Prelaboratory Report Sheetexperiment

Experiment Title


Procedure flow sheet

Waste containment procedure


1. Explain why the indicated parameters need to be measured so as to differentiate the three types of natural waters.

2. Explain what precautions must be taken when sampling a natural water source.

3. Explain why the pH must be measured on-site, whereas measurement of the other parameters requires that the samples be refrigerated.

4. Why are polyethylene bottles rather than glass bottles preferred for storing water samples?

5. Write down the reactions that correspond to the measuring technique for a. Chloride ions b. Sulfate ions c. Calcium ions, and total hardness

6. What causes the conductivity of water? What are the common units for this parameter?

7. What is salinity? What ions contribute to its value? What salinity values are common in seawater? In groundwater?

8. Why is hardness (as well as calcium and magnesium hardness) reported as ppm of calcium carbonate?

9. Why is it necessary to make the pH basic in order to measure the calcium ion concentration?

10. What would happen in the case of the total hardness EDTA titration if the pH were not adjusted to 10 with the buffer?

11. In what kind of water sample would you expect to find higher hardness values and why?

Additional Related Projects

• Use the above procedures with other water samples (e.g., tap water, D.I. or distilled water, rain water) and compare the values for the measured parameters.

10 1. Water Characterization Name_Section_Date_

Instructor _Partner_

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