Stirling engines and other generators. Estimates for the potential of wind energy continue to increase, but so do maintenance problems. Plastic nanotech photovoltaics printed on buildings and other surfaces could cut costs and increase efficiency. The...

Solid Waste Disposal And Recycling

Recycling Oil Plant Syosset

Energy savings Cleaner furnace firing Potential furnace life extension Avoided capital cost Reduced energy consumption in energy savings (for every 1 of recycled glass used, there is a 0.5 drop in energy use) and the extension of the useful life of furnace linings, among other things. If the cullet is not color-separated, it is used for the production of glass beads, roadway materials, and building materials such as fiberglass insulation.

Nuclear Fuel Requirements

A fission rate of 3.1 x 1010 fissions per second will provide 1W of power (thermal). For a power plant with a thermal output of 3000 MWt as heat or an electrical output of about 1000 MWe of electricity the number of 235U nuclei that must be fissioned per second is 9.3 x 1019.30 This corresponds to the fissioning of 3.1 kg of 235U per day. Uranium in spent fuel contains about 0.8 w 235U. 30MWe indicates the rate at which electrical energy is generated and MWt indicates the rate at which thermal energy is generated. MWe is about 30 of MWt for nuclear power plants with water-moderated, water-cooled reactors. (Note in much of the literature, the symbols MWe and MWt are used without supscripts.) one-third or less of the fuel) every 12-18 months. Increased burnup (e.g., 55,000 MWd MTHM), resulting in longer time period between refueling shutdowns, has been achieved in many nuclear power plants in various ways, including improved fuel element design. Fewer and shorter outages (reduced from...

Surface Melting

Fletcher 27, 28 has attributed the formation of the liquid-like layer to dipole quadrupole interactions. Water molecules at the surface orient themselves in a way that their protons point outwards as a result of a favorable low energy configuration. Consequently, the hexagonal ice structure breaks down, so that a liquid-like layer covers the ice surface. The structured surface layer has to be screened by a second layer with the opposite charge to account for the uncharged body of bulk ice. Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) experiments coupled with molecular dynamics simulation have given further insight into the forces leading to a liquidlike layer on ice. Surface molecules tend to vibrate and rotate constantly in order to minimize dangling bonds. Kroes 35 has pointed out that through the movement of the molecules the outer ice layers become partially charged. With computer simulations and spectroscopy experiments Devlin and Buch 36 have confirmed that the breakdown of the solid...

Food Irradiation

Food irradiation, sometimes called cold pasteurization'' or electronic pasteurization,'' is finding increasing worldwide use. This use of ionizing radiation has been endorsed by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Its use has been approved in over 40 countries, about 30 of which now irradiate a variety of products up to a total of 60. Belgium, France, and the Netherlands are among the countries that have established markets for irradiated food. In the United States, however, food irradiation is a controversial topic

Laboratory Testing

The standard FZG machine (Figs. 20.1, 20.2) was modified to allow for constant temperature operation 23 . The modification was intended to measure the wear performance of lubricants at a constant temperature through increasing loads. The modification allows cooling water flow rate to be adjusted according to load and lubricant tested. This modification allows for the measurement of energy usage via the requirement for cooling water. A heat balance was developed to demonstrate that heat generated via friction can be equated to energy consumption. It was also found in the laboratory trial that the measurement of temperature or heat generated by friction is a better and more reliable indicator of energy savings potential 24 . This is especially true when savings are low and measurements of savings are affected by fluctuating electrical currents. FZG gears are intentionally ''poorly'' designed in order to produce a result in the laboratory test 25 . The result is less-than-perfect gear...

High Level Dose

Nonlinear Threshold Dose Response Curve

Radiation in medical procedures, radiologists exposed to x rays in their work, victims of accidents at nuclear facilities, and a population containing a statistically significant number of people exposed in known ways that can be documented. A few examples of populations studied in epidemiological investigations are workers who developed bone tumors, bone cancer, and anemia from ingesting luminous radium paint while painting clock and watch dials during the period from about 1915 to 1925 patients who developed malignancies after being given Thoratrast (a colloidal suspension of Th02) during the period 1930-1945 to improve the quality of diagnostic x-ray images of the liver uranium miners who developed lung cancer people exposed to ionizing radiation directly from nuclear weapons and from nuclear weapons tests and people who were put at risk because of accidental release of radioactive material (e.g., the explosions at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant Section

Review of Literature

Lubrication Journal Bearing Mounted

The flow in a journal bearing supply groove has an important role in determining the performance of the journal bearing, represented by its load-carrying capacity and energy consumption. The flow in the grooves and land area determines the pressure field along the grooves and over the land area. Estimation of this pressure will give the load capacity (that can be supported by the lubricant film), coefficient of fluid friction and volume rate of flow. The data produced from measuring the lubricant flow is also used to determine the pressures at the groove

Absorption of Light

Absorption in the low-energy radio, microwave, or infrared spectral regions results in no direct photochemistry unless very high-intensity laser radiation is used, the excitation for the most part only increasing the rotational and vibrational energies of the molecule and eventually being dissipated as heat. Some deleterious physiological effects do result from overexposure to microwave and infrared radiation (e.g., at radar installations or with improperly controlled microwave ovens), but these presumably are due to excessive localized heating. The chemical effects following illumination with very high-energy radiation (x-rays and 7-rays) are considered in Chapters 13 and 14.


The standard method of creating a superhydrophobic surface implies roughening the surface and placing some low-energy (hydrophobic) material on it. Instead, we suggested here to place low-energy reinforcement into the matrix of the composite material. We presented a model for the overall contact angle of such a composite material and for the reinforcement volume fraction needed to make the material superhydrophobic. We also conducted experiments with low-energy graphite-reinforced aluminum- and copper-based composites and showed that the contact angle can be determined from the model with certain reasonable assumptions about the roughness factors and solid-liquid fractional contact areas. In order to decouple the effects of reinforcement and roughness, the experiments were conducted for initially smooth and etched matrix and composite materials. The composite materials can be used to produce sustainable (wear-resistant) superhydrophobic surfaces.

Fukushima Chernobyl and Climate Change Nuclear Plants on Earthquake Zones

Everybody has been recently shocked by the major accident of the nuclear power plant on March 31, 2011 at Fukushima, Japan. Such a failure was both unexpected and expected. Unexpected because most thought that the 1986 nuclear disaster at the power plant of Chernobyl, Ukraine, could never happen again, especially in wealthy, high technology countries such as Japan. Expected because geology tells us that Japan lies on the cusp of the Pacific-Philippine-Eurasian triple plate junction, where the complex interactions of three tectonic plates is unpredictable and loaded with potential activity. As a consequence, Japan experiences regular, high intensity earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanoes since centuries. Similarly to the Chernobyl global 'event', the release of radioactive pollutants from Fukushima nuclear plant in water, air, and soil will most probably severely affect human health, food security and economy worldwide for decades. Therefore, one might just ask why nuclear plants are...

