Waste Exchange Network Recycling Industry

This is the most important category within the waste sector to develop a new industry within the existing industries and should be developed in cooperation with the mother industries to guarantee sustainability. Promoting this category will enhance not only the conservation of natural resources to approach cradle-to-cradle concept and the protection of the environment, but also will disseminate the culture of waste industry within the industrial communities and decision makers. This promotion...

Minimum Standards Housing Ordinance

Building divisions of local governments have traditional responsibility over the construction of new buildings and their structural, fire, and other safety provisions as specified in a building code. Fire departments have responsibility for fire safety. The health department and such other agencies with an interest and responsibility are concerned with the supplied utilities and facilities, their maintenance, and the occupancy of dwellings and dwelling units for more healthy living. This latter...

Index

Absorption field disposal system, arrangement details, 304f Absorption field system, 301, 304-305 Absorption lateral trenches, leveling, 304-305 Acanthamoeba culbertsoni, impact, 43 Acidic fluids, presence, 53-54 Actinomycetes, presence, 37 Activated carbon, 174-175 columns, usage, 114 filter, impact, 181 Activated-carbon filter, inefficiency, 107-108 Adenoviruses, presence, 42 Advanced wastewater treatment, 341-344 Advanced wastewater treatment monitoring surveilance, problems, 76-77 Aeration,...

Site Selection Plant Layout and Building Design

It is extremely important that a careful investigation be made of the social, physical, and economic factors involved when incineration is proposed. Some of the major factors are the following 1. Public acceptance in relation to the surrounding land use and precautions to be taken in location and design to offset public objections should be considerations. A location near the wastewater treatment plant, for example, may meet with less objection. Heat utilization for sludge drying or burning and...

Environmental Factors

The behavior of pollutants released to the atmosphere is subject to diverse and complex environmental factors associated with meteorology and topography. Meteorology involves the physics, chemistry, and dynamics of the atmosphere and includes many direct effects of the atmosphere on the earth's surface, ocean, and life. Topography refers to both the natural and manmade features of the earth's surface. The pollutants can be either accumulated or diluted, depending on the nature and degree of the...

Watershed Runoff and Reservoir Design

Certain basic information, in addition to future water demand, is needed upon which to base the design of water works structures. Long-term precipitation, stream flow data, and groundwater information are available from the U.S. Geological Survey and state sources, but these seldom apply to small watersheds. Precipitation data for specific areas are also available from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, local weather stations, airports, and water works. Unit hydrographs,...

IEE for HWMPs

2.1 Importance of IEE Any HWMP, if not properly designed and operated, can result in very significant adverse environmental impacts, even for very small projects employing only a few people. Hence, submittal of an IEE is required for all commercial HWMPs projects, regardless of size. Assuming full-scale will be needed, the IEE should include preparation of the Work Plan for the full-scale EIA including the tentative detailed Table of Contents for the final EIA report. 2.2 Basic Planning...

Landfill Operation and Supervision

Operational issues for modern landfills include operational control, personnel and operation, salvaging policy, area policing, insect and rodent control, maintenance, and operational policies (see also Table 3.21). Operation Control The direction of operation of a sanitary landfill should be with the prevailing wind to prevent the wind from blowing solid waste back toward the collection vehicle and over the completed portion of the landfill. To prevent excessive wind scattering of solid waste...

Testing for Residual Chlorine

The recommended field tests for measuring residual chlorine in water are the N,N-diethyl- -phenylenediamine (DPD) colorimetric and the stabilized neutral orthotolidine (SNORT) methods.9 The DPD and amperometric titration methods are approved by the EPA. In any case, all tests should be made in accordance with accepted procedures such as in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater .10 The DPD test procedure for residual chlorine measurement and the Free Available Chlorine...

Displacement Pump

In reciprocating displacement pumps, water is drawn into the pump chamber or cylinder on the suction stroke of the piston or plunger inside the pump chamber and then the water is pushed out on the discharge stroke. This is a simplex or single-acting reciprocating pump. An air chamber (Figure 2.17) should be provided on the discharge side of the pump to prevent excessive water hammer caused by the quick-closing flap or ball valve by the quick closing or opening of a gate valve, float valve, or...

Background

The terms noncommunicable and noninfectious are used interchangeably. The major noncommunicable disease deaths in the United States in 2000 were due to diseases of the heart, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, accidents, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. The mortality can be expected to shift more to noncommunicable causes in the developing countries as social and economic conditions improve and communicable diseases are brought under...

Zebra Mussel and Its Control

The zebra mussel is 1 to 2 in. (2.5-5 cm) long. An adult female can release 30,000 to 40,000 eggs per year. The eggs hatch into larvae (veligers) in several days, drift with the currents, hatch within 3 weeks, and attach themselves to any hard surface such as water intakes, boat and ship hulls, rock reefs, and canals, where they grow. Waters having less than 15 mg l calcium, pH less than 6.5, temperatures below 45 F (7 C) or above 90 F (32 C), and salinity greater than 600 mg l chloride ion...

Infiltration Gallery

An infiltration gallery consists of a system of porous, perforated, or open-joint pipe or other conduit draining to a receiving well. The pipe is surrounded by gravel and located in a porous formation such as sand and gravel below the water table. The collecting system should be located 20 feet or more from a lake or stream or under the bed of a stream or lake if installed under expert supervision. It FIGURE 1.13 Properly constructed springs. FIGURE 1.13 Properly constructed springs. is...

