Environmental Engineering

Plain Sedimentation

Plain sedimentation is the quiescent settling or storage of water, such as would take place in a reservoir, lake, or basin, without the aid of chemicals, preferably for a month or longer, particularly if the source water is a sewage-polluted river water. This natural treatment results in the settling out of suspended solids reduction of hardness, ammonia, lead, cadmium, and other heavy metals breakdown of organic chemicals and fecal coliform removal of color (due to the action of sunlight) and...

Control of the Incineration Process

The poor image that incineration has in the eyes of many people is due largely to the failure to control the operation, with resultant destruction of the equipment and air pollution. A properly designed and operated incinerator requires control instrumentation for (1) temperature, (2) draft pressures, (3) smoke emission, (4) weights of solid wastes coming in and leaving the plant, and (5) air pollution control equipment. Competent well-trained operators are also essential. Temperature...

Solid Waste Collection

Collection cost has been estimated to represent about 60 to 75 percent of the total cost of solid waste management, depending on the disposal method. Because the cost of collection represents such a large percentage of the total cost, the design of collection systems must be considered carefully. The type of service provided, the frequency of service, and the equipment used for collection are considered in the following discussion. The type of collection service provided will depend on the...

Additive To Increase Hardness Of Recycling Plastic Brick

Recycling Process Flow Chart

It is considered the last step in polymerization. The structure of all thermo sets looks like a network. All the molecules are permanently cross-linked together in a 3D network. This structure makes all thermo sets products maintain their high strength and hardness in relatively high temperatures. In addition, they have high chemical and creep resistance. Table 1.1 shows some of the mechanical properties of thermo sets materials. The unrecyclable mixed different types plastic waste plastic...

Infiltration Gallery

Infiltration Gallery

An infiltration gallery consists of a system of porous, perforated, or open-joint pipe or other conduit draining to a receiving well. The pipe is surrounded by gravel and located in a porous formation such as sand and gravel below the water table. The collecting system should be located 20 feet or more from a lake or stream or under the bed of a stream or lake if installed under expert supervision. It FIGURE 1.13 Properly constructed springs. FIGURE 1.13 Properly constructed springs. is...

Landfill Facilities and Equipment for Disposal by Sanitary Landfill

Requirements Sanitary Landfill

In addition to the control of leachate and landfill gases, a number of other facilities and operating equipment are required for the effective implementation of a sanitary landfill. Personnel requirements are discussed in the following section. Fire Protection The availability of fire protection facilities at a site should also be considered as fire may break out at the site without warning. Protective measures may be a fire hydrant near the site with portable pipe or fire hose, a watercourse...

Landfill Gas Generation Control and Recovery and Utilization

Landfill Gas Formation

Gases found in landfills include ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methane (CH4), nitrogen (N2), and oxygen (O2). The typical percentage distribution of the gases found in the landfill is reported in Table 3.22. As shown in Table 3.22, methane and carbon dioxide are the principal gases produced from the anaerobic decomposition of the biodegradable organic waste components in MSW. In addition, a number of trace gases will also be...

Wastewater Treatment And Disposal283

Criteria for Proper Wastewater Disposal 285 Definitions 285 Small Wastewater Disposal Systems 288 Wastewater Characteristics 289 Soil Characteristics 289 Soil Suitability 290 Pollutant Travel from Septic Systems 291 Soil Percolation Test 291 Sewage Flow Estimates 293 Septic Tank 295 Care of Septic Tank and Subsurface Absorption Systems 299 Subsurface Soil Absorption Systems 301 Absorption Field System 301 Leaching Pit 305 Cesspool 305 Dry Well 306 Small Wastewater Disposal Systems for...

Bibliography Environmental Articles November 2015

2002 Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of Environment, Part 141, National Primary Drinking Water Regulations, July 2002 and Factoids Drinking Water and Groundwater Statistics for 2007, EPA, Office of Water, Washington, DC, March 2008. The A-B-C of Desalting, U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Water Research and Technology, Washington, DC, 1977, p. 2. A. Bell, Jr., Studies on Home Water Treatment Systems, J. Am. Water Works Assoc. (April 1984) 126-133. Acuna, H. R.,...

Sanitary Landfill Methods

Layout Sanitary Landfill

There are many methods of operating a sanitary landfill. The most common are the trench, area, ramp, and valley fill methods, as illustrated in Figure 3.24. These landfill methods are described as follows. With the regulatory requirements for constructed liner and leachate collection and removal systems now imposed by the EPA as set forth in RCRA, a defined operational area and well-designed operational plan are essential and must be closely followed to ensure an efficient and environmentally...

Water Siphonage Environmental Engineering

Note The table remains unchanged in the latest ASHRAE publication 2007 ASHRAE Handbook HVAC Applications. Heaters should be preset to deliver water at 130 F (54 C). The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) recommends a maximum of 120 F (49 C). Source ASHRAE Guide and Data Book, Atlanta, GA, 1970. Copyright by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers. Inc. Reprinted with permission. Note The table remains unchanged in the latest ASHRAE publication 2007...

Gel Piling Manual Machine Drawing

Compost Pad

Kreith, Solid Waste Handbook, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 2002. Source G. Tchobanoglous, and F. Kreith, Solid Waste Handbook, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 2002. Windrow Composting In the windrow process, after processing the material to be composted is placed in long windrows (see Figure 3.20). The windrows are 3 to 6 feet high (1-2m) and 6 to 15 feet wide (2-5 m) at the base. The windrow process is conducted normally in uncovered pads and relies on...