The Science of Change How Will Our Epoch Be Remembered

Energy policies have defined our modern civilization. Politicizing energy policies is nothing new, but bipartisan bickering is new for the Information Age. The overwhelming theme is change (similar to the term paradigm shift ), and both sides of the change debate remain convinced that the other party is promoting a flat-earth theory. One side supports petroleum production and usage, and the other side supports the injection of various other energy sources, including nuclear, wind, solar, etc. This creates consequences for scientific study. The petroleum industry faces the temptation of siding with the group that promotes petroleum production and continuing usage with only cosmetic change to the energy consumption side, namely in the form of energy saving utilities. The other side, of course, has vested interest in opposing this move and spending heavily on infrastructure development using renewable energy sources. Both sides seem to agree on one thing there is no sustainable solution...

The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry

The 12 guidelines essentially fall into four groups efficient use of energy, hazard reduction, waste minimization and the use of renewable resources. Although each heading clearly indicates a proficient solution toward sustainability, the more guidelines or green technologies a master plan meets the greater is its intrinsic value. An example could be offered by a process involving the addition reaction (100 atom economy) of two starting materials derived from renewable feedstocks (rule no. 7) taking place in a perfect stereoselective way (waste minimization) at room temperature (energy efficient) in water (a prototypical green solvent) under the action of a low amount of a recyclable catalyst (rule no. 9).

Can We Compare Diamonds with Enriched Uranium

Engineers are always charged with the task of comparing one scheme with another in order to help decide on a scheme that would be ideal for an application. It is commonly understood that a single-criterion analysis (e.g., fuel efficiency for energy management) will be inherently skewed because other factors (e.g., environmental concerns, economic factors, and social issues) are not considered. The same engineers are also told that they must be linear thinkers (the line promoted even in the engineering classroom being engineers love straight lines ). This inherent contradiction is very common in post-Renaissance science and engineering. Chapter 10 demystifies the characterization principle involved in energy management. Various energy systems are characterized based on 1) their sustainability and 2) their efficiency. This characterization removes the paradox of attempting to characterize diamonds (source being carbon) and enriched uranium (source being uranium ore), inherently showing...

Greening of Petroleum Operations A Fiction

This book is all about true paradigm shift - a paradigm shift from ignorance to knowledge. A true paradigm shift amounts to revolution because it challenges every concept, every first premise, and every process. No revolution can take place if false perceptions and misconceptions persist. Chapter 2 begins with highlighting the misconceptions that have been synonymous with the modern age. In Chapter 16, the outcomes of those misconceptions are deconstructed. It shows how Enron should have never been promoted as the most creative energy management company of our time, not unlike how DDT should not have been called the miracle powder, and we didn't have to wait for decades to find out what false claims were made. Most importantly, this chapter shows that we must not fall prey to the same scheme.

Protection of the Water Environment

IPPC and LA-IPPC introduce an integrated environmental approach to the control of certain industrial processes. The IPPC Directive seeks to achieve a high level of environmental protection and to prevent or reduce to an acceptable level emissions to the environment. A guiding principle under the PPC regulations is the use of Best Available Techniques' (BAT), which is designed to balance the cost of compliance to the operator against the benefits to the environment. The PPC regulations increase the scope of control above the EPA regime to cover energy efficiency, site restoration, accident prevention, noise, odour, waste minimisation and heat and vibrations and they cover a wider range of activities to include food and drink manufacturers, intensive live-stock production and landfill sites. LA regulated Part B installations extend only to emissions to air but BAT also applies.

Use of Natural Resources and Releases to Air and Water and Waste Generation

The chemical industry has nonetheless made important energy efficiency gains, resulting in a stabilization of CO2 emissions at a time when production has been increasing. However, according to the OECD Reference Scenario,18 global chemical industry emissions are projected to increase in the future, primarily because of growing chemical production in non-OECD countries, which use less energy-efficient technology and are more reliant on coal as a fuel. However, if greater energy efficiency gains are achieved in the chemical industry, CO2 may increase at slower rates or continue to stabilize in OECD countries.

Summary and Conclusions

Today, everyone is convinced that the current mode of energy management is not sustainable. Throughout human history, at no time human civilization was incapacitated with such a helpful thought. Our information age is a product of our past. Time is a continuous function. How did we come to such a defeatist mindset If natural resources were sustainable for so many millennia with so many civilizations, what did we do differently than our ancestors that we have to conclude that natural resources are no longer sustainable Where did we fail in our engineering design that no matter what we produce or process, we end up with a technology that can only break its promises and ruin our hope This chapter attempts to answer those questions.

Discussion of the UShape Flow Paths Model

A major shortcoming of the U-shape flow paths model is the ''forcing'' of water down to below the level of the base of drainage, and then ''forcing'' it up at hypothetical discharge locations (Fig. 2.19). Above the level of the terminal base of drainage, in the through-flow zone, all water particles flow ''downhill,'' under the force of gravity, the through-flow zone occupying the space in which hydraulic potential differences prevail (Figs. 2.14-2.16). Thus, no water particle has to ''push away'' other particles along its flow path, as they move by themselves, and energy consumption goes to overcome friction alone. In contrast, beneath the level of the terminal base of drainage, no hydraulic potential exists and the water particles do not move by themselves. Hence, to make water flow in a U-path beneath the level of the base of drainage, other water particles have first to be ''pumped'' or ''pushed'' up toward a discharge region, and this necessitates a great source of energy, which...

Implications of a Knowledgebased Sustainability Analysis

The total energy consumption in 2004 was equivalent to approximately 200 million barrels of oil per day, which is about 14.5 terawatts, over 85 of which comes from fossil fuels (Service 2005). Globally, about 30 billion tons of C02 is produced annually from fossil fuels, which includes oil, coal, and natural gas (EIA 2004). The industrial COz produced from fossil fuel burning is considered solely responsible for the current global warming and climate change problems (Chhetri and Islam 2007). Hence, burning fossil fuels is not considered to be a sustainable option. However, this sole responsibility is not backed with science (in absence of our analysis above). The confusion emerges from the fact that conventional analysis doesn't distinguish between C02 from natural processes (e.g., oxidation in national systems, including breathing) and C02 emissions that come from industrial or man-made devises. This confusion leads to making the argument that man-made activities cannot be...

