Review Questions

1. In the "micrograms per cubic meter" concentration scale, to what substances do micrograms and cubic meters refer?

2. In general terms, what is meant by photochemical smog? What are the initial reactants in the process? Why is sunlight required?

3. What is meant by a primary pollutant and by a secondary pollutant? Give examples.

4. What is the chemical reaction by which thermal NO is produced? From which two sources does most urban NO arise? What is meant by the term NOxl

5. Describe the strategies by which reduction of urban ozone levels have been attempted. What difficulties have been encountered in these efforts?

6. Describe the operation of the three-way catalyst in transforming emissions released by an automobile engine. Does the catalyst operate when the engine is cold? Why is it important for converters that the level of sulfur in gasoline be minimized?

7. Describe the reaction used in the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides.

8. What are the main anthropogenic sources of sulfur dioxide? Describe the strategies by which these emissions can be reduced. What is the Claus reaction?

9. What species are included in the air pollution index called total reduced sulfur ?

10. Describe the various strategies used to produce clean coal.

11. Deduce the balanced reaction corresponding to the capture of sulfur dioxide gas by aqueous sodium sulfite and water to produce calcium bisulfite.

12. What is the difference between dry and wet deposition?

13. Define the term aerosol, and differentiate between coarse and fine particulates. What are the usual origins of these two types of atmospheric particles?

14. What are the usual chemical components of a sulfate aerosol?

15. Write a balanced equation illustrating the reactions that occur between one molecule of ammonia with (a) one molecule of nitric acid and with (b) one molecule of sulfuric acid.

16. What are the usual concentration units for suspended particulates? What would the designation PM40 mean? What do the terms respirable and ultrafine mean?

17. What is the two-step mechanism by which the hydroxyl free radical is produced in clean air?

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