Noninfectious And Noncommunicable Diseases And Conditions Associated With The Water Environment

Flow Diagram The Lotus Outbreak 1997

The terms noncommunicable and noninfectious are used interchangeably. The noncommunicable diseases are the major causes of death in developed areas of the world, whereas the communicable diseases are the major causes of death in the developing areas of the world. The major noncommunicable disease deaths in the United States in 1988 were due to diseases of the heart, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, accidents, atheriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and chronic liver disease and...

Indoor Air Quality

Source Alkyl Phenols

Causes and Sources of Indoor Air Pollution Improved building construction and insulation, including weather stripping, caulking, and storm and thermopane windows, reduce infiltration and air exchange, which results in less air dilution and an increase in the concentration of indoor air pollution. Inadequate ventilation and the recirculation of contaminated used air to save on energy costs for heating and cooling further aggravate the problem. Good practice would dictate that at least one-third...

Carbon Chloroform Extract CCE and Carbon Alcohol Extract CAE Tests No Longer Routinely Used Carbonchloroform extract

Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, nitrates, nitrobenzenes, aromatic ethers, and many others adsorbed on an activated carbon cartridge. Water from uninhabited and nonindustrial watersheds usually show CCE concentrations of less than 0.04 mg 1. The taste and odor of drinking water can be expected to be poor when the concentration of CCE reaches 0.2 mg 1. Carbon-alcohol extract measures gross organic chemicals including synthetics. A goal of less than 0.04 mg 1 CCE and 0.10 mg 1 CAE has been...

Environmental Governance

The previous section on Introduction includes preliminary discussion of the issue of environmental governance in the DCs (i.e., the degree to which attention is given in the country by the government, by industries, and by environmental engineering practitioners to the needs for protecting environmental resources from unnecessary degradation). This section gives additional details. Situation in DCs versus United States ICs As noted in Figure 4.4 the situation in environmental governance in the...

References

Industrial Air Pollution Management in India Experiences and Lessons Learned, Newsletter of Asian Society for Environmental Protection, December 2002. 2. APHA AWWA WEF, Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th edition, 1999. 3. Asian Development Bank, EIA for Bali Irrigation Water Resources Management Project, by H. Ludwig Institute of Water Resources Research (Bandung), 1981. 4. Asian Development Bank (a), Industrial Waste Management for...

Transvap Sewer Systems

Powdered activated carbon, 174-175 Precipitation rates, 321t Presence-absence (PA) coliform test, 35 Presettling basins, usage. See Pollution Turbidity Pressure-filter type, components, 160-161 Pressure-reducing valves, water pressure maintenance, 75 Pressure storage tank volume pump size, determination, 227f Pressure tank aerators, 179 air volume controls, 229f emptiness, assumption, 228 installation, 230f size, requirement, 226 Pretreatment, usage, 109 Private dwelling, pump capacity...

Coagulation Flocculation and Settling

Adding a coagulant such as alum (aluminum sulfate) to water permits particles to come together and results in the formation of a flocculent mass, or floc, which enmeshes and agglomerates microorganisms, suspended particles, and colloidal matter, removing and attracting these materials in settling out. Removal of 90 to 99 percent of the bacteria and viruses and more than 90 percent of the protozoa and phosphate can be expected.46 Total organic carbon and THM precursors and around 80 percent of...

Direct Filtration

Direct filtration of waters with low suspended matter and turbidity, color, coliform organisms, and plankton, and free of paper fiber, has been attractive because of the lower cost in producing a good quality water, if substantiated by prior pilot plant studies reflecting seasonal variations in raw water quality. Direct filtration removals of bacteria, viruses, and turbidity tend to be more erratic than with conventional treatment.56 In direct filtration, the sedimentation basin is omitted. The...

Rein 2005 Reference On Effluent

Bryan, Diseases Transmitted by Foods Contaminated by Wastewater, J. Food Protection January 1977 45-56, a historical review of medical and engineering literature covering 180 selected references Process Design Manual Land Application of Sewage Sludge and Domestic Septage, U.S. EPA, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, EPA 625 K-95 001, September 1995 R. G. Feachem et al., Sanitation and Disease Health Aspects of Excreta and Wastewater Management, The...

Bibliography Of Wastewater Management

Alternatives for Small Wastewater Treatment Systems, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA-625 4-77-011, October 1977, 90 pp. Alternative Systems for Small Communities and Rural Areas, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, FRD-10, January 1980. Anderson, Damon L., Robert L. Siegrist, and Richard J. Otis, Technology Assessment of Intermittent Sand Filters, Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio, April 1985. Barnes, D., and F....

Water Resources Management

Circa mid-the twentieth century, it was still practical in most countries to design and build dams reservoirs on streams for intended single-purpose uses such as UWSSs, but over the next half-century, it become increasingly necessary, because of increasing growth of population and industry, to design the reservoirs for multipurpose uses (i.e., for all beneficial water uses in the project's service area). But also by year 2000, water resources experts were beginning to realize that continuing...

Air Pollution Surveys

An air pollution survey of a region having common topographical and meteorological characteristics is a necessary first step before a meaningful air resources management plan and program can be established. The survey includes an inventory of source emissions and a contaminant and meteorological sampling network, supplemented by study of basic demographic, economic, land-use, and social factors. The inventory includes the location, height, exit velocity, and temperature of emission sources and...

