The oceans 181

6.1 Introduction 181

6.2 Estuarine processes 182

6.2.1 Aggregation of colloidal material in estuaries 183

6.2.2 Mixing processes in estuaries 184

6.2.3 Halmyrolysis and ion exchange in estuaries 186

6.2.4 Microbiological activity in estuaries 187

6.3 Major ion chemistry of seawater 189

6.4 Chemical cycling of major ions 191

6.4.1 Sea-to-air fluxes 194

6.4.2 Evaporites 194

6.4.3 Cation exchange 195

6.4.4 Calcium carbonate formation 196

6.4.5 Opaline silica 205

6.4.6 Sulphides 206

6.4.7 Hydrothermal processes 208

6.4.8 The potassium problem: balancing the seawater major ion budget 214

6.5 Minor chemical components in seawater 216

6.5.1 Dissolved gases 216

6.5.2 Dissolved ions 216

6.5.3 Conservative behaviour 218

6.5.4 Nutrient-like behaviour 218

6.5.5 Scavenged behaviour 223

6.6 The role of iron as a nutrient in the oceans 227

6.7 Ocean circulation and its effects on trace element distribution 229

6.8 Anthropogenic effects on ocean chemistry 233

6.8.1 Human effects on regional seas 1: the Baltic 233

6.8.2 Human effects on regional seas 2: the Gulf of Mexico 235

6.8.3 Human effects on total ocean minor element budgets? 235

6.9 Further reading 237

6.10 Internet search keywords 238

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