The atmosphere

3.1 Introduction 31

3.2 Composition of the atmosphere 32

3.3 Steady state or equilibrium? 35

3.4 Natural sources 38

3.4.1 Geochemical sources 39

3.4.2 Biological sources 41

3.5 Reactivity of trace substances in the atmosphere 44

3.6 The urban atmosphere 45

3.6.1 London smog - primary pollution 46

3.6.2 Los Angeles smog - secondary pollution 48

3.6.3 21st-century particulate pollution 52

3.7 Air pollution and health 53

3.8 Effects of air pollution 55

3.9 Removal processes 56

3.10 Chemistry of the stratosphere 58

3.10.1 Stratospheric ozone formation and destruction 59

3.10.2 Ozone destruction by halogenated species 61

3.10.3 Saving the ozone layer 63

3.11 Further reading 64

3.12 Internet search keywords 65

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