Info

FIGURE 4.2 (a) Effect of wind speed on pollutant concentration from constant source (b ) Effect of variability of wind direction on pollutant concentration from constant source (continuous emission of 4 units sec). Turbulent motions are induced in the air flow in two ways by thermal con-vective currents resulting from heating from below (thermal turbulence) and by disturbances or eddies resulting from the passage of air over irregular, rough ground surfaces (mechanical turbulence). It may be...

Management of Surface Waters

The runoff from the drainage area tributary to the solid waste disposal site must be determined by hydraulic analysis to ensure that the surface-water drainage system, such as ditches, dikes, berms, or culverts, is properly designed and that flows are diverted to prevent flooding, erosion, infiltration, and surface-water and groundwater pollution, both during operation and on completion. The design basis should be the maximum 25-year, 24-hour precipitation. The topography and soil cover should...

Bioterrorism

Bioterrorism is a disruptive and health-threating event directed at an individual, group of individuals, a community, or at-large population within a nation and is facilitated by the intentional release of a highly virulent biological agent. In this context, the term biolo ical a ent includes a microorganism or a biologically synthesized toxin that causes disease in man, plants, or animals or causes deteo-riation of materials.100 The use of pathogenic elements to subvert and disrupt the normal...

Sanitary Landfill Planning

Msw Landfill Diagram

Key elements in the planning and implementation of a landfill include (1) legal requirements, (2) intermunicipal cooperation, (3) social and political factors, and (4) long-term planning issues. Landfill design considerations are considered in the section following the description of the types of landfills. Legal Requirements State environmental protection agency regulations and local sanitary codes or laws usually build on federal regulatory requirements. A new solid waste disposal location...

Hydropneumatic Systems

Hydropneumatic or pressure-tank water systems are suitable for small communities, housing developments, private homes and estates, camps, restaurants, hotels, resorts, country clubs, factories, and institutions and as booster installations. In general, only about 10 to 20 percent of the total volume of a pressure tank is actually available. Hydropneumatic tanks are usually made of 3 16-inch or thicker steel and are available in capacities up to 10,000 or 20,000 gal. Tanks should meet American...

Bacterial Examinations

The bacterial examinations for drinking water quality should always include, as a minimum, tests for total organisms of the coliform group, which are indicative of fecal contamination or sewage pollution. They are a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of humans and other animals. The goal is no coliform organisms in drinking water. In the past, the coliform group was referred to as the B. coli group and the coli-aerogenes group. The count for the total coliform group of organisms may...

Ports and Harbors

A common problem in DCs is that design of ports and harbors generally pays little attention to furnishing adequate provisions for sanitation water pollution control. Guidelines for helping resolve this problem were prepared for use in Thailand in 19 8050. One of the findings of the major programs in water pollution control in the industrialized countries over the past two decades is that ports harbors, as conventionally designed, built, and operated, tend to become sanitation messes, with much...

Cleaner Production CP

In the 1990s, the IAAs initiated a program for getting DC industries to utilize cleaner production technologies developed in the ICs for minimizing production of wastewater pollutants by modifying the various process steps utilized by industries, thus not only simplifying treatment needs but also saving raw materials, making the industrial operation more economic. The experience thus far in DCs108 indicates three things 1. The NEnPAs industry ministries have not established sufficient...

Prevention and Control

Prevention of the major causes of death, such as diseases of the heart, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular disease, accidents, and other noninfectious chronic and degenerative diseases, should now receive high priority. Prevention calls for control of the source, mode of transmission, and or susceptibles as appropriate. The prevention and control of environmental pollutants generally involves the following 1. Eliminate or control the pollutant at the source. Minimize or prevent production and...

Iron And Steel Industry

The iron and steel industry is considered one of the most important industries for the sustainable development. It is considered the base for numerous industries that could not have been established without the steel industry, such as construction, automotive, and steel structure industries. There are three basic routes to obtain finished steel products Integrated steel production involves transforming coal to coke in coke ovens, while iron ore is sintered or belletized prior to being fed into...

Air Pollution Surveys

An air pollution survey of a region having common topographical and meteorological characteristics is a necessary first step before a meaningful air resources management plan and program can be established. The survey includes an inventory of source emissions and a contaminant and meteorological sampling network, supplemented by study of basic demographic, economic, land-use, and social factors. The inventory includes the location, height, exit velocity, and temperature of emission sources and...

Source And Protection Of Water Supply General

The sources of water supply are divided into two major classifications ground-water and surface water. To these should be added rainwater and demineralized water. The groundwater supplies include dug, bored, driven and drilled wells, rock and sand or earth springs, and infiltration galleries. The surface-water supplies include lake, reservoir, stream, pond, river, and creek supplies. The location of groundwater supplies should take into consideration the recharge tributary wellhead area,138 the...

Introduction

A primary requisite for good health is an adequate supply of water that is of satisfactory sanitary quality. It is also important that the water be attractive and palatable to induce its use otherwise, consumers may decide to use water of doubtful quality from a nearby unprotected stream, well, or spring. Where a municipal water supply passes near a property, the owner of the property should be urged to connect to it because such supplies are usually under competent supervision. When a...