Importance of the Sustainability Criterion

Few would disagree that we have made progress as a human race in the post-Renaissance world. Empowered with New Science, led by Galileo and later championed by Newton, modern engineering is credited to have revolutionized our lifestyle. Yet, centuries after those revolutionary moves of New Science pioneers, modern day champions (e.g., Nobel Laureate Chemist Robert Curd) find such technology development mode more akin to technological disaster than technological marvels. Today's engineering, which is driven by economic models that have been criticized as inherently unsustainable by Nobel Laureates with notable economic theories (Joseph Stiglitz, Paul Krugman, Mohamed Yunus), has positioned itself as environmentally unsustainable and socially unacceptable. Figure 4.1 shows the nature of the problem that human habitats are facing today. All value indices that would imply improvement of human social status have declined, whereas per capita energy consumption has increased. This figure...

Bar Cross Section In Inches

Will advance sufficiently to convert many high-frequency heating to solid blooms, and on in-line processing applications and special furnace designs to reduce overall energy consumption. It will include developments instate. Emphasis will be on large mass heating such as slab, ingots and digital, programmable and computer-controlled applications to optimize heating. Induction melting will expand into larger ratings of 100 tons or more and several hundred-ton holding units to be used in conjunction with advanced-design automatic pressure paving machines.

REACH and Sustainable Industrial Chemistry

The REACH legislation will improve the life of all citizens because it concerns more than 30 000 substances currently used in everyday products. At the same time, REACH will provide important opportunities for European industry. This is true for the chemicals industry itself. But REACH will also provide important opportunities to other industries that look to the chemicals industry as a driver of innovation and as key to resolving critical challenges, such as higher energy efficiency and combating climate change.

Waste Gas Treatment Methods 3121 Physico Chemical Methods

The most commonly used physico-chemical air pollution control processes for removing pollutants present in a waste-gas stream are broadly classified into two types destructive and recovery based. These collectively include processes such as absorption, adsorption, thermal and catalytic combustion, condensation, ozonation, chlorination, photo-catalytic oxidation and membrane separation. In general, both the amount and type of gas-phase pollutants to be treated are likely to have an effect on system configuration and its applicability. The greater the variability of substances to be controlled, the greater the limitation placed upon the selection process (Kennes and Veiga 2001). The economic feasibility of a process is generally decided by the flow rate, concentration, composition and type of waste-gas mixture to be treated. However the reduction mechanism in these processes may reduce the quality of the product or may yield products that require further treatment before ultimate...

Global Energy Scenario

The global energy consumption share from different sources is shown in Table 5.1. The analysis carried out by EIA (2006a) shows that oil remains the dominant energy source followed by coal and natural gas. It is projected that nuclear energy production will also increase by more than two times by the year 2030. Renewable energy sources, such as biomass, solar, and hydro, will not increase significantly compared to the total energy consumption. Renewable energy sources supply 17 of the world's primary energy. They include traditional biomass, large and small hydropower, wind, solar geothermal, and biofuels (Martinot 2005). The total global energy consumption today is approximately 14.5 terawatts, which is equivalent to 220 million barrels of oil per day (Smalley 2005). The global population rise will settle somewhere around 10 billion by 2050 based on the current average population increase (WEC 2005). The per capita energy consumption is still rising in developing countries as well as...

The Precautionary Principle

The precautionary principle says 'Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation'. This wording comes from the 1992 Rio Declaration on the Environment and Development. Note the inclusion of the phrase 'cost-effective', which puts the onus on proponents of measures to have identified costs associated with the harm the measures are designed to tackle (though some environmentally beneficial measures are intrinsically cost-effective, e.g. many energy efficiency investments).

Nuclear Energy and Global Warming

Nuclear energy has also been promoted as one of the clean alternatives to reducing the pressure on fossil fuel resources. A recently held summit of a group of eight industrial nations (G8) has also endorsed nuclear energy as non-carbon. Based on the current trend of nuclear power development, EIA (2006a) indicates that nuclear power will not take the major share of global energy supply during its projected period by 2030. As stated previously, there are several problems with nuclear power very high initial costs for building nuclear power plants, the expensive enrichment process, the environmental impacts during mining, milling, and operations, and it poses a great threat for the safety of the communities close to the power plants. disposal of spent uranium is a great concern to the environment. The Associated Press (2006) reported that the demolition of a Trojan nuclear power plant in Oregon, which started in 2006, will take up to 2024 to fully decommission, yet the federal...

Carbon Nanotubes for Energy Storage

Energy is the integral part of human life since ancient time. In recent years, the world energy consumption has been increasing at a much faster rate due to growing population, modern lifestyle and rapid industrialization. Fossil fuels, nuclear power, wind energy, solar energy is some of the primary sources of energy.

Separated Sewer System

This is the basic inhabitants living municipality requirement. The main role of the separated sewer system is dewatering the domestic waste water from residences to waste water treatment plant - WWTP through the sewer system. The people, who live in their residences, are not very often informed, which sewer system dewaters their waste water to WWTP. This illiteracy cause the problems with storm water dewater, mainly in residence areas, where the people connect their roofs and pavement areas to the sewer system in some cases, which is designated only for the domestic waste waters. People assert, that they pay the waste waters, so they have accrue dewater the roofs and pavement areas from their residence. This misunderstanding cause the problem mainly with the capacity and energy consumption of separated pumping stations, and consequently in WWTP. The role of water companies is to inform about the function and sewer system type, directed to residences. The Slovakia standard for...

Characterization of Energy Sources

All chemicals are not the same, different forms of heat coming from different energy sources are not the same. The energy sources are based on the global efficiency of each technology, the environmental impact of the technology, and the overall value of energy systems (Chhetri et al. 2006). Energy sources are classified based on the age of the fuel source in nature as it is transformed from one form to another (Chhetri et al. 2006). Various energy sources are also classified according to their global efficiency. Conventionally, energy efficiency is defined for a component or service as the amount of energy required in the production of that component or service, e.g., the amount of cement that can be produced with one billion Btu of energy. Energy efficiency is improved when a given level of service is provided with reduced amounts of energy inputs or when services or products are increased for a given amount of energy input. However, the global efficiency of a system is calculated...

Conclusions on Multiphase Homogeneous Catalysis for Sustainable Processes

However, we should raise some concerns regarding the sustainability of multiphase homogeneous catalytic processes. They are presented as one of the relevant directions for green chemistry. The suitability ofwater as a process solvent is certainly environmentally benign, and in the case of the RCH RPs process clear advantages in terms of process simplification and reduction of energy consumption (Table 2.2) are demonstrated. However, the process has not found wider applicability and the impact on the environment, in terms of wastewater and other emissions, has to be assessed.

