followed by the oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) to ferric iron (Fe(III)): 4Fe2+q)+ O2(g)+ 10H2O( -> 4Fe(OH)s) + 8H+Uq,

Oxidation happens very slowly at the low pH values found in acid mine waters. However, below pH 3.5 iron oxidation is catalysed (see Box 4.4) by the iron bacterium Thiobacillus thiooxidans. At pH 3.5-4.5 oxidation is catalysed by Metallogenium. Ferric iron may react further with pyrite:

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