Land Subdivision

The design of land subdivisions may be viewed as a special case of site planning, often involving large tracts of land ranging in area from 80 acres to 1,200 or more acres. The process of land subdivision may be described as the division of land into smaller parcels, usually for the purpose of urban development. Land subdivision, however, is more than a means of describing, marketing, and taxing land it is, in effect, the first step in the process of building a community. Much of the form and...

Ma Soela Para

The 1992 Information Please Environmental Almanac, World Resources Institute, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1992. 2. C. Gleeson and N. Gray, The Coliform Index and Waterborne Disease, E & F Spon, London, 1997. 3. F. R. Lashley, Cyclospora cayetanensis Arriving via Guatemalan Raspberries, in F. R. Lashley and J. D. Durham (Eds,), Emerging Infectious Diseases Trends and Issues, Springer Publishing Company, New York, 2007, pp. 111-121. 4. B. B. Gerstman, Epidemiology Kept Simple An...

Tarek Abou Khatwa

El Haggar, Sustainable Industrial Design and Waste Management Cradle to Cradle for Sustainable Development, Elsevier Academic Press, 2007. 2. Japan Environmental Agency, Ippan Haikibutsu No Life Cycle to Mondaiten (Life Cycle and Problem of Waste), Tokyo, 1998. 3. Tec Eco Pty. Ltd. Sustainable Technologies, Life Cycle Analysis, 2006, www.tececo. 4. S. M. El-Haggar, Cradle-to-Cradle For Industrial Ecology, Advances in Science and Technology of Treatment and Utilization of Industrial Waste,...

Lead Poisoning

Lead is a cumulative poison ending up in the bones, blood, and tissue. Lead is also found in the urine. It is not readily excreted by children. It may cause mental retardation, blindness, chronic kidney diseases, fatigue, anemia, gastroenteritis, muscular paralysis, behavioral changes, high blood pressure, birth defects, and other impairments. Lead poisoning is commonly associated with children living in old and substandard housing built before 1950 who eat lead-based paint on woodwork and...

Basic Health Principles of Housing and Its Environment

Living Unit and Structure Housing includes the living unit for man and family, the immediate surroundings, and the related community services *From Housing Basic Health Principles & Recommended Ordinance (ref. 10). Copyright by the American Public Health Association. Reprinted with permission. and facilities the total is referred to as the residential environment. The following are basic health principles for the residential environment, together with summaries of factors that relate to...

Water Quality

The cleanest available sources of groundwater and surface water should be protected, used, and maintained for potable water supply purposes. Numerous parameters are used to determine the suitability of water and the health significance of contaminants that may be found in untreated and treated water. Watershed and wellhead protection regulations should be a primary consideration. Microbiological, physical, chemical, and microscopic examinations are discussed and interpreted in this chapter...

Desalination

Desalination or desalting is the conversion of seawater or brackish water to fresh water for potable and industrial purposes. The conversion of treated wastewater to potable water using multiple desalination processes is also being utilized in water scarce areas of the world. This conversion uses a variety of technologies to separate the dissolved solids from a source water. Desalination technology is being used to remove contaminants from surface and underground waters, including inorganics,...

Treatment Of Water Design And Operation Control Introduction

Safe, abundant, and affordable these are the primary goals of water treatment professionals across the globe. No matter how poor the original source of water supply, the finished drinking water that emerges from the consumer's tap must be a high quality free from pathogenic (or disease-causing) microorganisims. It must also not contain concentrations of either natural or manmade contaminants in concentrations that could produce adverse health impacts. The aesthetics of drinking water are...

Disinfection

The more common chemicals used for the disinfection of drinking water are chlorine (gas and hypochlorite), chlorine-ammonia, chlorine dioxide, and ozone. Chlorine is discussed next the others are discussed in relation to the removal or reduction of objectionable tastes and odors and trihalomethanes. Ozone and chlorine dioxide are receiving greater attention as primary disinfectants and chlorine-ammonia for maintenance of a residual in the distribution system. Other disinfectants that may be...

Cross Connection Control

Swing Check Valve Cross Section

There have been numerous instances of illness caused by cross-connections.178 A discussion of water system design would not be complete without reference to cross-connection control and backflow prevention. The goal is to have no connection between a water of drinking water quality (potable) and an unsafe or questionable (nonpotable) water system or between a potable system and any plumbing, fixture, or device whereby nonpotable water might flow into the potable water system. A cross-connection...

Disease Hazard

Improper disposal of human excreta and sewage is one of the major causes of disease in areas where satisfactory sewage treatment is not available. Because many pathogenic microorganisms are found in sewage, all sewage should be considered contaminated. The work of investigators who have studied the survival of enteric pathogens in soil, water, and wastewater has been summarized in a number of publications.1 As an example, it is known that some pathogens can survive from less than a day in peat...

Epidemic Control At The Individual Level

Control of infections at the individual level is achieved primarily through three different measures behavior modification, treatment with antibiotics and antivi-rals, and prevention through vaccination. We will describe these interventions at these three levels, followed by descriptions of environmental and infectious agent control. First, some basic terminology will be elaborated. An infected individual goes through four basic stages incubation period, carrier state, fulminate infection, and...

Institution Sanitation

An institution is a complete property with building, facilities, and services having a social, education, or religious purpose. This includes schools, colleges and universities, hospitals, nursing homes, homes for the aged, day-care centers, jails and prisons, reformatories, and the various types of federal, state, city, and county welfare, mental, and detention homes or facilities. Most institutions are communities unto themselves. They have certain basic characteristics in common that require...