Reversing Global Warming The Role of Technology Development

Energy systems are classified based on their global efficiencies. According to Farzana and Islam (2006), global efficiency should be one of the major indicators considered while selecting the technology for any energy system. For instance, a conventional, oil-heated steam turbine used for electricity production has a global efficiency of approximately 16 . For combined heat and power turbines, the global efficiency is approximately 18 . Similarly, the global efficiency of a coal-fired power system is approximately 15 , for hydropower systems it is 43 , from biomass to electricity conversion it is 13 , and nuclear power plants have a global efficiency of approximately 5 . The environmental cost due to these technologies has not been added up yet, which would further reduce the global efficiency of Direct application of solar energy for heating has the highest efficiency. Solar energy is a free source and has no environmental impact. Similarly, wood combustion in a simple stove also has...

Parametric Analysis Flow Through Configuration

The intent of the ensuing analysis is the construction of a generalized body of mathematical relationships that can serve as a foundation for the design optimization of ED systems for a wide range of applications. The goals of this analysis are the development of mathematical relationships that will provide a means of rapidly estimating the output ppm of a water processing system of a particular design as a function of the many independent parameters, such as stack voltage, water flow rates and or quantity of water to be processed. These all are evaluated on the basis of the specifics of module dimensions and number of cells per stack, as well as in terms of the operating energy efficiency.

Neil Smith and Paul Scarbrough

Evaluate efficacy of governance structure (BOD and senior management) and operating practices, such as environmental practices and energy conservation quality management systems and supply chain management human resources and labor relations human rights community involvement and stakeholder engagement collaboration. readiness of the company's culture and leadership to adopt and sustain more progressive practices, the audit typically focuses on one or more of six key business functions environmental practices and energy conservation quality systems (including supply chain management) human resources and labor relations human rights governance and community involvement. Opportunities to collaborate with stakeholders are sought throughout these areas. The most efficient approach to conducting a corporate responsibility audit is to assess some practices company-wide, such as governance, human resources, energy conservation, and community relations. Other business functions, including...

Environmental Impacts Issues

From fossil fuels, which are gradually becoming depleted. The production process itself involves energy consumption and further resource depletion. During production, emissions are released into the water, air, or soil. Emissions of concern include heavy metals, chlorofluorocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxides, and dust. Wastewater, bearing solvent residues from separation processes and wet scrubbers, enter in the food chain. The residual monomer in products and small molecules (plasticizers, stabilizers) slowly release into the environment, for example, by leaching slowly into water. These emissions have effects, such as ozone depletion, carcinogenicity, smog, acid rain, etc. Thus, the production of plastic materials can have adverse effects on ecosystems, human health, and the physical environment.

Removing C02 from the Atmosphere

In another proposal, carbon dioxide from a power plant would be used to grow vast amounts of algae, which then could be used as fuel for combustion. Several prototype facilities of this kind have been constructed. The exhaust from small power plants is led through clear tubes in which fast-growing algae are produced in an aqueous environment using sunlight to drive photosynthesis. The algae harvested from the process are dried for combustion or converted into biodiesel and ethanol fuels (see Chapter 8). A few scientists have proposed removing carbon dioxide chemically from ambient air, for example, from high-speed winds used to turn wind turbines, using chemicals such as amines, already discussed, or some other chemical absorber. The practicality of chemically extracting carbon dioxide from air, in which its concentration is only 0.04 , compared to about 13 in power plant emissions, is yet to be determined. Reducing C02 Emissions by Improving Energy Efficiency fluorescent light bulbs...

Energy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the Future Growth in Energy

Predicts that, over the first three decades of this century, carbon dioxide emissions will rise globally by an annual average of 2.1 , due to a 1.8 annual increase in energy usage. The fraction of fossil-fuel energy obtained from coal is expected to increase over this period due to higher and higher prices for oil and natural gas as they become more scarce thereby increasing the carbon intensity of the fuel mix. The report predicts a cumulative increase in energy use for the United States of 50 and for the EU of 18 . According to the report, energy use by developing countries will triple (corresponding to 4 annual compounded growth), with the consequence that they will be responsible for 58 of C02 emissions by 2030, though they will still trail most industrialized countries in emissions per capita. If developing countries can implement the renewable energy technologies (discussed in Chapter 8) in constructing their economies, they would avoid the heavy fossil-fuel dependence and...

Microengineering and Microtechnology

The high heat and mass transfer rates possible in microfluidic systems allow reactions to be performed under more aggressive conditions with higher yields than in conventional reactors 75-78 . The flow and heat transfer in heated microchannels are accompanied by several thermohydrodynamic processes, such as liquid heating and vaporization, boiling, formation of two-phase mixtures with a very complicated inner structure, and so on, which affect significantly the hydrodynamic and thermal characteristics of the cooling systems. The multiplicity of phenomena characteristic of flow in heated microchannels makes, on the one hand, quite complex the understanding and simulation of behavior of pure liquid and two-phase mixture in microchannels, but, on the other hand, greatly increases the possibilities of improving the performances. Therefore, microdevices (reactors, mixer, heat exchangers, etc.) have advantages over conventional devices in terms of (i) compactness and low capital cost, (ii)...

Hydroelectricity to Electric Stove

Hydroelectricity is generated by utilizing the energy of falling water. Electricity from hydropower is a renewable form of energy and is considered an environmentally friendly energy source. A hydroelectric power plant can either be a run-of-the-river type or a storage reservoir type. In run-of-the-river type power plants, it is not necessary to build large dams to store water. The water is

Role for the Reduction of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases

Process intensification (PI) offers several opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce environmental impact 92 . Many chemical reactions currently carried out as batch processes in stirred tanks could be carried out in continuously operated, intensified reactors such as spinning disc or oscillatory baffle types. The plant used for separations can be made highly compact, and even for large-scale plants (nitric acid production) the concept of pocket-sized plant has been introduced to reduce energy needs in the process 93 . PI is thus a key element Table 3.4 Energy saving estimates of PI technologies as identified by the A.D. Little study for SenterNovem. Energy saving is in peta-joules (PJ) per year (1 PJ 1 x 1015 J). Source adapted from Reay 92, 94 . 50-80 energy savings in 15 of processes 9-18 PJ Drying and crystallization. 10 total energy saving, worth 3-5PJ savings across the three sectors were estimated to be of the order of50-100 PJ per year by 2050. The energy savings...

Concluding Remarks

Waste utilization and impacts to the natural environment. It has been argued here that an energy system that has high local efficiency does not necessarily mean that the system will have higher global efficiency. The introduction of global efficiency offers paradigm shift in characterization of energy sources. Moreover, considering only the local efficiency, the energy sources might have either overvalued or undervalued. As energy consumption is related with the higher emission of pollutants including greenhouse gases, the only way to increase the efficiency and reduce the environmental impact is to increase the global efficiency of any energy system.

