Contents

Preface xv

Environmental Chemistry 1

Introduction 1

A Brief History of Environmental Regulation 3

Green Chemistry 4

The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry ' 5

Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards 7

Real-World Examples of Green Chemistry 7

Further Readings 12

Websites of Interest 12

Scientific American Feature Article: Little Green Molecules 14

part i ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY

AND AIR POLLUTION 25

CHAPTER 1 Stratospheric Chemistry; The Ozone Layer 27

Introduction 27

The Physics and Chemistry of the Ozone Layer 30

Box 1-1: The Steady-State Analysts of Atmospheric Reactions 44

Catalytic Processes of Ozone Destruction 47

Box 1-2: The Rates of Free-Radical Reactions 49

Review Questions 56

Additional Problems 56

Further Readings 58

Websites of Interest 58

CHAPTER 2 The Ozone Holes 59

Introduction 59

The Ozone Hole and Other Sites of Ozone Depletion 63 Box 2-1: The Chemistry Behind Mid-Latitude Decreases in Stratospheric Ozone 7 5

The Chemicals That Cause Ozone Destruction 77 Green Chemistry: The Replacement of CFC and Hydrocarbon Blowing Agents with Carbon Dioxide in Producing Foam

Polystyrene 79 Green Chemistry: Harpin Technology—Eliciting Nature's

Own Defenses Against Diseases 86

Review Questions 87

Green Chemistry Questions 87

Additional Problems 88

Further Readings 89

Websites of Interest 89

CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Ground-Level

Air Pollution 91

Introduction 91

Box 3-1 : The Interconversion of Gas Concentrations 93

Urban Ozone: The Photochemical Smog Process ; 97

Technological Control of Emissions 109 Green Chemistry: The Replacement of Organic Solvents with Supercritical and Liquid Carbon Dioxidé; Development of Surfactants for This Compound 119 Green Chemistry: Using Ionic Liquids to Replace Organic Solvents; Cellulose, a Naturally Occurring Polymer

Replacement for Petroleum-Derived Polymers 120

Particulates in Air Pollution 132

Air Quality Indices and Size Characteristics for Particulate Matter 137

Box 3-2: Distribution of Particle Sizes in an Urban Air Sample 139

Review Questions 141

Green Chemistry Questions 141

Additional Problems 142

Further Readings 143

Websites of Interest 144

CHAPTER 4 The Environmental and Health Consequences of Polluted Air—

Outdoors and Indoors 145

Introduction 145

Acid Rain 147

The Human Health Effects of Outdoor Air Pollutants 155

Indoor Air Pollution 163

Review Questions 171

Additional Problems 172

Further Readings 172

Websites of Interest 173

CHAPTER S The Detailed Chemistry of the Atmosphere 175

Introduction 175

Box 5-1 : Lewis Structures of Simple Free Radicals 176

Tropospheric Chemistry 177

Systematics of Stratospheric Chemistry 194

Review Questions 197

Additional Problems 197

Further Readings 198

Websites of Interest 198

Environmental Instrumental Analysis I: Instrumental

Determination of NOx via Chemiluminescence 199

PART II ENERGY AND CLIMATE

CHANGE 203

CHAPTER 6 The Greenhouse Effect 205

Introduction 205

The Mechanism of the Greenhouse Effect 206

Box 6-1 : A Simple Model of the Greenhouse Effect 213

Molecular Vibrations: Energy Absorption by Greenhouse Gases 214

The Major Greenhouse Gases 217

Green Chemistry: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide in the Production of Computer Chips

Box 6-2: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Atmospheric Residence Time Other Greenhouse Gases

Box 6-3 : Determining the Emissions of "Old Carbon" Sources of Methane The Climate-Modifying Effects of Aerosols

Box 6-4: Cooling over China from Haze Global Wanning to Date Review Questions Green Chemistry Questions Additional Problems Further Readings Websites of Interest

CHAPTER 7 Fossil-Fuel Energy, CO? Emissions, and Global Warming

Introduction

Energy Reserves and Usage Fossil Fuels

Box 7-1 : Petroleum Refining: Fractional Distillation

225 228 231 234

238 246

260 260

261 262 270 276

Energy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the Future 292 Green Chemistry: Polylactic Acid—The Production of Biodegradable Polymers from Renewable Resources; Reducing the Need for Petroleum and the Impact on the Environment 295 The Extent and Potential Consequences of Future

Global Warming 297

Review Questions 307

Green Chemistry Questions 308

Additional Problems 308

Further Readings 309

Websites of Interest 309

CHAPTER 8 Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels, and the Hydrogen Economy 311

Introduction 312

Renewable Energy ; 312

Alternative Fuels: Alcohols, Ethers, and Esters 333 Green Chemistry: Valuable Chemical Feedstocks from Glycerin, a Waste By-Product in the Production of Biodiesel 348

Hydrogen—Fuel of the Future? 350

Review Questions 363

Green Chemistry Questions 364

Additional Problems 365

Further Readings 366

Websites of Interest 366

CHAPTER 9 Radioactivity, Radon, and Nuclear Energy 367

Introduction 367

Radioactivity and Radon Gas 368 Box 9-1: Steady-State Analysis of the Radioactive

Decay Series 373

Nuclear Energy 378 Box 9-2: Radioactive Contamination by

Plutonium Production 390

Review Questions 395

Additional Problems 396

Further Readings 396

Websites of Interest 397

Environmental Instrumental Analysis II: Instrumental

Determination of Atmospheric Methane 398

Scientific American Feature Article: A Plan to Keep Carbon in Check 402

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