Compost Process Design and Operational Considerations

The principal design considerations associated with the aerobic biological decomposition of prepared solid wastes are presented in Table 3.18. It can be concluded from this table that the preparation of a composting process is not a simple task, especially if optimum results are to be achieved. For this reason, most of the commercial composting operations that have been developed are highly mechanized and are carried out in specially designed facilities. Because of their importance, pathogen...

Cyclone Aerosol Collector

War Memorial Colouring Pics Kids

Bituminous coal 25.629m x 106 Btu ton Anthracite coal 25.721 m x 106 Btu ton Residual fuel oil 149.7m x 106 Btu 106 gal Distillate fuel oil 138.7m x 106 Btu 106 gal Natural gas 1029 Btu ft3 Bituminous coal 25.629m x 106 Btu ton Anthracite coal 25.721 m x 106 Btu ton Residual fuel oil 149.7m x 106 Btu 106 gal Distillate fuel oil 138.7m x 106 Btu 106 gal Natural gas 1029 Btu ft3 cContaminant emission in pounds 0.0630 x (A), where (A) is ash content in percent. dContaminant emission in pounds...

Types of Incinerators Combusters

Types Environmental Sanitation

A variety of incinerator types have been used for the combustion of solid waste, including (1) mass-fired combustors, (2) refuse-derived fuel- (RDF) fired com-bustors, (3) modular combustion units, and (4) on-site commercial and industrial incinerators. Mass-Fired Combustors In a mass-fired combustor, minimal processing is given to solid waste before it is placed in the hopper used to feed the combus-tor. The crane operator in charge of loading the charging hopper can manually reject obviously...

Control of Microorganisms

For the most part, microorganisms that cause tastes and odors are harmless. They are visible under a microscope and include plankton, fungi, bacteria, viruses, and others. Plankton are aquatic organisms they include algae, protozoa, rotifers, copepods, and certain larvae. Phytoplankton are plant plankton. Zooplankton are animal plankton that feed on bacteria and small algae. Crenothrix, gallionella, and leptothrix, also known as iron bacteria, can also be included. Thiobacil-lus thiooxidans and...

Chemical Examinations

The significance of selected chemical elements and compounds in drinking water is discussed next. An intake of 2 liters of water per day per person is assumed in determining health effects. The MCL is the National Drinking Water Regulation maximum contaminant level. The maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG) is a desirable one and is nonmandatory unless specifically made so by a state. The WHO level represents a guideline value of a constituent that ensures an aesthetically pleasing water and...

Generation of Hazardous Waste

The major generators of hazardous waste among 15 industries studied by the EPA are as follows, more or less in order of the quantities produced Examples of hazardous waste types generated by businesses and industries are given in Table 3.28. Hazardous wastes that are characterized as ignitable, TABLE 3.27 Original 129 Priority Toxic Pollutants Identified by Council on Environmental Quality Pesticides Generally chlorinated hydrocarbons Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) used in electrical...

Design Of Large Treatment Plants

Although the design details for large sewage treatment plants are beyond the scope of this text, some of the major design elements are presented in the following sections for general information. Also, state and federal regulatory agencies have recommended standards and guidelines and should be consulted.64 Treatment processes and bases of design are summarized in Figure 3.15 and Table 3.21, while process efficiencies are given in Table 3.22. Typical flow diagrams are shown in Figures 3.12 and...

Drilled Well

Vented Well Cap Connection

Studies have shown that, in general, drilled wells are superior to dug, bored, or driven wells and springs. But there are some exceptions. Drilled wells are less likely to become contaminated and are usually more dependable sources of water. When a well is drilled, a hole is made in the ground, usually with a percussion (cable tool) or rotary (air or mud) drilling machine. Drilled wells are usually 4 to 12 inches in diameter or larger and may reach 750 to 1,000 feet in depth or more. Test wells...

Methods to Remove or Reduce Objectionable Tastes and Odors

Some of the common methods used to remove or reduce objectionable tastes and odors in drinking water supplies, not in order of their effectiveness, are as follows Free residual chlorination or superchlorination Aeration or forced-draft degasifier Application of activated carbon Filtration through granular activated-carbon or charcoal filters Coagulation and filtration of water (also using an excess of coagulant) Control of reservoir intake level Elimination or control of source of trouble...

Sewage Works Design Small Treatment Plants

Small treatment plants typically discharge treated effluents to a surface water body as contrasted to septic systems, which discharge to groundwater systems. Surface discharges require a permit from a regulatory agency and allowable effluents are based on the minimum average 7-day flow expected to recur once in 10 years (MA7CD10), upstream and downstream discharges, and downstream uses. Some of the more common flow diagrams for small sewage treatment plants are illustrated in Figure 3.12 and...

Corrosion Cause and Control

Caco3 Solubility

Internal Pipe Corrosion Internal pipe corrosion usually occurs in unlined metal distribution system piping and building plumbing in contact with soft water of low hardness, pH, and alkalinity containing carbon dioxide and oxygen. In serious cases, water heaters are damaged, the flow of water is reduced, the water is red or rusty where unprotected iron pipe is used, and the inside surface of pipe and fittings is dissolved, with consequent release of trace amounts of possibly harmful chemicals...

