Water Quality

The cleanest available sources of groundwater and surface water should be protected, used, and maintained for potable water supply purposes. Numerous parameters are used to determine the suitability of water and the health significance of contaminants that may be found in untreated and treated water. Watershed and wellhead protection regulations should be a primary consideration. Microbiological, physical, chemical, and microscopic examinations are discussed and interpreted in this chapter...

M

Magnetic observation, 398 Malodorous gases, impact, 315-316 Manholes cover base, 21f rejects application, 21-22 Manual loading collection vehicles, application, 204 Manually loaded collection vehicles examples, 206f one-person crew, labor requirements, 209t cradle-to-grave materials flow, 5 private sector redesign, 181 Manure, usage, 26 Mapped soils, characteristics definitions concepts, 396-405 system, 409-410 Maps comprehensive plans, 439 creation, foundational elements, 396-398 importance,...

Notes

FIGURE 4.5 Schematic drawing showing drinking water standards for U.S. chlorine residuals, coliforms, and THM toxicity parameters with recommendations for DCs. are exceptions for example, in Washington, D.C. In some Western Europe countries (e.g., Sweden), such dual use of the trench is permitted under specified conditions because of the resulting considerable savings in total trending costs. Situation in DCs The DCs have followed the WHO guidelines, which do not permit dual use of the same...

Centrifugal Pump Also Submersible and Turbine

There are several types of centrifugal pumps the distinction lies in the design of the impeller. They include radial, mixed, and axial flow, turbine, close-coupled, submersible, and adjustable blade impeller pumps. Water is admitted into the suction pipe or pump casing and is rotated in the pump by an impeller inside the pump casing. The energy is converted from velocity head primarily into pressure head. In the submerged multistage, turbine-type pump used to pump water out of a well, the...

Info

Vijayalakshmi, Marble Slurry A New Building Material, Technology Information, Forecasting, and Assessment Council, 2006, The tested slurry had a specific density of 2.72 g cm3. Furthermore, by using an easy particle sizer M6.10 equipment, it was possible to compare both grading curves of cement and slurry particles. The specific surface area of the slurry particles was 7128cm2 g and its average size was 5.0 m (smaller than cement particles). Another waste is marble...

Noise Control

One of the most important tasks of architects, builders, acoustic engineers, urban planners, industrial hygiene engineers, equipment manufacturers, and public health personnel is to ensure that noise and vibration are kept to an acceptable level in the general environment, in the workplace, and inside dwellings. Noise is of special concern in occupational health where hearing loss has been documented. The discussion that follows will touch on some of the fundamentals of noise and its effects,...

Disinfection

The more common chemicals used for the disinfection of drinking water are chlorine (gas and hypochlorite), chlorine-ammonia, chlorine dioxide, and ozone. Chlorine is discussed next the others are discussed in relation to the removal or reduction of objectionable tastes and odors and trihalomethanes. Ozone and chlorine dioxide are receiving greater attention as primary disinfectants and chlorine-ammonia for maintenance of a residual in the distribution system. Other disinfectants that may be...

Contributors

ARMENANTE, Distinguished Professor, Department of Chemical, Biological and Pharmaceutical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey, piero.armenante njit.edu NABARUN DASGUPTA School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, nab email.unc.edu HARVEY F. LUDWIG Consulting Environmental Engineer, Bangkok, Thailand, hfludwig truemail.co.th JAMES P. MACK New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey, James.Mack njit.edu...

Urban Slums Background

As noted in the section on Megacities, a massive immigration of rural farmers to urban cities has been underway for several decades, which is unstoppable, and the existing cities being enlarged have been able to furnish the infrastructure and housing sufficient to accommodate only part of the immigrants, leading to formation of large slum areas with very inadequate housing and community facilities including environmental infrastructure facilities (water supply, excreta management, solid waste...

Noninfectious And Noncommunicable Diseases And Conditions Associated With The Water Environment

The terms noncommunicable and noninfectious are used interchangeably. The noncommunicable diseases are the major causes of death in developed areas of the world, whereas the communicable diseases are the major causes of death in the developing areas of the world. The major noncommunicable disease deaths in the United States in 1988 were due to diseases of the heart, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, accidents, atheriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and chronic liver disease and...