Manmade Tritium Inputs

Nuclear bomb tests, which began in 1952 in the northern hemisphere, added large amounts of tritium to the atmosphere. They reached a peak in 1963, with up to 10,000 TU in a single monthly rain in the United States. An international treaty stopped surface nuclear bomb tests in 1963, and tritium concentrations in precipitation decreased steadily. Since nuclear testing began, tritium (and dD and d18O) has been measured in a worldwide net of stations (Fig. 10.2), coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. The results are published in annual reports Environmental Isotope Data World Survey of Isotope Concentration in Precipitation, IAEA, Vienna. Figure 10.3 represents annual tritium concentrations in precipitation at various stations from 1961-1975. Figure 10.4 reveals monthly values for several stations for the period 1961-1965, when the bomb-tritium impact was especially high. The following patterns are seen in the tritium curves Fig. 10.2 Network of weather...

Outline of Ongoing Research Activities of the Marine Ecology Research Institute Mainly Regarding Thermal Issues in Japan

Abstract The Marine Ecology Research Institute (MERI) was established in 1975 by an agreement among three government agencies, which were then known as the Fisheries Agency, Energy Agency, and Environmental Agency. MERI is the only research organization in Japan specialized in research to elucidate the effects of thermal power plant cooling systems on coastal fishery resources and marine organisms. Most fossil fuel and all nuclear power plants in Japan are located at the seaside and employ the once-through cooling system. The water pollution control law of Japan lists heat discharge as one of its regulation targets. However, no law, regulation, or guideline for heat discharge has been enacted so far in Japan. Issues concerning the temperature rise of water between the intake and discharge at power plants and the structural design of intake and discharge facilities have been settled by an agreement between power companies and local governments under the guidance of national agencies,...

Marine Thermal Issues in Which MERI Has Been Involved

Most fossil fuel and all nuclear power plants in Japan are located at the seaside and employ the once-through cooling system. Impacts of thermal discharge (intake and discharge of cooling water) have been a public concern, and several studies, therefore, were conducted to elucidate power plant impacts on marine fishery resources and marine organisms in the 1970s-1990s (Kiyono and Shinshima 1982 Kinoshita 1985 Yamamoto et al. 1991 Marumo et al. 1992 Tsuchida 1995). Since no serious damage to local fishery resources because of power plant operations has been observed or reported so far, recent public concern has focused on impacts on the marine ecosystem and its preservation. With the possible global warming, however, thermal impacts on fishery resources again have become one of the major public issues. The following are the marine thermal and power plant operation issues and the relating ongoing research projects to which MERI has given higher priority - Elucidation of impacts of power...

Industrial Microreactors for Fine and Functional Chemistry

Many organometallic reactions suffer from insufficient mixing, because often the mixing times in conventional mixers are longer than the conversion time. Therefore, the reactions are made under non-stoichiometric and or in the presence of changing concentration profiles, which promote consecutive reactions. As a consequence, organometallic reactions are often carried out under cryogenic conditions to get acceptable selectivity, for example, the reaction is slowed down. This requires capital investment for cooling utilities and increases the process energy consumption and costs. It is instead possible to perform the reaction at room temperature using a microreactor coupled to an efficient micromixer. Phenyl magnesium bromide and boronic acid trimethyl ester react to give phenyl-boronic acid with high selectivity (about 90 ) even at room temperature, which saves energy costs and the respective CAPEX investment 177 . The yield was about 25 higher with respect to industrial batch...

Chemical Stewardship Services

Research on new chemicals, new routes of chemical synthesis, new feedstocks, and new chemical services have begun to pay off with cleaner production systems, reduced energy consumption, and products that are more easily recycled or biologically disposed. Indeed, a new conception of the chemical industry is emerging that sees the industry as a service industry as much as a materials industry. There is a growing business in chemical management services that provide management services where compensation is based on performance-based metrics rather than just chemical sales. Large chemical manufacturers such as Henkel, Ashland Specialty Chemical, BP, and PPG Industries have expanded their businesses to include these services. Some of these chemical service contracts involve retaining full or

Pathways of Crude Oil Formation

It is well known that the composition of crude oil is similar to that of plants (Wittwer and Immel 1980). Crude oils represent the ultimate in natural processing, from wood (fresh but inefficient) to coal (older but more efficient) to petroleum fluids (much older but much more efficient). Natural gas has much greater energy efficiency than liquid petroleum. This is not evident in conventional calculations because these calculations are carried out on the volume basis for gas. If calculations are made on the basis of weight, energy efficiency with natural gas would be higher than crude oil.

Urban Growth Management Action Strategy

Economic Instruments As already noted, while NEcPAs have tended to ignore environmental degradation in the past (i.e., to give it only a kind of add-on-attention), there is beginning recognition in all DCs that deregulation alone can hardly be expected to solve problems of environmental degradation. Rather, the need is for optimal use of reoriented economic policies. This includes adjustments not only in investment policy but in virtually all economic policies involved in DC development, including trade policies, energy policies, access to resource policies, and so on. There is urgent need, also, for preparation of a new Manual of Appropriate Economic Analysis for DC Project Development, for use both by DCs and IAAs to ensure due consideration of the sustainable E-c-E approach in future project planning.

Emissions from Oil Refining Activities

Because of the presence of trace elements, this C02 is not readily absorbed by the ecosystem, creating an imbalance into the atmosphere. Szklo and Schaeffer (2002) reported that crude oil refining processes are highly energy-intensive, requiring between 7 and 15 of the crude oil from the refinery processes. The study showed that the energy use in the Brazilian refining industry will further increase by 30 between 2002 and 2009 to reduce the sulfur content of diesel and gasoline as well as to reduce C02 emissions. For example, lube oil production needs about 1500 MJ barrel and alkylation with sulfuric acid and hydrofluoric acid requires 360 MJ barrel and 430 MJ barrel respectively. The energy consumption would further increase to meet the more stringent environmental quality specifications for oil products worldwide. The full recovery of such chemicals or catalysts is not possible, leading to environmental hazards.

Biomimicry How and Why RD Should Be Driven By Natures Design

Ironic is the public perception that chemicals are essentially man-made, industrial substances that contaminate an otherwise chemical-free natural world. The fact is, Mother Nature is the ultimate chemical engineer and manufacturer - all of nature is alive with chemistry, from the colorful chemical contortions of corals, flowers, and insects, to the technical triumphs of deep-sea vent communities. Nature's mastery has led to the creation of a highly sophisticated chemical give-and-take underlying all living things. Out of necessity, nature speaks chemistry with a forked tongue -one prong seeking continued technical advances while the other maintains life-friendly conditions. What better model is there for a sustainable chemical industry The pace of technological advancements in biochemical analysis and molecular manipulation are poised to take biomimicry - emulation of natural materials and processes - from the pages of science fiction to the pages of prestigious scientific journals....