Slow Sand Filter

A slow sand filter consists of a watertight basin, usually covered, built of concrete, and equipped with a rate controller and loss-of-head gauge. The basin holds a special sand 30 to 48 inches deep that is supported on a 12- to 18-inch layer of graded gravel placed over an underdrain system that may consist of open-joint, porous, or perforated 2- to 4-inch-diameter pipe or conduit spaced no greater than 3 feet. The velocity in the underdrain system should not exceed 0.75 fps. The sand should...

Gas Chlorinator

When a dry feed gas chlorinator or a solution feed gas chlorinator is used, the chlorinator and liquid chlorine cylinders should be located in a separate gas-tight room that is mechanically ventilated to provide one air change per minute, with outside switch and the exhaust openings at floor level opposite the air inlets at ceiling level. Exhaust ducts must be separate from any other ventilating system of ducts and extend to a height and location that will not endanger the public, personnel, or...

Prevention and Removal of Organic Chemicals

As noted for inorganic chemicals, the control of organic chemicals in drinking water should start with a sanitary survey to identify the sources, types, and amounts of pollutants, followed by their phased elimination as indicated by the associated hazard. Included would be watershed use regulation and protection, watershed management to minimize turbidity and organic and inorganic runoff, vigorous compliance with the national and state water and air pollution elimination objectives, enforcement...

Conclusion

Industrial emergencies are a byproduct of many of the technologies that permeate any industrialized society. Since the risk associated with them, like the risk associated with any other human activity, can never be completely reduced to zero, society has to learn to live with the finite possibility that industrial emergency situations can occur if it wants to benefit from the technologies that can generate them. What one can do, however, is to learn how to reduce the frequency with which such...

Industrial Solid Wastes Utilization

Life Cycle Assessment and Cradle-To-Cradle Concept 4 Industrial Waste 7 Plastics Industry 7 Thermo Plastics 9 Thermosets 12 Mixed Plastic Wastes 13 Plastic and Cork Industry 22 Food Industry 25 Aerobic Fermentation Process 25 Anaerobic Fermentation Process 29 Cement Industry 31 Utilization through Cleaner Production Techniques 33 Industrial Ecology Approach 34 Recycling Opportunities 36 Final Remarks 39 Marble and Granite Industry 40 Marble and Granite Waste 42 Physical and Chemical Properties...

Appropriate Technology

Abbreviations 213 Introduction 215 Background 215 History 215 Problem of Developing Countries 216 Summary of DC Problem 217 Purpose of This Chapter 219 Specific Subjects Included in This Chapter 220 Environmental Governance 223 Introduction 223 Situation in DCs versus United States ICs 223 What DC and IAA Practitioners Can Do to Correct This Problem 224 Role of the Private Sector 225 Urban Water Supply 225 Situation in United States ICs 225 Situation in Typical DCs 226 Suggested Approach for...

Lcrs

LCRS Leachate collection and removal system Composite Synthetic liner + Low permeability soil *Based on volume and the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the solid waste. FIGURE 3.29 Industrial commercial and ash monofill waste landfill liner configuration. (New York State, 6 NYCRR Part 360, Solid Waste Management Facilities, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Solid Waste, Albany, 1990a.) recirculation. Controlled leachate recirculation,...

Drilled Well

Vented Well Cap Connection

Studies have shown that, in general, drilled wells are superior to dug, bored, or driven wells and springs. But there are some exceptions. Drilled wells are less likely to become contaminated and are usually more dependable sources of water. When a well is drilled, a hole is made in the ground, usually with a percussion (cable tool) or rotary (air or mud) drilling machine. Drilled wells are usually 4 to 12 inches in diameter or larger and may reach 750 to 1,000 feet in depth or more. Test wells...

Definition Of Terms

To understand the elements and technologies involved in integrated solid waste management it is useful to define some of the more commonly used terms. Ash residue All the solid residue and any entrained liquids resulting from the combustion of solid waste or solid waste in combination with fossil fuel at a solid waste incinerator, including bottom ash, boiler ash, fly ash, and the solid residue of any air pollution control device used at a solid waste incinerator. Biodegradable material Waste...

Chlorine Treatment for Operation and Microbiological Control

To ensure that only properly treated water is distributed, it is important to have a competent and trustworthy person in charge of the chlorination plant. He or she should keep daily records showing the gallons of water treated, the pounds of chlorine or quarts of chlorine solution used and its strength, the gross weight of chlorine cylinders if used, the setting of the chlorinator, the time residual chlorine tests made, the results of such tests, and any repairs or maintenance, power failures,...

Xiaolangdi Resettlement

Sanitation Improvements The World Bank project for resettlement of families displaced by the major Xiaolangdi dam on the Yellow River completed in year 2001160 gave careful attention to provisions of (1) use of wells for water supply, with protection from surface contamination, for all homes in the more than 60 resettlement villages, together with use of elevated water storage tanks, which served the very useful purpose of enabling ready disinfection of the supply using hypochlorite powder,...

Additive To Increase Hardness Of Recycling Plastic Brick

It is considered the last step in polymerization. The structure of all thermo sets looks like a network. All the molecules are permanently cross-linked together in a 3D network. This structure makes all thermo sets products maintain their high strength and hardness in relatively high temperatures. In addition, they have high chemical and creep resistance. Table 1.1 shows some of the mechanical properties of thermo sets materials. The unrecyclable mixed different types plastic waste plastic...