Well Development

Practically all well-drilling methods, and especially the rotary drill method, cause smearing and compaction or cementing of clay, mud, and fine material on the bore hole wall and in the crevices of consolidated formations penetrated. This will reduce the sidewall flow of water into the well and, hence, the well yield. Various methods are used to remove adhering mud, clay, and fines and to develop a well to its full capacity. These include pumping, surging (valved surge device, solid surge...

Landfill Facilities and Equipment for Disposal by Sanitary Landfill

In addition to the control of leachate and landfill gases, a number of other facilities and operating equipment are required for the effective implementation of a sanitary landfill. Personnel requirements are discussed in the following section. Fire Protection The availability of fire protection facilities at a site should also be considered as fire may break out at the site without warning. Protective measures may be a fire hydrant near the site with portable pipe or fire hose, a watercourse...

Water Siphonage Environmental Engineering

Note The table remains unchanged in the latest ASHRAE publication 2007 ASHRAE Handbook HVAC Applications. Heaters should be preset to deliver water at 130 F (54 C). The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) recommends a maximum of 120 F (49 C). Source ASHRAE Guide and Data Book, Atlanta, GA, 1970. Copyright by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers. Inc. Reprinted with permission. Note The table remains unchanged in the latest ASHRAE publication 2007...

Illnesses Associated with Air Pollution Lung Diseases

The particulate and gaseous contaminants in polluted air may irritate the eyes and respiratory system or damage the clearance mechanism of the lungs, thereby increasing susceptibility to upper respiratory diseases and aggravating existing chronic illnesses. Diseases mentioned as also being associated with air pollution include bronchial asthma (restriction of the smaller airways or bronchioles and increase in mucous secretions), chronic bronchitis (excessive mucus and frequent cough), pulmonary...

Role Of Environment In Economic Development Planning In Developing Countries

ROLE OF ECONOMIST ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTALIST ROLE OF ECONOMIST ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTALIST FIGURE 4.23 Role of environment in economic development planning in developing countries. FIGURE 4.23 Role of environment in economic development planning in developing countries. one of the big three. The protocols now being proposed, to replace Kyoto, even if totally implemented, seem far too little too late, and the cost of achieving adequate global control will be hugely expensive. It will be very...

Klang Valley Environmental Improvement Project Kveip An ADB

Sponsored project, the Klang Valley Environmental Improvement Project (KVEIP) completed in 19875, prepared a master plan for recommended environmental improvement in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia, which includes the capital (Kuala Lumpur) and many other cities and is the major industrial region in the country. And, of course, this region had been a magnet for attracting immigration from rural areas, resulting in formation of large-scale slum areas in the region. One of the components of...

Q Qm

Q pressure-tank volume, gal Qm 15-minutes storage at the maximum hourly demand rate P1 minimum absolute operating pressure (gauge pressure plus 14.7 lb in.2) P 2 maximum absolute pressure188 TABLE 2.11 Recommended Pump Capacity for Private Dwellings TABLE 2.11 Recommended Pump Capacity for Private Dwellings

Emergency Planning At The Local Level

Regulatory requirements exist under OSHA and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for interaction with local, state, and, in some cases, federal agencies1'2'3 and require the development of hazardous materials emergency response plans for local communities. For communities to develop these plans, they need to be aware of the hazards presented by facilities within their planning district. Those facilities that fall within the planning district must, by law, provide a representative to...

Xudong Yang

The World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on the Public Health Aspects of Housing defined housing (residential environment) as the physical structure that man uses for shelter and the environs of that structure including all necessary services, facilities, equipment and devices needed or desired for the physical and mental health and social well-being of the family and individual.1 Every family and individual has a basic right to a decent home and a suitable living environment....