Description of the Alistar3000 System

The actuator layout provides ALISTAR vehicles with a high maneuverability, especially at zero speed. ALISTAR vehicles therefore have the ability to hover. The vehicle has an excellent pitch and roll stability because of its mechanical architecture, reducing the energy consumption for stabilizing the vehicle, which is of paramount importance for an AUV (Fig. 2).

Sustainability Environment and Nanomaterials

Environmental and Energy Systems Institute, Rice University Issues surrounding the environmental applications and implications of an emerging nanochemistry and materials industry were raised for the first time in December 2001, at an international symposium organized by the Environmental and Energy Systems Institute at Rice University. Press coverage of this symposium and follow-up events created considerable public interest and controversy. In one case, a Canadian environmental advocacy group, ETC, released a report largely based on information gathered from the Rice symposium that concluded that there should be an immediate halt to the production of all nanomaterials and ultimately called on delegates to the Johannesburg summit on sustainable development to take up this cause. Although the merits (and practicality) of the ETC conclusion are debatable, it underscores the need for sound research on the environmental implications of nanotechnology now rather than later.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation

This picture contrasts dramatically with the innovative leaders. While commitments to existing asset investments may prevent wholesale switching over to new operating and product design approaches, strategically savvy companies are gaining expertise and market presence. Sony is using corn-based plastics in components and packaging. Available now only in Japan, the casing for the Walkman stereo, wrapping film, and blister packaging are vegetable-based. Such products are designed using environmental technology to encourage recycling activities, energy conservation and reduction in the use of hazardous materials. This replacement plastic uses only 45 percent of the oil-derived resources of conventional plastic, with commensurate reductions in carbon dioxide emissions.

Sedimentwater systems

Sequential chemical extraction of trace metals from sediments is intended - in each specific step - to release metals associated with a specific sediment phase (for more details see section 5.4.4 below). As reactions between solute metals and particle surfaces are heterogeneous (i.e. adsorption, electron and proton transfers), the extraction efficiency is more kinetically controlled and strongly depends on the availability of specific surface areas and the type of reactive sites (i.e. high- and low-energy sites). In general, results of the chemical extraction depend on (i) the extraction time, (ii) the liquid solid ratio, and (iii) effects based on the pH and buffer carbonate status of the sample (Reuther, 1999). Faced with the selection of a chemical extraction procedure, a great variety of options have been described, covering various leaching tests, single-step extraction, using different types of buffer solutions, chelating agents or weak acids, and multistep sequential extraction.

Supercritical Fluid Assisted Membrane Separation andor Reaction

The viscosity of highly viscous compounds is a limiting factor for their filtration on a membrane in terms of fluxes and energy costs. In the past, a few attempts were made to decrease viscosity by either using high temperatures (a few hundred of degrees) or by adding chemicals (surfactants, solvents). Among the inconveniences of the first process, are difficulties in safe handling and the strongly detrimental degradation of temperature-sensitive compounds. The second method raises the problem of removing chemicals after filtration. Consequently, a new idea has been proposed that consists of lowering the viscosity of sticky fluids by injecting SCCO2 at moderate temperature. Working at room temperature allows the preservation of thermo-sensitive products, and the supercritical solvent can be removed easily by pressure release at the exit of the separation chamber.

Carbon Catabolite Repression

Preferential utilization of structurally simple carbon sources like glucose over complex aromatic compounds is one of the major limitations in the process of biodegradation of aromatic compounds. The most extensively studied example is the repression of lactose utilization by glucose in Escherichia coli (Stulke and Hillen 1999, 2000). This is generally referred to as catabolite repression control (CRC) and is mediated through the elevated levels of cAMP (Notley-McRobb et al. 1997 Kimata et al. 1997). In the genus Pseudomonas, studies suggest that glucose uptake is inhibited and glucose-catabolizing enzymes are repressed by organic acids (Tiwari and Campbell 1969 Hylemon and Phibbs 1972 Roberts et al. 1973 Mukkada et al. 1973 Midgley and Dawes 1973 Phillips and Mulfinger 1981) . c-AMP levels and adenylate cyclase activity in P. aeruginosa grown on repressing carbon source were similar to those cells grown in its absence. The external addition of c-AMP did not alter the repression...

Sediment Deposits Formation and Accumulation

In low-energy areas, where the flow is reduced or in accumulation zones, where low current speed and low resuspension rates allow a more or less continuous sediment accumulation. Furthermore, in case of preferred transport, at the end of the river much of the sediments are deposited in the estuary and on the seabed of the coastal zone (Secco et al. 2005 Westrich and Forstner 2007).

Raw materialsEnergy media

Energy consumption is determined over the entire life cycle and describes the consumption of primary energy. Fossil energy media are included before production and renewable energy media before harvest or use. This captures conversion losses from electricity and steam generation. Energy consumption Energy consumption

Overview of Different Models of Biorefinery Industry

The global model is characterized by large-scale production, based on massive investments in countries endowed with natural resources (e.g., Latin America for bioethanol). Raw materials are shipped to industrialized countries, where they are processed by biorefineries and converted into biofuel or ethanol. The existence of relevant economies of scale and the massive investments in agricultural inputs in developing countries is the basis of the large scale of biorefineries and blending companies. The final output is traded to industrialized countries. Both the United Nations Environment Program and the EU Energy Policy assert that producer countries could benefit from the creation of new jobs in this sector. However, whether such development will actually happen strongly depends on which type of agrofuel development will be promoted, which detains its control. Decisions concerning the use of natural resources, or infrastructure developments, have the potential to damage a community's...

Sustainability and Growth

3M products that have increased energy efficiency have been particularly successful with customers and end-users. 3M window insulator kits for homes and its solar-reflective films for cars and buildings are well-known examples. Less obvious are 3M's Brightness Enhancement Films, which greatly reduce the light needed to illuminate electronic displays and therefore allow laptop computers, PDAs, and cell phones to run almost twice as long on a single battery charge. Electronics manufacturers have quickly grasped the power of energy efficiency in the marketplace because no consumer wants the device with half the efficiency of the competition, virtually all these devices now use these films. The obvious appeal of energy efficiency has been one of the forces behind 3M's significant investment in fuel cell technology. As the world moves inevitably toward a hydrogen economy, 3M intends to be a leader. The company has applied a broad range of technological strengths to the development and...