Street Access To Neighboring

Small Lot Subdivision Layouts

FIGURE 6.3 A site analysis should be conducted before a subdivision design type is selected and any subdivision layout created. In general, the analysis should include a topographic analysis, identifying areas of steep slopes the locations of hilltops, ridges, and scenic overviews an analysis drainage patterns a vegetation analysis a delineation of soil types and characteristics an identification of water bodies, wetlands, woodlands, and flood hazard areas an identification of the boundaries...

George Tchobanoglous

Professor Emeritus of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, California Aesthetic, land-use, health, water pollution, air pollution, and economic considerations make proper solid waste management an ongoing concern for municipal, corporate, and individual functions that must be taken seriously by all. Indiscriminate dumping of solid waste and failure of the collection system in a populated community for two or three weeks would soon cause many problems. Odors,...

Definition Of Terms

To understand the elements and technologies involved in integrated solid waste management it is useful to define some of the more commonly used terms. Ash residue All the solid residue and any entrained liquids resulting from the combustion of solid waste or solid waste in combination with fossil fuel at a solid waste incinerator, including bottom ash, boiler ash, fly ash, and the solid residue of any air pollution control device used at a solid waste incinerator. Biodegradable material Waste...

Integrated Waste Management

Source Reduction Solid Waste

Integrated waste management (IWM) can be defined as the selection and application of suitable techniques, technologies, and management programs to achieve specific waste management objectives and goals. Because numerous state and federal laws have been adopted, IWM is also evolving in response to the regulations developed to implement the various laws. The EPA has identified four basic management options (strategies) for IWM (1) source reduction, (2) recycling and composting, (3) combustion...

About Unit Operation Of Separation In A Material Recovery Facilities

Unit Operations Mrf

Grinding equipment, cleared level ground with equipment to form and turn windrows, screening equipment (optional) Feedstock derived from source-separated yard waste or processing of commingled wastes facilities include enclosed building with concrete floors, in vessel composting reactors enclosed building for curing of compost product equipment for processing (e.g. screening and bagging) and marketing compost product Source H. Leverenz, G. Tchobanoglous, and D. B. Spencer, Recycling, in G....

Bibliography

Alpert, Composting Municipal Sludge A Technology Assessment, Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, NJ, 1988. Corey, R. C., Principles and Practices of Incineration, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1969. Council on Environmental Quality, Environmental Quality, the Ninth Annual Report of the Council on Environmental Quality, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978. Dawson, G. W., and B. W. Mercer, Hazardous Waste Management, Wiley, New York, 1986....

Heterotrophic Plate Count The Standard Plate Count

The standard plate count is the total colonies of bacteria developing from measured portions (two 1ml and two 0.1ml) of the water being tested, which have been planted in petri dishes with a suitable culture medium (agar) and incubated for 48 hours at 95 F (35 C). Bottled water is incubated at 35 C for 72 hours.33 Only organisms that grow on the media are measured. Drinking water will normally contain some nonpathogenic bacteria it is almost never sterile. The test is of significance when used...

Aquatic Weed Control

The growth of aquatic plants (and animals) is accelerated in clear water by nutrients in the water and bottom sediment and when the temperature of the surface water is about 59 F (15 C). Vegetation that grows and remains below the water surface does not generally cause difficulty. Decaying submergent, emergent, and floating aquatic vegetation as well as decaying leaves, brush, weeds, grasses, and debris in the water can cause tastes and odors in water supplies. The discharge of organic wastes...

Domestic Well Water Supplies Special Problems

Domestic well-water supply problems are discussed in this section.146 The local health department and commercial water-conditioning companies may be of assistance to a homeowner. * This section is adapted from ref.146. Hard Water Hard water makes it difficult to produce suds or rinse laundry, dishes, or food equipment. Water hardness is caused by dissolved calcium and magnesium bicarbonates, sulfates, and chlorides in well water. Pipes clog and after a time equipment and water heaters become...

Plastic And Cork Industry

Kringloop Armoede Binnenkant

The objective of this case study is to recycle the PVC plastic offcuts from slippers production to produce new slippers from scrap PVC plastics and approach cradle-to-cradle design. This case study was implemented in a company located in Sohag, Egypt (upper Egypt), which produces around 1,500 metric tons year of PVC sheets, cut to make footwear. The cutting and printing process used around 70 percent of the PVC sheet with the remaining 30 percent being discarded as scrap. In total, 450 metric...

Xiaolangdi Resettlement

Sanitation Improvements The World Bank project for resettlement of families displaced by the major Xiaolangdi dam on the Yellow River completed in year 2001160 gave careful attention to provisions of (1) use of wells for water supply, with protection from surface contamination, for all homes in the more than 60 resettlement villages, together with use of elevated water storage tanks, which served the very useful purpose of enabling ready disinfection of the supply using hypochlorite powder,...

Imhoff Tank Design

Imhoff Tank

Sludge storage at 5 ft3 per capita 5 x 150 750 ft3. 3. Sludge drying beds at 1.25 ft2 per capita 150 x 1.25 188ft2. 4. Trickling filter loading at 4000lb of BOD acre-ft 0.25lb yd3. Loading based on 0.17 lb of BOD capita with 35 percent removal in primary settling 150 x 0.17 x 0.65 16.6 lb day. Filter volume required - - x 1800 ft Hence, the required filter diameter, assuming a 6-ft depth D J- 19.5 ft FIGURE 3.14 Section through Imhoff tank, with design details. FIGURE 3.14 Section through...

