Additional Related Projects

• Measure the total inorganic phosphate and the condensed or hydrolyzable phosphates by skipping the filtration step described above. This is achieved by the transformation of the meta-, pyro-, and polyphosphates into orthophosphates (through acid hydrolysis); then, obtain the total inorganic phosphate content as well as the fraction that corresponds to the condensed forms. This may be performed with a 10-mL sample treated with 0.2 mL of concentrated sulfuric acid to ensure an acidic pH. The mixture is then heated and allowed to boil gently for a minimum of 5 minutes. Allow it to cool, adjust the volume again to 10 mL with D.I. water, and apply the o-phosphate analytical technique described earlier.

• A similar procedure determines the total phosphorous content. In this case, treat a 10-mL sample with 0.5 mL of concentrated sulfuric acid so that the pH is < 1; then add 2 mL of a 5% potassium persulfate solution and bring the resulting mixture to boil for at least 30 minutes. Allow it to cool, adjust the volume again to 10 mL with D.I. water, and apply the o-phosphate analytical technique described earlier.

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