Variation in Contamination Levels

Westrich and Forstner (2007) classify the present-day pollution of recent surface sediments as low level, covering older (higher level) contaminated sediment deposits in low-energy areas of the river basin. They postulated an increasing risk of resuspension of old contaminated sediment layers by transport of the particle-bound pollutants downstream in river systems due to the potential for increasing water discharge.

Radiofrequency Energy

Microwaves are attractive for use in the air dehydration of some foods because of the speed of removal of moisture and the minimization of case-hardening. Applications enjoying reasonable use include the finish-drying of pasta and potato chips and the finish-baking of biscuits. The potential use of microwaves in freeze-drying has been described below. Experiments have proven the feasibility of using microwaves in foam-mat dehydration. A system has been developed by Pernod, in France, using microwaves in a vacuum tunnel to dry a great variety of solid and liquid food items. This system is more expensive than spray-drying but less expensive than freeze-drying. In a related application, the United States Energy Research and Development Administration has

Benefits Opportunities

The 3P program, aimed at eliminating pollution at the source, has improved operational efficiency through the many projects that have reduced waste and or energy consumption and saved money (nearly 1 billion in first year savings alone). Teamed with our 3M Six Sigma initiative, the number of 3P projects has been increasing as yield improvement projects increase (as improving yield means less waste and cost savings).

Which Biorefinery Model for EU Rural Areas

Local communities could be negatively affected by a high concentration of air particles deriving from intense burning activities of large quantities of biomass. In the case of small-scale schemes, these disadvantages should be avoided since (i) the biorefinery promotes the development of other types of economic activities (e.g., logistics, research and development of green products) and (ii) advantages for energy efficiency due to lower transportation distances.

Conclusion and perspectives on the electrooxidation of toxic organic compounds

Promising for wastewater decontamination. Although several studies have focused on the use of phenolic intermediates, it can also be noted that the number of papers proposing electrochemical treatment of herbicide is still modest. In this scenery, electrochemical treatment using Fenton's reaction stands out. This is a straightforward result of the great interest shown by the use of Fenton's reagent in the photochemical investigation of herbicides degradation. As stated recently by Anglada et al. (2009), an efficient treatment of contaminated effluents is rarely performed by a single process indeed, usually two or three associated processes must be involved, so that a reduction in the energy consumption and low level of organic material can be achieved. The main conclusion is that the oxidation of herbicides through electrochemical technology represents a viable technique for reducing the toxicity of wastewater. The use of this type of treatment may provide a breakthrough in the...

Microbially Induced Calcium Carbonate Precipitation MICCP

As discussed before, urease is the key enzyme involved in the process of calcite precipitation induced by bacteria. Bacteria are known to hydrolyze urea by urease for the purposes of (1) increasing the ambient pH (Burne and Marquis 2000), (2) utilizing it as a nitrogen source (Burne and Chen 2000), and (3) using it as a source of energy. There are many species of Bacillus reported that produce large amount of urease, further helps in calcite precipitation and biocementation (De Muynck et al. 2008 Achal et al. 2009a) . Urease occurs in many bacteria, several species of yeast and a number of higher plants including jack beans (Canvalia ensiformis) (Dixon et al. 1980). soybean leaf and seed (Glycine max) (Kerr et al. 1983), pigweed (Chenopodium album) (El-Shora 2001) and mulberry leaf (Morus alba) (Hirayama et al. 2000). Most organisms with ureolytic ability use urea as a source of nitrogen by actively transporting or passively diffusing urea into the cell cytoplasm, where urease...

Membrane Filter Processes

Ent or an electrical field forces the solution through a membrane. Table 5 shows areas of use of membrane processes in wastewater treatment 100 . Depending on the pressure range, the following technologies can be applied first, microfiitration in the 0.5 to 3 bar pressure range, second, ultrafiltration in the 1 to 10 bar pressure range, third, reverse osmosis in the 20 to 100 bar pressure range, and finally, electrodialysis, which uses an electrical field. From a practical point of view, membrane processes offer a variety of advantage such as continuous throughput, relatively low energy need, normal operating temperatures, simple maintenance, and flexible modular design 85 , Different materials are used for the membranes such as glass, polycarbonate, polyester, cellulose acetate, polyamide, polytetra-fluoroethylene, or polysulfone. Also different shapes of the membranes are available such as spirally rolled membranes, hollow fibre membranes, tubular modules, disk modules, and others....

Corrosion of Reinforcement and MICCP

Et al. (2010b) reported a search for a low energy binder in concrete using calcite producing strain of Sporosarcina pasteurii. In their work, the efficacy of the proposed method in reducing water and chloride ion permeability has been established. Initial demonstration of the corrosion protection offered by the bacterial concrete has also been discussed. They concluded that the reinforced concrete samples exhibited reduction in mass loss of the reinforcing bars and increase in their pull-out strength based on MICCP. Their current work demonstrated that production of biocalcification by S. pasteurii can at least partially replace the industrial binders and provide a more sustainable alternative. Qian et al. (2010a) have shown that MICCP on cement specimens induced by B. pasteurii can greatly improve their surface permeability resistance and resist the attack of the acid (pH 1.5). They concluded that MICCP has the potential application in surface protection of building materials, for...

Rendering C02 Injection Sustainable

The injection of COz into hydrocarbon reservoir is known to increase the amount of recoverable oil, yielding economic benefits. The process, however, has not been implemented out of concerns for the greenhouse effects. International Energy Agency (1995) projects global carbon emissions to grow from about 6 billion metric tons in 1990 to over 8 billion metric tons by 2010, representing an annual growth rate of 1.5 . The participation, signed so far for the Climate Challenges utilities pledging a wide range of greenhouse gas reduction activities, accords for an aggregate of about 44 million metric tons of carbon equivalent (Kane and Klein 1997). However, the scientific protocol to meet this target has not yet been established, and it is becoming increasingly clear that this target is not something that can be achieved.

Autonomous Biosensor Wireless Networks

Nowadays, molecular and biological events can be monitored and converted to digital signals by means ofbiosensors, and this fact creates new opportunities for analytical devices to dramatically enhance the future of environmental monitoring over large geographic areas. However, the cost of reliable autonomous biosensing is still far too high for massively scaled-up deployments. Some of the drawbacks that should be first overcome are the complexity of biosensing processes, the need for regular recalibration, energy consumption, and waste production, which should be minimized. There is also a need for more stable biological reagents that can be stored locally (on the device) for extended periods of time. The hardware requirements for wireless sensors include robust radio technology, a low-cost and energy-efficient processor, flexible signal inputs outputs for linking a variety of sensors, a long-lifetime energy source, and a flexible, open-source development platform. Additional...

Future Trends And Conclusions

On the other hand, the advances in microelectronics and microfluidics have permitted the miniaturization of analytical systems, allowing a reduction in energy consumption, handling of a low volume of samples, and therefore a reduction in reagent consumption and waste generation, thus increasing sample throughput.