Driven and Jetted Well

These types of wells consist of a well point with a screen attached, or a screen with the bottom open, which is driven or jetted into a water-bearing formation found at a comparatively shallow depth. A series of pipe lengths are attached to the point or screen as it is forced into position. The driven well is constructed by driving the well point, preferably through at least 10 to 20 feet of casing, with the aid of a maul or sledge, pneumatic tamper, sheet pile driver, drive monkey,...

Leachate Generation Control and Treatment

Diagram Monitoring Well

The best solution to the potential leachate problem is to prevent its development. Landfill leachate generation cannot in practice be entirely avoided, particularly during operation, except possibly in some arid climates. A tight soil cap and or liner on completion can greatly minimize the possibility however, a leachate-free landfill may not be entirely desirable. Leachate control measures for groundwa-ter and surface-water quality protection must be incorporated in the site design and...

Source And Protection Of Water Supply General

The sources of water supply are divided into two major classifications ground-water and surface water. To these should be added rainwater and demineralized water. The groundwater supplies include dug, bored, driven and drilled wells, rock and sand or earth springs, and infiltration galleries. The surface-water supplies include lake, reservoir, stream, pond, river, and creek supplies. The location of groundwater supplies should take into consideration the recharge tributary wellhead area,138 the...

Well Contamination Cause and Removal

Well-water supplies are all too often improperly constructed, protected, or located, with the result that microbiological examinations show the water to be contaminated. Under such conditions, all water used for drinking or culinary purposes should first be boiled or adequately treated. Boiling will not remove chemical contaminants other than volatiles treatment may remove some. If practical, abandonment of the well and connection to a public water supply would be the best solution. A second...

Travel Of Pollution Through The Ground

Ground Water Terminologies

Identification of the source of well pollution and tracing the migration of the incriminating contaminant are usually not simple operations. The identification of a contaminant plume and its extent can be truly complex. Comprehensive hydrogeological studies and proper placement and construction of an adequate number of monitoring wells are necessary. Geophysical methods to identify and investigate the extent and characteristics of groundwater pollution include geomagnetics, electromagnetics,...

Iron And Steel Industry

The iron and steel industry is considered one of the most important industries for the sustainable development. It is considered the base for numerous industries that could not have been established without the steel industry, such as construction, automotive, and steel structure industries. There are three basic routes to obtain finished steel products Integrated steel production involves transforming coal to coke in coke ovens, while iron ore is sintered or belletized prior to being fed into...

Indonesia Kampung Improvement Projects KIPs

New Approach to Slum Management In the 1990s, the governor of Jakarta invented a new approach to handling the urban slum problem in which abandoned than the conventional approach of tearing down slum housing and moving the families to new housing outside the city, which hardly solved the problem because of lack of employment in the new housing areas, requiring the workers to travel back to the city to be employed, through wasting both time and travel costs. In the new approach the city...

Minimum Standards Housing Ordinance

Building divisions of local governments have traditional responsibility over the construction of new buildings and their structural, fire, and other safety provisions as specified in a building code. Fire departments have responsibility for fire safety. The health department and such other agencies with an interest and responsibility are concerned with the supplied utilities and facilities, their maintenance, and the occupancy of dwellings and dwelling units for more healthy living. This latter...

Solutions to the Problem

The more obvious solutions to the housing problem are production of new housing, rehabilitation of sound housing, redevelopment, slum clearance, and public housing for low-income families. Increasing emphasis is being placed on cooperative ownership and on the conservation and rehabilitation of existing sound housing to prevent or slow down blight.* It is probably the most economical way of providing additional, healthier dwelling units and at the same time protecting the existing surrounding...

Gas Chlorinator

When a dry feed gas chlorinator or a solution feed gas chlorinator is used, the chlorinator and liquid chlorine cylinders should be located in a separate gas-tight room that is mechanically ventilated to provide one air change per minute, with outside switch and the exhaust openings at floor level opposite the air inlets at ceiling level. Exhaust ducts must be separate from any other ventilating system of ducts and extend to a height and location that will not endanger the public, personnel, or...

Hydropneumatic Systems

Hydropneumatic or pressure-tank water systems are suitable for small communities, housing developments, private homes and estates, camps, restaurants, hotels, resorts, country clubs, factories, and institutions and as booster installations. In general, only about 10 to 20 percent of the total volume of a pressure tank is actually available. Hydropneumatic tanks are usually made of 3 16-inch or thicker steel and are available in capacities up to 10,000 or 20,000 gal. Tanks should meet American...

Nabarun Dasgupta

School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Communicable diseases are illnesses due to a specific infectious agent or its toxic products. They arise through transmission of that agent or its products from an infected person, animal, or inanimate reservoir to a susceptible host, either directly or indirectly through an intermediate plant or animal host, vector, or the inanimate environment.1 Illness may be caused by pathogenic bacteria, bacterial toxins, viruses,...

Klang Valley Environmental Improvement Project Kveip An ADB

Sponsored project, the Klang Valley Environmental Improvement Project (KVEIP) completed in 19875, prepared a master plan for recommended environmental improvement in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia, which includes the capital (Kuala Lumpur) and many other cities and is the major industrial region in the country. And, of course, this region had been a magnet for attracting immigration from rural areas, resulting in formation of large-scale slum areas in the region. One of the components of...

Xudong Yang

The World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on the Public Health Aspects of Housing defined housing (residential environment) as the physical structure that man uses for shelter and the environs of that structure including all necessary services, facilities, equipment and devices needed or desired for the physical and mental health and social well-being of the family and individual.1 Every family and individual has a basic right to a decent home and a suitable living environment....