Table of Contents

Purpose of Present Manual Types of HWMPs Toxic Wastes Steps in Applying EIA Process Reference Utilized Laws and Regulations 2. IEE for HWMPs Importance of IEE 3. Full-Scale EIA Tasks for HWMP LWs Project Description General Description Waste Characteristics and Treatment Project Alternatives Environmental Study Area (ESA) Environmental Impacts and EPMs Environmental Monitoring Public Participation Compliance with Environmental Laws 4. Full-Scale EIA Tasks for HWMP SWs Introduction 5. Summary...

Carbon Nanotubes Effect In Organism Of Cyclop

Irish moss, salt marsh, fishy Fishy, vile (red-brown) Candied violets Aromatic, violets, fishy Aromatic, violets, fishy Fishy, like clam shells, bitter taste Cucumber, musk melon, fishy Fishy, oily, cod liver oil Very offensive, decayed Medicinal with chlorine Very offensive, decayed

Planning Process

As discussed in previous sections, the planning process is the key to success. Agreeing to use a document prepared by others substantially reduces the value of the planning process and diminishes the commitment of those who must prepare the plan. The relationships of the industry, government, and the local community are often fragile. The process itself provides an opportunity to interact with the participants so they become aware of their strengths and weaknesses. The planning team is...

Sewage Works Design Small Treatment Plants

Small treatment plants typically discharge treated effluents to a surface water body as contrasted to septic systems, which discharge to groundwater systems. Surface discharges require a permit from a regulatory agency and allowable effluents are based on the minimum average 7-day flow expected to recur once in 10 years (MA7CD10), upstream and downstream discharges, and downstream uses. Some of the more common flow diagrams for small sewage treatment plants are illustrated in Figure 3.12 and...

Emergency Planning For Industrial Facilities

One of the reasons for having an emergency preparedness plan is that the stress induced by a crisis severely limits cognitive ability. In plain language, when people become frightened or anxious, their ability to process information and make judgments appropriate to the circumstances is severely degraded. This happens to everyone to some degree. By planning for emergencies, one can make decisions while in a calm state, unaffected by stress, and outline rational response activities commensurate...

Septic Tanks for Coastal Homes on Stilts

A common pollution problem in DCs with homes built on stilts over nearshore coastal waters (e.g., in Malaysia) is how to manage pollution from sewage discharged from these homes. The recommended solution is to install a septic tank under the home, with a 24-hour retention period, which removes the waste components that if discharged are really objectionable, namely floatable and settleable materials35. The net discharge contains only soluble colloidal pollutants, which generally are readily...

Emergency Water Supply And Treatment

Local or state health departments should be consulted when a water emergency arises. Their sanitary engineers and sanitarians are in a position to render valuable, expert advice based on their experience and specialized training. The treatment to be given a water used for drinking purposes depends primarily on the extent to which the water is polluted and the type of pollution present. This can be determined by making a sanitary survey of the water source to evaluate the significance of the...

Public Water Supply Taps

While public water supply taps are widely used for improving environment in urban slum areas, these are also valuable for use in other municipal areas where house connections are generally unaffordable. A review of this usage on Asian DCs, made for the World Bank in the 1980s71, resulted in the following eight findings 1. While the construction cost of the public tap varies widely (in the range of 100 to 1,000), the indicated usual cost is about 400 for an installation sufficient to serve about...

Industrial Waste

The most common industrial wastes generated from industrial sectors are packaging materials using plastic and paper from almost all industrial sectors, organic wastes from food and other industries, dust from the cement industry and the marble and granite industries, glass culets from almost all industries, slag and foundry sand wastes from smelters or foundries, and waste from iron and steel industries. Closing the loop for sustainable industrial waste management (SIWM) is very important for...

Transfer And Transport

The urban areas around cities have been spreading, leaving fewer nearby acceptable solid waste disposal sites. The lack of acceptable sites has led to the construction of incinerators, resource recovery facilities, or processing facilities in cities or their outskirts or the transportation of wastes longer distances to new landfill disposal sites. However, as the distance from the centers of solid waste generation increases, the cost of direct haul to a site increases. A distance is reached (in...

