Environmental Chemistry

Experimental Procedure

Experimental Procedure Chemistry

Estimated time to complete the experiment 1.5 h. Estimated time to complete the experiment 1.5 h. Each one of the three methods described below for the preparation of C102(g) utilizes the apparatus shown in Figure 1. The apparatus setup is as follows First stretch the plastic stem of a 4-mL, narrow stem disposable transfer pipet (Beral pipet) by holding the tip in one hand and the bulb in the other hand and pulling in opposite directions slowly and firmly. This will make a long capillary-like...

Analytical Environmental Chemistry Experiments in the Literature

A New Project-Based Lab for Undergraduate Environmental and Analytical Chemistry, J. Chem. Educ. 2006, 83, 253-256. Anderson, C. P. Saner, W. B. A Practical Experiment for Determining a Pervasive, Persistent Pollutant, . Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 738739. Allen, H. C. Brauers, T. Finlayson-Pitts, B. J. Illustration of Deviations in the Beer-Lambert Law in an Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Measuring Atmospheric Pollutants by Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometry, J. Chem. Educ....

Introduction

As discussed in Chapter 8 of the companion book, the emission of nitric oxide (NO) is problematic due to its contribution to ozone depletion in the ionosphere (i.e., NO + O3 N02 + 02) the production of smog in the troposphere its proclivity to attach to hemoglobin (preventing dioxygen transport) its role as a precursor of acid rain its high reactivity (it is a radical) NO is thermodynamically unstable at room temperature and pressure. As soon as it comes in contact with dioxygen, it is oxidized...

Alkalinity and Buffering Capacity of Water

After performing this experiment, the student shall Determine the alkalinity and buffering capacity of several types of water samples surface water, groundwater (mineral water) and sea water. Prepare different solutions or mixtures of acids and their conjugate bases (i.e., buffers), and measure their buffering capacity by titration with acids and bases. Calculate the concentrations of an acid and of its conjugate base to create a buffer for a desired buffering capacity at a specific pH. This...

Water Characterization

After performing this experiment, the student shall be able to Measure several parameters that indicate the characteristics and differences of various types of natural water samples surface water, groundwater mineral water and seawater. The parameters to be explored in this experiment will help us determine the main differences among water samples. They include pH, conductivity, chloride and sulfate concentration, and hardness level as measured by the total amount of calcium and magnesium ions...

Dissolved Oxygen in Water

After performing this experiment, the student shall Determine the level of dissolved oxygen in a sample of water using Winkler's method. Analyze the effects of various factors on the level of dissolved oxygen in a water sample (e.g., salt content, temperature, degree of mixing, and the presence of reducing compounds). The level of dissolved oxygen in water is one of the most important parameters in determining its quality, because it indirectly indicates whether there is some kind of pollution....

Laboratory Report Sheetexperiment

Cu2+ to Cu(OH) Color before the addition of NaOH Color after the addition of NaOH Final pH 2. Cu(OH) to CuO -Color before the addition of NaOH Color after the addition of NaOH Final pH Peak at the absorption maximum of Cu(II) Peak at the absorption maximum of Cu022- _nm Color before the addition of H2SO4 _ Color after the addition of H2S04 _ Color before the addition of H2SO4 _ Color after the addition of H2SO4 _ Concentration of the Cu(II) solution utilized Anode material Cathode material...

Literature References

Phenol Removal from Kaolinite by Electrokinetics, J. Geotech. Eng. 1992, 118, 1837-1851. Acar, Y. B. Alshawabkeh, A. N. Principles of Electrokinetic Remediation, Environ. Sci. Tech. 1993, 27, 2638-2647. Cabrera-Guzman, D. Swartzbaugh, J. T. Weisman, A. W. The Use of Electrokinetics for Hazardous Waste Site Remediation, J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 1990, 40, 1670-1676. Hamed, J. Acar, Y. B. Gale, R. J. Pb II Removal from Kaolinite by Electrokinetics, J. Geotech. Eng....

Prelaboratory Report Sheetexperiment

PRELABORATORY QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS 1. Explain why it is important to know the ANC of a water sample. 2. Explain the meaning and importance of the buffering capacity of a natural water system. 3. Which are the main natural buffering systems and the predominating pH values of the main types of waters on Earth 4. Explain what the sensitivity to an acid discharge for an aqueous natural system means and what parameters define this sensitivity. 5. Use the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to explain...

Prelaboratory Questions And Problems

Pourbaix Diagram For Cuoh

Knowing that Zn(II) hydroxide is amphoteric and that it forms divalent ions in acidic and in basic solutions, a) Replace the alphabet letters in the boxes in Figure 2 with the chemical formulas of the missing species. b) Write the (balanced) equations that describe each one of the equilibrium lines in this diagram (except the dotted ones, that represent the water equilibria these two lines do not participate directly in the Zn equilibria). c) Justify chemically and or algebraically the type...

Postlaboratory Problems And Questions

The H2O2 necessary for Fenton's reaction can be produced by the photocatalytic generation of holes (h+, see Section 10.1) that react with water in cir-cumneutral media (reaction a, see below). In alkaline media, however, holes react with OH to produce 'OH (reaction b). (See Sanchez, 1996). a) Write the balanced reaction a in the form A+B C+D b) Write the balanced reaction b in the form X + Y Z *2. During the degradation of percholoroethylene, C2CI4 (hereby labeled as A) by Fenton's...