Understanding the History of Reversals of Fortune

Although the energy-market growth prospects shift away from North America and Europe towards China and India, as well as the to be paid for from exports of Iraqi oil. Nevertheless, after dipping below US 24 bbl at the moment Saddam was toppled, the world oil price crept back up but only to the US 27-US 30 bbl range, which is typical for the period of the winter heating season in the northern hemisphere where the largest per-capita energy consumption markets are located. By the summer of 2005, the price had escalated to US 65-70 bbl.

Contamination by a Coal Ash

Andrews and Anderson (1978) studied the impact of a coal ash pit that served two 500-MW electric power generating units near Portage, Wisconsin, USA. Water in the ash pit differed in its composition from the local groundwater. Operation of the power plant began in May 1975, monitored by four wells that were constructed south and north of the pit dikes. Selected data are reported in Table 16.3 Discussion. From Table 16.3, it emerges that the data for 1972-1973 predated the operation of the power plant and reflect the composition of the nonpolluted local groundwater. The variations in composition between wells A, B, C, and D reflect natural fluctuations in the local groundwater composition. For example, calcium occurred in the range of 13.9 to 31.6 mg l, and SO4 varied from 0.8mg l (well B) to 9.7mg l (well D). Bearing these variations in mind, it seems that

Bioremediation of Metals Mediated by Marine Bacteria

Abstract Metals are an intrinsic part of the earth's crust. With rapid industrialization and urbanization, enormous amounts of industrial wastes including metal wastes are accumulating, which require special treatment. Wastes from mining and metal refining industries, sewage sludge, power plant wastes and waste incineration plants often contain substantial amounts of toxic heavy metals viz. Hg, Cd, Pb, As, Sb, Zn, Cu which pose serious treat to the environment and need to be removed from the source of pollution.

Evaluation of Process

From the above discussion, it can be noted that considering only the energy efficiency based on the input and output of a process does not identify the most efficient process. All of the factors should be considered and carefully analyzed in order to claim that a process is efficient in the long term. The evaluation process of an efficient process should consider both the efficiency and quality of a process. Considering the material characterization developed by Zatzman et al. (2007), the selection of a process can be evaluated using the following equations

Committee and Staff Biographical Sketches

Geoffrey Thyne is a registered professional geologist and senior research scientist at the Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute (EORI) at the University of Wyoming. He has worked as a research scientist for Arco Oil and Gas as assistant professor at California State University, Bakersfield in the Department of Physics and Geology and as associate research professor at the Colorado School of Mines Department of Geology and Geological Engineering. He also served as project manager for the Colorado Energy Research Institute, supervising a U. S. Department of Energy-funded project to evaluate various water treatments for coalbed methane produced water. Before joining the EORI, he worked on a variety of research and consulting projects in the western United States involving impacts of energy production on water resources. He has authored of more than 35 peer-reviewed scientific papers and has given many professional presentations. Dr. Thyne holds a B.A. in chemistry and zoology from the...

Tactics for Defending Against Pests

Some of the tactics used to defend food production from competitor species have been through a technological revolution of their own, while others are as old as agriculture itself. Bioengineered crops have become a powerful new force in pest management, but depending on the situation, the time-tested practice of crop rotation and other cultural practices are no less valuable in terms of minimizing damage caused by pests. All tactics potentially have a role to play in a pest management scenario according to production circumstances and how the cost benefit relationship plays out. However, the increasing tendency worldwide to practice high production agriculture has led to the adoption of pest defense methods that are expedient and absolute in their action, in turn relying less on strategic cultural maneuvers that can avoid or minimize pest problems over a longer time frame.55 It was the quick-fix approach that was so subversively appealing back in the early days of the new synthetic...

Priming and Reductive Dechlorination

Reductive dehalogenation of chloroaromatic compounds can lead to energy conservation 67,141,469-471 . For example, it was recently demonstrated that the molar growth yields from the reductive dehalogenation of 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetate yielded energy for growth equivalent to that obtained from the reduction of nitrate, sulfite, or fumarate 471 . Several studies have proposed that PCB-dechlorinating microorganisms also derive energy by transferring electrons to PCBs 105, 371, 451 . It has also been proposed that high concentrations of halogenated biphenyls (e.g., 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorobiphenyl 2346-CB , 23456-CB, and 2,6-dibromobiphenyl 26-BB ) prime PCB dehaloge-nation because they support the growth of PCB-dechlorinating microorganisms 59,156,158,245,246 .

Box 44 Metastability reaction kinetics activation energy and catalysts

Although the reaction of oxygen with graphite is energetically favoured, graphite exists because the reaction is kinetically very slow. Many natural materials are out of equilibrium with their ambient environment and are reacting imperceptibly slowly. These materials are metastable. Metastability can be demonstrated using a graph of energy in a chemical system in which substances A and B react to give C and D (Fig. 1). In order for reaction to take place, A and B must come into close association and this usually requires an input of energy (activation energy). Under cold (low-energy) conditions a small number of A and B will occasionally have the energy to overcome the activation energy, but this

Smart powder processing for energy and environment

Powder Process

Smart powder processing stands for novel powder processing techniques that create advanced materials with minimal energy consumption and environmental impacts. This process is also important from the viewpoint of sustainability. Particle bonding technology is a typical smart powder processing technique to make advanced composites. In this paper, its application examples for clean energy, energy-saving and novel recycling will be explained. For clean energy issues, the role of microstructure control of the electrodes for higher performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) by using particle bonding will be explained. From the viewpoint of energy-saving, a new method to produce fiber reinforced fumed silica compacts by making use of particle bonding will be introduced. It will be explained that the compacts have very low thermal conductivity with high porosity at high temperature. Furthermore, by carefully controlling the bonding between different kinds of materials, effective separation...

Electric Cars Powered by Batteries

Even electric vehicles are not really pollution-free if a fossil fuel is burned to generate the electricity to charge the battery, since the fossil fuel's combustion in any power plant yields NOx that is released into the atmosphere. A similar terrorist threat would be the deliberate crashing of hijacked aircraft into nuclear power plants or into containers of nuclear fuel. However, most nuclear energy industry executives deny that the power plants or containers could be breached, and radioactivity released, by such an event. Currently, there are 440 fission-based nuclear power plants in operation in more than 30 countries in the world. Collectively, they generate 17 of global electricity demand, including 23 of that in developed countries, 16 of that in the former Soviet Union, but only 2 of that in developing countries. Global production more than tripled between 1980 and 2000. The fraction of electricity produced by nuclear energy in various countries is listed in Table 9-2. The...

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