References

EPA Section 812 Cost Benefit Analysis of the Clean Air Act 1970-1990, EPA, Washington, DC, October 1997. 2. D. Zmirou, A. Deloraine, F. Balducci, C. Boudet, and J. Dechenaux. Health Effects Costs of Particulate Air Pollution, J. Occup. Environ. Med., 41 (10), (October 1999) 847-856. 3. W. W. Heck, C. S. Furiness, E. B. Cowling, and C. K. Sims, Effects of Ozone on Crop, Forest, and Natural Ecosystems Assessment of Research Needs, EM Air Waste Manage. Assoc. Mag. Environ. Managers, October 1998,...

Plastic And Cork Industry

The objective of this case study is to recycle the PVC plastic offcuts from slippers production to produce new slippers from scrap PVC plastics and approach cradle-to-cradle design. This case study was implemented in a company located in Sohag, Egypt (upper Egypt), which produces around 1,500 metric tons year of PVC sheets, cut to make footwear. The cutting and printing process used around 70 percent of the PVC sheet with the remaining 30 percent being discarded as scrap. In total, 450 metric...

Residue Management

Incinerator ash and fly ash leaving the furnace (collected by scrubber, baghouse, electrostatic precipitator) may contain various concentrations of hazardous pollutants. These may require treatment and disposal so as not to endanger the public health or the environment. Concentrations of pollutants in incinerator bottom ash and fly ash will be determined by the characteristics of the waste burned, plant design, operation, efficiency of air cleaning devices, and other factors. It should also be...

Control of the Incineration Process

The poor image that incineration has in the eyes of many people is due largely to the failure to control the operation, with resultant destruction of the equipment and air pollution. A properly designed and operated incinerator requires control instrumentation for (1) temperature, (2) draft pressures, (3) smoke emission, (4) weights of solid wastes coming in and leaving the plant, and (5) air pollution control equipment. Competent well-trained operators are also essential. Temperature...

Waste Exchange Network Recycling Industry

This is the most important category within the waste sector to develop a new industry within the existing industries and should be developed in cooperation with the mother industries to guarantee sustainability. Promoting this category will enhance not only the conservation of natural resources to approach cradle-to-cradle concept and the protection of the environment, but also will disseminate the culture of waste industry within the industrial communities and decision makers. This promotion...

Minimum Standards Housing Ordinance

Building divisions of local governments have traditional responsibility over the construction of new buildings and their structural, fire, and other safety provisions as specified in a building code. Fire departments have responsibility for fire safety. The health department and such other agencies with an interest and responsibility are concerned with the supplied utilities and facilities, their maintenance, and the occupancy of dwellings and dwelling units for more healthy living. This latter...

Index

Absorption field disposal system, arrangement details, 304f Absorption field system, 301, 304-305 Absorption lateral trenches, leveling, 304-305 Acanthamoeba culbertsoni, impact, 43 Acidic fluids, presence, 53-54 Actinomycetes, presence, 37 Activated carbon, 174-175 columns, usage, 114 filter, impact, 181 Activated-carbon filter, inefficiency, 107-108 Adenoviruses, presence, 42 Advanced wastewater treatment, 341-344 Advanced wastewater treatment monitoring surveilance, problems, 76-77 Aeration,...

Site Selection Plant Layout and Building Design

It is extremely important that a careful investigation be made of the social, physical, and economic factors involved when incineration is proposed. Some of the major factors are the following 1. Public acceptance in relation to the surrounding land use and precautions to be taken in location and design to offset public objections should be considerations. A location near the wastewater treatment plant, for example, may meet with less objection. Heat utilization for sludge drying or burning and...

Environmental Factors

The behavior of pollutants released to the atmosphere is subject to diverse and complex environmental factors associated with meteorology and topography. Meteorology involves the physics, chemistry, and dynamics of the atmosphere and includes many direct effects of the atmosphere on the earth's surface, ocean, and life. Topography refers to both the natural and manmade features of the earth's surface. The pollutants can be either accumulated or diluted, depending on the nature and degree of the...

Watershed Runoff and Reservoir Design

Certain basic information, in addition to future water demand, is needed upon which to base the design of water works structures. Long-term precipitation, stream flow data, and groundwater information are available from the U.S. Geological Survey and state sources, but these seldom apply to small watersheds. Precipitation data for specific areas are also available from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, local weather stations, airports, and water works. Unit hydrographs,...

