W 33 x 10 9

On this basis, surface seawater in the tropics is about four times supersaturated with respect to calcite. In practice, calculating seawater W values has been simplified for the environmental chemist because chemical oceanographers have measured and modelled the combined effects of ion activity and ion pairing over a range of pressures, temperatures and salinities (ionic strength) to yield total activity coefficients, denoted gt (Table 6.4). Using total activity coefficients for Ca2+ and CO2- from Table 6.4, the IAP calculations (eqns. 6.5 & 6.8) now simplify to:

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