O

Parasitic fungus and (Claviceps occasionally purpurea) other grains poisons in other Amanita mushroom Viciafaba Plant and bean bean, pollen Ergot-fungus contaminated meal or bread The bean when eaten raw, also pollen testes, roe (heat roe in breeding pickerel eggs. Gangrene involving extremities, fingers, and toes or weakness and drowsiness, headache, giddiness, painful cramps in limbs Intermittent cramplike pains, vomiting, convulsions, coma Severe abdominal pain, intense thirst, retching,...

Environmental Tests

Chemical Resistance Test To determine the properties of chemical resistance of the specimens, tests were done in accordance with ASTM D543-95.58 Thus, the specimens were tested toward their resistance to an acidic solution. Sulfuric acid with a pH of 3 was chosen, due to the fact that it plays a dual role of examining the effect of its high acidity and its sulfates content. Sulfates may also be corrosive and thus must be investigated. The specimens were measured for dimensions and weight prior...

Coagulation Flocculation and Settling

Adding a coagulant such as alum (aluminum sulfate) to water permits particles to come together and results in the formation of a flocculent mass, or floc, which enmeshes and agglomerates microorganisms, suspended particles, and colloidal matter, removing and attracting these materials in settling out. Removal of 90 to 99 percent of the bacteria and viruses and more than 90 percent of the protozoa and phosphate can be expected.46 Total organic carbon and THM precursors and around 80 percent of...

Cross Connection Control

There have been numerous instances of illness caused by cross-connections.178 A discussion of water system design would not be complete without reference to cross-connection control and backflow prevention. The goal is to have no connection between a water of drinking water quality (potable) and an unsafe or questionable (nonpotable) water system or between a potable system and any plumbing, fixture, or device whereby nonpotable water might flow into the potable water system. A cross-connection...

Indonesia Kampung Improvement Projects KIPs

New Approach to Slum Management In the 1990s, the governor of Jakarta invented a new approach to handling the urban slum problem in which abandoned than the conventional approach of tearing down slum housing and moving the families to new housing outside the city, which hardly solved the problem because of lack of employment in the new housing areas, requiring the workers to travel back to the city to be employed, through wasting both time and travel costs. In the new approach the city...

Filter Underdrain Homemade Laterals

Declining Rate Filtration

Minutes for water in filter to rise 1 ft Lower water level to sand, slowly open backwash valve, 20 to 25 gpm ft2 minimum (32 to 40 in. rise min). Orifice area 0.25 to 0.30 of filter area Manifold area 1.5 to 2 x Total area of laterals The rate controller is omitted in a declining-rate filter. A gate valve or orifice is used in its place. An acceptable rate of flow (filtration) is set at the start of a run but decreases as the head loss increases. The use of this concept is recommended in...

Bibliography

Alternatives for Small Wastewater Treatment Systems, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA-625 4-77-011, October 1977, 90 pp. Alternative Systems for Small Communities and Rural Areas, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, FRD-10, January 1980. Anderson, Damon L., Robert L. Siegrist, and Richard J. Otis, Technology Assessment of Intermittent Sand Filters, Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio, April 1985. Barnes, D., and F....

Disease Hazard

Improper disposal of human excreta and sewage is one of the major causes of disease in areas where satisfactory sewage treatment is not available. Because many pathogenic microorganisms are found in sewage, all sewage should be considered contaminated. The work of investigators who have studied the survival of enteric pathogens in soil, water, and wastewater has been summarized in a number of publications.1 As an example, it is known that some pathogens can survive from less than a day in peat...

Appraisal Of Quality Of Living Apha Appraisal Method

The American Public Health Association (APHA) appraisal method for measuring the quality of housing was developed by the Committee on the Hygiene of Housing between 1944 and 1950. This method attempts to eliminate or minimize individual opinion to arrive at a numerical value of the quality of housing that may be compared with results in other cities and may be reproduced in the same city by different evaluators using the same system. It is also of value to measure the quality of housing in a...

Plastics Industry

Plastics have played a very significant role in industrial development since their invention. If we take a look around us, we will discover that most tools, accessories, packaging, and equipment are made out of plastic, as shown in Figure 1.3. Some of these products have a very short life cycle and are highly consumable. Others might have longer life cycle. These products are used frequently and, in most cases, are then discarded and turned to wastes. Recycling of plastics has become a great...

Life Cycle Assessment And Cradletocradle Concept

The initial gathering of raw materials from the earth to the point at which all residuals are returned back to the earth, or cradle-to-grave. LCA results will not be promising for industrial activities that are based on a cradle-to-grave flow of materials. Unfortunately, most manufacturing processes since the Industrial Revolution began are based on a one way, cradle-to-grave flow of materials starting with the extraction of raw materials, followed by processing, producing, and marketing of the...

Solid Waste Collection

Collection cost has been estimated to represent about 60 to 75 percent of the total cost of solid waste management, depending on the disposal method. Because the cost of collection represents such a large percentage of the total cost, the design of collection systems must be considered carefully. The type of service provided, the frequency of service, and the equipment used for collection are considered in the following discussion. The type of collection service provided will depend on the...

Travel Of Pollution Through The Ground

Identification of the source of well pollution and tracing the migration of the incriminating contaminant are usually not simple operations. The identification of a contaminant plume and its extent can be truly complex. Comprehensive hydrogeological studies and proper placement and construction of an adequate number of monitoring wells are necessary. Geophysical methods to identify and investigate the extent and characteristics of groundwater pollution include geomagnetics, electromagnetics,...

