The chemistry of continental solids

4.1 The terrestrial environment, crust and material cycling 66

4.2 The structure of silicate minerals 70

4.2.1 Coordination of ions and the radius ratio rule 70

4.2.2 The construction of silicate minerals 73

4.2.3 Structural organization in silicate minerals 73

4.3 Weathering processes 76

4.4 Mechanisms of chemical weathering 77

4.4.1 Dissolution 77

4.4.2 Oxidation 77

4.4.3 Acid hydrolysis 83

4.4.4 Weathering of complex silicate minerals 84

4.5 Clay minerals 87

4.5.1 One to one clay mineral structure 88

4.5.2 Two to one clay mineral structure 88

4.6 Formation of soils 93

4.6.1 Parent (bedrock) material (p) 94

4.6.5 Influence of organisms (o) 99

4.7 Wider controls on soil and clay mineral formation 104

4.8 Ion exchange and soil pH 111

4.9 Soil structure and classification 112

4.9.1 Soils with argillic horizons 113

4.9.2 Spodosols (podzols) 113

4.9.3 Soils with gley horizons 117

4.10 Contaminated land 119

4.10.1 Organic contaminants in soils 119

4.10.2 Degradation of organic contaminants in soils 125

4.10.3 Remediation of contaminated land 129

4.10.4 Phytoremediation 137

4.11 Further reading 139

4.12 Internet search keywords 140

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