Boxes

1.1 Elements, atoms and isotopes 3

3.1 Partial pressure 34

3.2 Chemical equilibrium 37

3.3 Acids and bases 40

3.4 Gas solubility 43

3.5 The pH scale 49

3.6 Reactions in photochemical smog 51

3.7 Acidification of rain droplets 58

3.8 Removal of sulphur dioxide from an air parcel 59

4.1 Properties of water and hydrogen bonds 69

4.2 Electronegativity 74

4.3 Oxidation and reduction (redox) 78

4.4 Metastability, reaction kinetics, activation energy and catalysts 80

4.5 Dissociation 81

4.6 Isomorphous substitution 91

4.7 Van der Waals' forces 93

4.8 Chemical energy 98

4.9 Mineral reaction kinetics and solution saturation 99

4.10 Biopolymers 100

4.11 Base cations 106

4.12 Solubility product, mineral solubility and saturation index 107

4.13 Radon gas: a natural environmental hazard 120

4.14 Physical and chemical properties that dictate the fate of organic contaminants 122

4.15 Use of clay catalysts in clean up of environmental contamination 126

4.16 Mechanisms of microbial degradation and transformation of organic contaminants 128

5.1 Ionic strength 150

5.2 Measuring alkalinity 150

5.3 Worked examples of pH buffering 154

5.4 Eh-pH diagrams 164

5.5 Essential and non-essential elements 171

6.1 Salinity 185

6.2 Salinity and major ion chemistry of seawater on geological timescales 190

6.3 Residence times of major ions in seawater 192

6.4 Ion interactions, ion pairing, ligands and chelation 198

6.5 Abiological precipitation of calcium carbonate 202

6.6 Oceanic primary productivity 220

7.1 Simple box model for ocean carbon dioxide uptake 248

7.2 The delta notation for expressing stable isotope ratio values 269

7.3 Chiral compounds 279

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