Ma Soela Para

The 1992 Information Please Environmental Almanac, World Resources Institute, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1992. 2. C. Gleeson and N. Gray, The Coliform Index and Waterborne Disease, E & F Spon, London, 1997. 3. F. R. Lashley, Cyclospora cayetanensis Arriving via Guatemalan Raspberries, in F. R. Lashley and J. D. Durham (Eds,), Emerging Infectious Diseases Trends and Issues, Springer Publishing Company, New York, 2007, pp. 111-121. 4. B. B. Gerstman, Epidemiology Kept Simple An...

Epidemic Control At The Individual Level

Control of infections at the individual level is achieved primarily through three different measures behavior modification, treatment with antibiotics and antivi-rals, and prevention through vaccination. We will describe these interventions at these three levels, followed by descriptions of environmental and infectious agent control. First, some basic terminology will be elaborated. An infected individual goes through four basic stages incubation period, carrier state, fulminate infection, and...

Environmental Energy Ailment

Water is traditionally viewed as the universal solvent which accounts for its vital support of all living things. The property of solvency is also responsible, in the main, for the chemical quality of natural water as pertains to the dissolution of naturally occurring minerals, atmospheric gases, and organic molecules present in plant and animal residues. Natural waters are also a vehicle for suspended matter, including microbial cells. Fresh surface waters are collectively represented by...

Sanitary Survey and Water Sampling

A sanitary survey is necessary to determine the reliability of a water system to continuously supply safe and adequate water to the consumer.28 It is also necessary to properly interpret the results of water analyses and evaluate the effects of actual and potential sources of pollution on water quality. The value of the survey is dependent on the training and experience of the investigator. When available, one should seek the advice of the regulatory agency sanitary engineer or sanitarian....

Generation of Hazardous Waste

The major generators of hazardous waste among 15 industries studied by the EPA are as follows, more or less in order of the quantities produced Examples of hazardous waste types generated by businesses and industries are given in Table 3.28. Hazardous wastes that are characterized as ignitable, TABLE 3.27 Original 129 Priority Toxic Pollutants Identified by Council on Environmental Quality Pesticides Generally chlorinated hydrocarbons Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) used in electrical...

Design Of Large Treatment Plants

Although the design details for large sewage treatment plants are beyond the scope of this text, some of the major design elements are presented in the following sections for general information. Also, state and federal regulatory agencies have recommended standards and guidelines and should be consulted.64 Treatment processes and bases of design are summarized in Figure 3.15 and Table 3.21, while process efficiencies are given in Table 3.22. Typical flow diagrams are shown in Figures 3.12 and...

Active Recreation Area

Urban Active Recreation

FIGURE 6.5 The open space system should be connected and contiguous active and passive recreation areas should be designed. FIGURE 6.5 The open space system should be connected and contiguous active and passive recreation areas should be designed. an area served by public centralized sanitary sewer and water supply services. The common sewer and water supply facilities could be owned and operated by a homeowners association. In such an arrangement, however, it is important that public oversight...

Grouting

One of the most common reasons for contamination of wells drilled through rock, clay, or hardpan is failure to properly seal the annular space around the well casing. A proper seal is needed to prevent water movement between aquifers, protect the aquifers, and prevent entry of contaminated water from the surface or near the surface. A contaminated well supply causes the homeowner or municipality considerable inconvenience and extra expense, for it is difficult to seal off contamination after...

Chemical Examinations

The significance of selected chemical elements and compounds in drinking water is discussed next. An intake of 2 liters of water per day per person is assumed in determining health effects. The MCL is the National Drinking Water Regulation maximum contaminant level. The maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG) is a desirable one and is nonmandatory unless specifically made so by a state. The WHO level represents a guideline value of a constituent that ensures an aesthetically pleasing water and...

Microscopic Examination

Microscopic and macroscopic organisms that may be found in drinking water sources include bacteria, algae, actinomycetes, protozoa, rotifers, yeasts, molds, small crustacea, worms, and mites. Most algae contain chlorophyll and require sunlight for their growth. The small worms are usually insect larvae. Larvae, crustacea, worms, molds or fungi, large numbers of algae, or filamentous growths in the drinking water would make the water aesthetically unacceptable and affect taste and odor....

Plain Sedimentation

Plain sedimentation is the quiescent settling or storage of water, such as would take place in a reservoir, lake, or basin, without the aid of chemicals, preferably for a month or longer, particularly if the source water is a sewage-polluted river water. This natural treatment results in the settling out of suspended solids reduction of hardness, ammonia, lead, cadmium, and other heavy metals breakdown of organic chemicals and fecal coliform removal of color (due to the action of sunlight) and...

Methods to Remove or Reduce Objectionable Tastes and Odors

Some of the common methods used to remove or reduce objectionable tastes and odors in drinking water supplies, not in order of their effectiveness, are as follows Free residual chlorination or superchlorination Aeration or forced-draft degasifier Application of activated carbon Filtration through granular activated-carbon or charcoal filters Coagulation and filtration of water (also using an excess of coagulant) Control of reservoir intake level Elimination or control of source of trouble...

Basic Health Principles of Housing and Its Environment

Living Unit and Structure Housing includes the living unit for man and family, the immediate surroundings, and the related community services *From Housing Basic Health Principles & Recommended Ordinance (ref. 10). Copyright by the American Public Health Association. Reprinted with permission. and facilities the total is referred to as the residential environment. The following are basic health principles for the residential environment, together with summaries of factors that relate to...