Appraisal Of Quality Of Living Apha Appraisal Method

The American Public Health Association (APHA) appraisal method for measuring the quality of housing was developed by the Committee on the Hygiene of Housing between 1944 and 1950. This method attempts to eliminate or minimize individual opinion to arrive at a numerical value of the quality of housing that may be compared with results in other cities and may be reproduced in the same city by different evaluators using the same system. It is also of value to measure the quality of housing in a...

Illnesses Associated with Air Pollution Lung Diseases

The particulate and gaseous contaminants in polluted air may irritate the eyes and respiratory system or damage the clearance mechanism of the lungs, thereby increasing susceptibility to upper respiratory diseases and aggravating existing chronic illnesses. Diseases mentioned as also being associated with air pollution include bronchial asthma (restriction of the smaller airways or bronchioles and increase in mucous secretions), chronic bronchitis (excessive mucus and frequent cough), pulmonary...

Sanitary Survey and Water Sampling

A sanitary survey is necessary to determine the reliability of a water system to continuously supply safe and adequate water to the consumer.28 It is also necessary to properly interpret the results of water analyses and evaluate the effects of actual and potential sources of pollution on water quality. The value of the survey is dependent on the training and experience of the investigator. When available, one should seek the advice of the regulatory agency sanitary engineer or sanitarian....

Iron and Manganese Occurrence and Removal

Iron in excess of 0.3 to 0.5 mg l will stain laundry and plumbing fixtures and cause water to appear rusty. When manganese is predominant, the stains will be brown or black. Neither iron nor manganese is harmful in the concentrations found in water. Iron may be present as soluble ferrous bicarbonate in alkaline well or spring waters as soluble ferrous sulfate in acid drainage waters or waters containing sulfur as soluble organic iron in colored swamp waters as suspended insoluble ferric...

Emergency Planning For Industrial Facilities

One of the reasons for having an emergency preparedness plan is that the stress induced by a crisis severely limits cognitive ability. In plain language, when people become frightened or anxious, their ability to process information and make judgments appropriate to the circumstances is severely degraded. This happens to everyone to some degree. By planning for emergencies, one can make decisions while in a calm state, unaffected by stress, and outline rational response activities commensurate...

Air Pollution

Air pollution is the presence of solids, liquids, or gases in the outdoor air in amounts that are injurious or detrimental to humans, animal, plants, or property or that unreasonably interfere with the comfortable enjoyment of life and property. Air pollution inside dwellings or places of assembly is discussed under Indoor Air Quality in Chapter 5, Environmental Emergencies and Emergency Preparedness by Pedro M. Armenante, James P. Mack in Environmental Engineering, Sixth Edition Prevention and...

Landfill Operation and Supervision

Operational issues for modern landfills include operational control, personnel and operation, salvaging policy, area policing, insect and rodent control, maintenance, and operational policies (see also Table 3.21). Operation Control The direction of operation of a sanitary landfill should be with the prevailing wind to prevent the wind from blowing solid waste back toward the collection vehicle and over the completed portion of the landfill. To prevent excessive wind scattering of solid waste...

Bacterial Examinations

The bacterial examinations for drinking water quality should always include, as a minimum, tests for total organisms of the coliform group, which are indicative of fecal contamination or sewage pollution. They are a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of humans and other animals. The goal is no coliform organisms in drinking water. In the past, the coliform group was referred to as the B. coli group and the coli-aerogenes group. The count for the total coliform group of organisms may...

Food Industry

Remote Developing Methane Digester

Food industry can be classified into a number of industries such as fruit and vegetable industry, vegetable oil industry, dairy industry, canning industry, beverage industry, meat industry, and so on. Most of these industries typically generate large volumes of effluents and solid waste. The main solid wastes generated from food industry are organic wastes, including discarded seeds, fruits, and vegetables. Odor problems can occur with poor management of solid wastes and effluents, when onions...

Well Development

Different Types Pitless Adapters

Practically all well-drilling methods, and especially the rotary drill method, cause smearing and compaction or cementing of clay, mud, and fine material on the bore hole wall and in the crevices of consolidated formations penetrated. This will reduce the sidewall flow of water into the well and, hence, the well yield. Various methods are used to remove adhering mud, clay, and fines and to develop a well to its full capacity. These include pumping, surging (valved surge device, solid surge...

Bioterrorism

In late 2001, letters containing Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) spores were mailed to various locations in the United States by yet unidentified individual(s) operating under unknown motive(s). This led to the deaths of at least five individuals due to inhalation anthrax and to several other cases of the less severe cutaneous form of the disease. While it remains to be determined whether these terrorist attacks were related and to identify the perpetrators, they signaled a new era of fear and...

Direct Waste Recycling Industry

This category is commonly used within the industrial process (on-site recycling) to recycle the waste from within the process, or it could be off-site recycling within small microenterprises (SMEs) to recycle a certain type of waste, as shown schematically in Figure 1.32. On-site recycling involves returning the waste material either to the original process as an input material or to another process as input material (inside the same factory). In other words, on-site recycling means re-entering...

Potential Utilization of Slag

Many of the environmental problems of solid waste materials generated from the iron and steel industry have been known for some time, and attempts have been made to tackle them with varying degrees of success. During the past few years, the iron and steel industry has been able to produce some creative TABLE 1.13 Waste Materials Generated from Iron and Steel Industry in Egypt TABLE 1.13 Waste Materials Generated from Iron and Steel Industry in Egypt Annual Amount Generated (metric tons)...

