Additional Problems

1. Using a ruler and calculator, estimate from Figure 7-1 the fraction of COz emissions in 2004 compared to 1990 (a) from the United States and (b) collectively from China, India, and other developing countries. Did the fraction of emissions from EU countries increase or decrease over that period?

2. List several reasons that you think proponents of carbon dioxide allocations based strictly on a country's population would advance in support of their position. What objections can be raised to their position? Repeat this exercise for an allocation scheme based on current GDP.

3. The replacement by natural gas of oil or coal used in power plants has been proposed as a mechanism by which C02 emissions can be reduced. However, much of the advantage of switching to gas can be offset since methane escaping into the atmosphere from gas pipelines is 23 times as effective, on a molecule-per-molecule basis, in causing global warming as is carbon dioxide. Calculate the maximum percentage of CH4 that can escape if replacement of oil by natural gas is to reduce the rate of global warming. [Hint: Recall that the heat energy outputs of the fuels are proportional to the amount of02 they consume. Assume the empirical formula for oil is CH2.J

4. Canada has massive supplies of heavy oil in tar sands, which are being used to make gasoline by combining them with natural gas. Assume that the empirical formulas of these three fuels are CH, CH2, and CH4, respectively, and that gasoline is made by hydrogenating the tar with hydrogen produced from natural gas in its reaction with water to produce C02 and H2. Combine the hydrogenation and hydrogen production equations so as to use all the H2, thereby deducing the overall reaction of CH and CH4 with steam to produce gasoline and carbon dioxide.

5. Given that the density of dry ice (solid C02) is 1.56 g/cm3, calculate the diameter in meters of a dry-ice ball that would be produced from the

5 metric tonnes of C02 produced on average by each person in developed countries each year.

6. A sign was spotted outside a farmers' market with the slogan: "Help Stop Climate Change: Buy Local Produce." Explain whether taking the advice of this sign could indeed "help stop climate change."

7. Using a ruler and calculator, estimate from Figure 7-7 the fractions of petroleum that are predicted by 2050 to originate (a) from heavy oil, and

(b) from natural gas liquids. What is the fraction of oil of all kinds produced in 2050 relative to that of 2008?

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