Cyclone Aerosol Collector

Cyclone Aerosol Collector

Bituminous coal 25.629m x 106 Btu ton Anthracite coal 25.721 m x 106 Btu ton Residual fuel oil 149.7m x 106 Btu 106 gal Distillate fuel oil 138.7m x 106 Btu 106 gal Natural gas 1029 Btu ft3 Bituminous coal 25.629m x 106 Btu ton Anthracite coal 25.721 m x 106 Btu ton Residual fuel oil 149.7m x 106 Btu 106 gal Distillate fuel oil 138.7m x 106 Btu 106 gal Natural gas 1029 Btu ft3 cContaminant emission in pounds 0.0630 x (A), where (A) is ash content in percent. dContaminant emission in pounds...

Distribution Storage Requirements

Water storage requirements should take into consideration the peak daily water use, the maximum-day demand plus the required fire flow, the capacity of the normal and standby pumping equipment, the availability and capacity of auxiliary power, the probable duration of power failure, and the promptness with which repairs can be made. Additional considerations include land use, topography, pressure needs, distribution system capacity, special demands, and the increased cost of electric power and...

Water Quantity And Quality Water Cycle and Geology

The movement of water can be best illustrated by the hydrologic, or water, cycle shown in Figure 1.2. Using the clouds and atmospheric vapors as a starting point, moisture condenses out under the proper conditions to form rain, snow, sleet, hail, frost, fog, or dew. Part of the precipitation is evaporated while falling some of it reaches vegetation foliage, the ground, and other surfaces. Moisture intercepted by surfaces is evaporated back into the atmosphere. Part of the water reaching the...

Driven and Jetted Well

These types of wells consist of a well point with a screen attached, or a screen with the bottom open, which is driven or jetted into a water-bearing formation found at a comparatively shallow depth. A series of pipe lengths are attached to the point or screen as it is forced into position. The driven well is constructed by driving the well point, preferably through at least 10 to 20 feet of casing, with the aid of a maul or sledge, pneumatic tamper, sheet pile driver, drive monkey,...

Composting

Flow Diagram Composting Plant

Composting is the controlled decay of organic matter in a warm, moist environment by the action of bacteria, fungi, and other organisms. The organic matter FIGURE 3.19 Process flow diagram for MRF used to process commingled waste for recovery of recyclable materials. (Source H. Leverenz, G. Tchobanoglous, and D. B. Spencer, Recycling, in G. Tchobanoglous and F. Kreith (Eds.), Solid Waste Handbook , 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 2002, Chapter 8.) FIGURE 3.19 Process flow diagram for MRF used...

Description of Operation of MSW Incinerator

Incinerator Sketch Diagram

The basic operations involved in the combustion of commingled MSW are identified in Figure 3.41. The operation begins with the unloading of solid wastes from collection trucks (1) into a storage pit (2). The length of the unloading platform and storage bin is a function of the size of the facility and the number of trucks that must unload simultaneously. The depth and width of the storage bin are determined by both the rate at which waste loads are received and the rate of burning. The capacity...

Carbon Chloroform Extract CCE and Carbon Alcohol Extract CAE Tests No Longer Routinely Used Carbonchloroform extract

Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, nitrates, nitrobenzenes, aromatic ethers, and many others adsorbed on an activated carbon cartridge. Water from uninhabited and nonindustrial watersheds usually show CCE concentrations of less than 0.04 mg 1. The taste and odor of drinking water can be expected to be poor when the concentration of CCE reaches 0.2 mg 1. Carbon-alcohol extract measures gross organic chemicals including synthetics. A goal of less than 0.04 mg 1 CCE and 0.10 mg 1 CAE has been...

Environmental Impact Analysis

Concurrent with site selection and planning is the necessity to consider the effects of all proposed land uses, development activities, and required services and facilities on the environment or geography of the area concerned. It is extremely difficult to identify and evaluate in depth all possible factors that may affect, and be affected by, a particular development project or action. Good comprehensive regional, county, and municipal plans constitute a good source of pertinent data and...

About Unit Operation Of Separation In A Material Recovery Facilities

Unit Operations Mrf

Grinding equipment, cleared level ground with equipment to form and turn windrows, screening equipment (optional) Feedstock derived from source-separated yard waste or processing of commingled wastes facilities include enclosed building with concrete floors, in vessel composting reactors enclosed building for curing of compost product equipment for processing (e.g. screening and bagging) and marketing compost product Source H. Leverenz, G. Tchobanoglous, and D. B. Spencer, Recycling, in G....

Intakes and Screens

Conditions to be taken into consideration in design of intakes include high-and low-water stages navigation or allied hazards floods and storms floating ice and debris water velocities, surface and subsurface currents, channel flows, and stratification location of sanitary, industrial, and storm sewer outlets and prevailing wind direction. Small communities cannot afford elaborate intake structures. A submerged intake crib, or one with several branches and upright tee fittings anchored in rock...

Iron and Manganese Occurrence and Removal

Iron in excess of 0.3 to 0.5 mg l will stain laundry and plumbing fixtures and cause water to appear rusty. When manganese is predominant, the stains will be brown or black. Neither iron nor manganese is harmful in the concentrations found in water. Iron may be present as soluble ferrous bicarbonate in alkaline well or spring waters as soluble ferrous sulfate in acid drainage waters or waters containing sulfur as soluble organic iron in colored swamp waters as suspended insoluble ferric...