Issues in the Implementation of Composting Facilities

The principal issues associated with the use of the compost process are related to (1) the production of odors, (2) the presence of pathogens, (3) the presence of heavy metals, and (4) definition of what constitutes an acceptable compost. The blowing of papers and plastic materials is also a problem in windrow composting. Unless the questions related to these issues are resolved, composting may not be a viable technology in the future. Production of Odors Without proper control of the...

Waste Exchange Network Recycling Industry

Igneous Rock Concept Map Answers

This is the most important category within the waste sector to develop a new industry within the existing industries and should be developed in cooperation with the mother industries to guarantee sustainability. Promoting this category will enhance not only the conservation of natural resources to approach cradle-to-cradle concept and the protection of the environment, but also will disseminate the culture of waste industry within the industrial communities and decision makers. This promotion...

Issues in the Implementation of Incineration Facilities

The principal issues associated with the use of the incineration facilities for the transformation of MSW are related to (1) siting, (2) management of emissions, (3) public health, and (4) economics. Unless the questions related to these issues are resolved, implementation of solid waste incineration facilities will continue to be an uphill battle. These subjects are introduced briefly as follows. Siting As with the siting of MRFs, discussed previously, it has been possible to build and operate...

Waste Reduction And Materials Recovery

Transfer Landfill Stations

Proper solid waste management should first prevent and reduce the generation of solid wastes, reduce their hazardous characteristics, and recover and recycle waste to the extent practicable and then dispose of the remaining wastes in a manner that does not endanger public health or the environment. The focus of this section is on waste reduction and the recovery and recycling of materials. FIGURE 3.12 Definition sketch for two most common types of transfer stations (a) direct discharge (b)...

Ports and Harbors

A common problem in DCs is that design of ports and harbors generally pays little attention to furnishing adequate provisions for sanitation water pollution control. Guidelines for helping resolve this problem were prepared for use in Thailand in 19 8050. One of the findings of the major programs in water pollution control in the industrialized countries over the past two decades is that ports harbors, as conventionally designed, built, and operated, tend to become sanitation messes, with much...

Onsite Handling And Storage

Commingled Waste Examples

Where solid waste is temporarily stored on the premises, between collections, an adequate number of suitable containers should be provided. To a large extent, the type of container used for the collection of residential solid waste will depend on the type of collection service provided, and whether source TABLE 3.8 Typical Collection Services for Commingled and Source Separated Solid Waste Preparation Method for Type of Service Commingled wastes Single collection service of large container for...

Transfer And Transport

The urban areas around cities have been spreading, leaving fewer nearby acceptable solid waste disposal sites. The lack of acceptable sites has led to the construction of incinerators, resource recovery facilities, or processing facilities in cities or their outskirts or the transportation of wastes longer distances to new landfill disposal sites. However, as the distance from the centers of solid waste generation increases, the cost of direct haul to a site increases. A distance is reached (in...

Sanitary Landfill Planning

Msw Landfill Diagram

Key elements in the planning and implementation of a landfill include (1) legal requirements, (2) intermunicipal cooperation, (3) social and political factors, and (4) long-term planning issues. Landfill design considerations are considered in the section following the description of the types of landfills. Legal Requirements State environmental protection agency regulations and local sanitary codes or laws usually build on federal regulatory requirements. A new solid waste disposal location...

Lcrs In Environmental Engineering

LCRS Leachate collection and removal system Composite Synthetic liner + Low permeability soil *Based on volume and the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the solid waste. FIGURE 3.29 Industrial commercial and ash monofill waste landfill liner configuration. (New York State, 6 NYCRR Part 360, Solid Waste Management Facilities, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Solid Waste, Albany, 1990a.) recirculation. Controlled leachate recirculation,...

Management of Surface Waters

Typical Landfill Gas Well

The runoff from the drainage area tributary to the solid waste disposal site must be determined by hydraulic analysis to ensure that the surface-water drainage system, such as ditches, dikes, berms, or culverts, is properly designed and that flows are diverted to prevent flooding, erosion, infiltration, and surface-water and groundwater pollution, both during operation and on completion. The design basis should be the maximum 25-year, 24-hour precipitation. The topography and soil cover should...

Description of Operation of MSW Incinerator

Incinerator Sketch Diagram

The basic operations involved in the combustion of commingled MSW are identified in Figure 3.41. The operation begins with the unloading of solid wastes from collection trucks (1) into a storage pit (2). The length of the unloading platform and storage bin is a function of the size of the facility and the number of trucks that must unload simultaneously. The depth and width of the storage bin are determined by both the rate at which waste loads are received and the rate of burning. The capacity...

Combustion Products and Residues

Municipal solid waste burned in incinerators will result in the production of combustion gases, particulates, and bottom and fly ash. The characteristics of these products will depend on the types of wastes burned and the incinerator design, operating temperature, residence time, and controls. Combustion Essentials The three essentials for combustion, as outlined previously, are (1) time, (2) temperature, and (3) turbulence, including sufficient oxygen. There must be sufficient time to drive...

Residue Management

Incinerator ash and fly ash leaving the furnace (collected by scrubber, baghouse, electrostatic precipitator) may contain various concentrations of hazardous pollutants. These may require treatment and disposal so as not to endanger the public health or the environment. Concentrations of pollutants in incinerator bottom ash and fly ash will be determined by the characteristics of the waste burned, plant design, operation, efficiency of air cleaning devices, and other factors. It should also be...