Air Pollution

Air pollution is the presence of solids, liquids, or gases in the outdoor air in amounts that are injurious or detrimental to humans, animal, plants, or property or that unreasonably interfere with the comfortable enjoyment of life and property. Air pollution inside dwellings or places of assembly is discussed under Indoor Air Quality in Chapter 5, Environmental Emergencies and Emergency Preparedness by Pedro M. Armenante, James P. Mack in Environmental Engineering, Sixth Edition Prevention and...

Onsite Handling And Storage

Where solid waste is temporarily stored on the premises, between collections, an adequate number of suitable containers should be provided. To a large extent, the type of container used for the collection of residential solid waste will depend on the type of collection service provided, and whether source TABLE 3.8 Typical Collection Services for Commingled and Source Separated Solid Waste Preparation Method for Type of Service Commingled wastes Single collection service of large container for...

Cement Industry

The cement industry is an important resource for development, and it is an intensive energy-consuming industry. It produces significant releases to the environment, primarily as airborne emissions such as dust emissions (cement bypass dust) and gaseous emissions of NO*, SO*, CO*. It plays an essential role in the international market because cement, which is the most important ingredient of concrete, is one of the most dynamic products that directly contribute to the construction industry....

Small Wastewater Disposal Systems For Unsuitable Soils Or Sites

Wastewater treatment systems in this category are usually more complex in design and more costly than the conventional septic tank systems previously described. These systems include the modified absorption system, the capillary seepage trench, the absorption-evapotranspiration system, the sand filter system, the aerobic treatment unit, the septic tank mound system, the raised bed system, the underdrained absorption system, and the evapotranspiration system. Effluent from the sand filter system...

Integrated Waste Management

Mathematical Diagram Waste Management

Integrated waste management (IWM) can be defined as the selection and application of suitable techniques, technologies, and management programs to achieve specific waste management objectives and goals. Because numerous state and federal laws have been adopted, IWM is also evolving in response to the regulations developed to implement the various laws. The EPA has identified four basic management options (strategies) for IWM (1) source reduction, (2) recycling and composting, (3) combustion...

Landfill Gas Generation Control and Recovery and Utilization

Landfill Gas Formation

Gases found in landfills include ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methane (CH4), nitrogen (N2), and oxygen (O2). The typical percentage distribution of the gases found in the landfill is reported in Table 3.22. As shown in Table 3.22, methane and carbon dioxide are the principal gases produced from the anaerobic decomposition of the biodegradable organic waste components in MSW. In addition, a number of trace gases will also be...

Dug Well

Digging Water Well Hand

A dug well is one usually excavated by hand, although it may be dug by mechanical equipment. It may be 3 to 6 feet in diameter and 15 to 35 feet deep, depending on where the water-bearing formation or groundwater table is encountered. Wider and deeper wells are less common. Hand pumps over wells and pump lines entering wells should form watertight connections, as shown in Figure 1.5 and Figure 1.6. Since dug wells have a relatively large diameter, they have large storage capacity. The level of...

Well Contamination Cause and Removal

Well-water supplies are all too often improperly constructed, protected, or located, with the result that microbiological examinations show the water to be contaminated. Under such conditions, all water used for drinking or culinary purposes should first be boiled or adequately treated. Boiling will not remove chemical contaminants other than volatiles treatment may remove some. If practical, abandonment of the well and connection to a public water supply would be the best solution. A second...

Compost Process Design and Operational Considerations

The principal design considerations associated with the aerobic biological decomposition of prepared solid wastes are presented in Table 3.18. It can be concluded from this table that the preparation of a composting process is not a simple task, especially if optimum results are to be achieved. For this reason, most of the commercial composting operations that have been developed are highly mechanized and are carried out in specially designed facilities. Because of their importance, pathogen...

References

42 USC, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Sections 110011-11050, Public Law 99-499, October 17, 1986, as amended. 2. 29 CFR 1910.1200, Occupational Safety and Health Standards, Section 1910.1200, Hazard Communication, 52 FR 38152, August 24, 1987 as amended by 56 FR 5507, February 13, 1996. 3. 29 CFR Part 1910.120, Occupational Safety and Health Standard, Section 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response, 54 FR 9294, March 6, 1989, as amended by 61 FR...

Desalination

Desalination or desalting is the conversion of seawater or brackish water to fresh water for potable and industrial purposes. The conversion of treated wastewater to potable water using multiple desalination processes is also being utilized in water scarce areas of the world. This conversion uses a variety of technologies to separate the dissolved solids from a source water. Desalination technology is being used to remove contaminants from surface and underground waters, including inorganics,...

Waste Reduction And Materials Recovery

Transfer Landfill Stations

Proper solid waste management should first prevent and reduce the generation of solid wastes, reduce their hazardous characteristics, and recover and recycle waste to the extent practicable and then dispose of the remaining wastes in a manner that does not endanger public health or the environment. The focus of this section is on waste reduction and the recovery and recycling of materials. FIGURE 3.12 Definition sketch for two most common types of transfer stations (a) direct discharge (b)...

Infectious Dose

The development of illness is dependent on three basic things the toxicity or virulence of a substance, the amount of the substance or microorganisms ingested (at one time or additively over a specified period of time), and the susceptibility of the individual. The result may be an acute or a chronic illness. Exposure to two or more substances may produce a synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effect. Persons may be exposed to a microorganism by direct ingestion of a pathogen or toxin in...

Street Access To Neighboring

Small Lot Subdivision Layouts

FIGURE 6.3 A site analysis should be conducted before a subdivision design type is selected and any subdivision layout created. In general, the analysis should include a topographic analysis, identifying areas of steep slopes the locations of hilltops, ridges, and scenic overviews an analysis drainage patterns a vegetation analysis a delineation of soil types and characteristics an identification of water bodies, wetlands, woodlands, and flood hazard areas an identification of the boundaries...

Bibliography Environmental Articles November 2015

2002 Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of Environment, Part 141, National Primary Drinking Water Regulations, July 2002 and Factoids Drinking Water and Groundwater Statistics for 2007, EPA, Office of Water, Washington, DC, March 2008. The A-B-C of Desalting, U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Water Research and Technology, Washington, DC, 1977, p. 2. A. Bell, Jr., Studies on Home Water Treatment Systems, J. Am. Water Works Assoc. (April 1984) 126-133. Acuna, H. R.,...

Environmental Impacts

Iron making in the BF produces a slag that amounts to 20 to 40 percent of hot metal production. BF slag is considered environmentally unfriendly when fresh because it gives off sulfur dioxide and, in the presence of water, hydrogen sulfide and sulphoric acid are generated. These are at least a nuisance and, at worst, are potentially dangerous. Fortunately, the material stabilizes rapidly when cooled and the potential for obnoxious leachate diminishes rapidly. However, the generation of...

Leachate Generation Control and Treatment

Diagram Monitoring Well

The best solution to the potential leachate problem is to prevent its development. Landfill leachate generation cannot in practice be entirely avoided, particularly during operation, except possibly in some arid climates. A tight soil cap and or liner on completion can greatly minimize the possibility however, a leachate-free landfill may not be entirely desirable. Leachate control measures for groundwa-ter and surface-water quality protection must be incorporated in the site design and...

Marble And Granite Industry

Marble Mining Ways

Marble and granite industry is considered one of the oldest and largest industries in the world. Marble and granite have been used in Egypt since the time of the ancient Egyptians. Historically, the industry moved from labor-intensive to capital-intensive with the advent of technological advancement, including development of automated production tools such as cranes and diamond-cutting wires. Marble consists mainly of calcite or dolomite, or a combination of these carbonate minerals. Marble is...

Domestic Well Water Supplies Special Problems

Domestic well-water supply problems are discussed in this section.146 The local health department and commercial water-conditioning companies may be of assistance to a homeowner. * This section is adapted from ref.146. Hard Water Hard water makes it difficult to produce suds or rinse laundry, dishes, or food equipment. Water hardness is caused by dissolved calcium and magnesium bicarbonates, sulfates, and chlorides in well water. Pipes clog and after a time equipment and water heaters become...

Solutions to the Problem

The more obvious solutions to the housing problem are production of new housing, rehabilitation of sound housing, redevelopment, slum clearance, and public housing for low-income families. Increasing emphasis is being placed on cooperative ownership and on the conservation and rehabilitation of existing sound housing to prevent or slow down blight.* It is probably the most economical way of providing additional, healthier dwelling units and at the same time protecting the existing surrounding...

Combustion Products and Residues

Municipal solid waste burned in incinerators will result in the production of combustion gases, particulates, and bottom and fly ash. The characteristics of these products will depend on the types of wastes burned and the incinerator design, operating temperature, residence time, and controls. Combustion Essentials The three essentials for combustion, as outlined previously, are (1) time, (2) temperature, and (3) turbulence, including sufficient oxygen. There must be sufficient time to drive...

Definitions

Certain terms with which one should become familiar are frequently used in the discussion of communicable and noninfectious or noncommunicable diseases. Some common definitions are given here. Antigen(s) Foreign substance(s) inducing the formation of antibodies. In some vaccines, the antigen is highly defined (e.g., pneumococcal polysaccharide, hepatitis B surface antigen, tetanus, or diphtheria toxoids) in others, it is complex or incompletely defined (e.g., killed pertussis bacteria live,...

Sanitary Landfill Methods

Layout Sanitary Landfill

There are many methods of operating a sanitary landfill. The most common are the trench, area, ramp, and valley fill methods, as illustrated in Figure 3.24. These landfill methods are described as follows. With the regulatory requirements for constructed liner and leachate collection and removal systems now imposed by the EPA as set forth in RCRA, a defined operational area and well-designed operational plan are essential and must be closely followed to ensure an efficient and environmentally...

Nabarun Dasgupta

School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Communicable diseases are illnesses due to a specific infectious agent or its toxic products. They arise through transmission of that agent or its products from an infected person, animal, or inanimate reservoir to a susceptible host, either directly or indirectly through an intermediate plant or animal host, vector, or the inanimate environment.1 Illness may be caused by pathogenic bacteria, bacterial toxins, viruses,...

Heterotrophic Plate Count The Standard Plate Count

The standard plate count is the total colonies of bacteria developing from measured portions (two 1ml and two 0.1ml) of the water being tested, which have been planted in petri dishes with a suitable culture medium (agar) and incubated for 48 hours at 95 F (35 C). Bottled water is incubated at 35 C for 72 hours.33 Only organisms that grow on the media are measured. Drinking water will normally contain some nonpathogenic bacteria it is almost never sterile. The test is of significance when used...