IEE for HWMPs

2.1 Importance of IEE Any HWMP, if not properly designed and operated, can result in very significant adverse environmental impacts, even for very small projects employing only a few people. Hence, submittal of an IEE is required for all commercial HWMPs projects, regardless of size. Assuming full-scale will be needed, the IEE should include preparation of the Work Plan for the full-scale EIA including the tentative detailed Table of Contents for the final EIA report. 2.2 Basic Planning...

Landfill Operation and Supervision

Operational issues for modern landfills include operational control, personnel and operation, salvaging policy, area policing, insect and rodent control, maintenance, and operational policies (see also Table 3.21). Operation Control The direction of operation of a sanitary landfill should be with the prevailing wind to prevent the wind from blowing solid waste back toward the collection vehicle and over the completed portion of the landfill. To prevent excessive wind scattering of solid waste...

Testing for Residual Chlorine

The recommended field tests for measuring residual chlorine in water are the N,N-diethyl- -phenylenediamine (DPD) colorimetric and the stabilized neutral orthotolidine (SNORT) methods.9 The DPD and amperometric titration methods are approved by the EPA. In any case, all tests should be made in accordance with accepted procedures such as in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater .10 The DPD test procedure for residual chlorine measurement and the Free Available Chlorine...

Displacement Pump

In reciprocating displacement pumps, water is drawn into the pump chamber or cylinder on the suction stroke of the piston or plunger inside the pump chamber and then the water is pushed out on the discharge stroke. This is a simplex or single-acting reciprocating pump. An air chamber (Figure 2.17) should be provided on the discharge side of the pump to prevent excessive water hammer caused by the quick-closing flap or ball valve by the quick closing or opening of a gate valve, float valve, or...

Background

The terms noncommunicable and noninfectious are used interchangeably. The major noncommunicable disease deaths in the United States in 2000 were due to diseases of the heart, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, accidents, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. The mortality can be expected to shift more to noncommunicable causes in the developing countries as social and economic conditions improve and communicable diseases are brought under...

Zebra Mussel and Its Control

The zebra mussel is 1 to 2 in. (2.5-5 cm) long. An adult female can release 30,000 to 40,000 eggs per year. The eggs hatch into larvae (veligers) in several days, drift with the currents, hatch within 3 weeks, and attach themselves to any hard surface such as water intakes, boat and ship hulls, rock reefs, and canals, where they grow. Waters having less than 15 mg l calcium, pH less than 6.5, temperatures below 45 F (7 C) or above 90 F (32 C), and salinity greater than 600 mg l chloride ion...

Infiltration Gallery

Infiltration Gallery

An infiltration gallery consists of a system of porous, perforated, or open-joint pipe or other conduit draining to a receiving well. The pipe is surrounded by gravel and located in a porous formation such as sand and gravel below the water table. The collecting system should be located 20 feet or more from a lake or stream or under the bed of a stream or lake if installed under expert supervision. It FIGURE 1.13 Properly constructed springs. FIGURE 1.13 Properly constructed springs. is...

Management of Surface Waters

The runoff from the drainage area tributary to the solid waste disposal site must be determined by hydraulic analysis to ensure that the surface-water drainage system, such as ditches, dikes, berms, or culverts, is properly designed and that flows are diverted to prevent flooding, erosion, infiltration, and surface-water and groundwater pollution, both during operation and on completion. The design basis should be the maximum 25-year, 24-hour precipitation. The topography and soil cover should...

Bioterrorism

Bioterrorism is a disruptive and health-threating event directed at an individual, group of individuals, a community, or at-large population within a nation and is facilitated by the intentional release of a highly virulent biological agent. In this context, the term biolo ical a ent includes a microorganism or a biologically synthesized toxin that causes disease in man, plants, or animals or causes deteo-riation of materials.100 The use of pathogenic elements to subvert and disrupt the normal...

Sanitary Landfill Planning

Msw Landfill Diagram

Key elements in the planning and implementation of a landfill include (1) legal requirements, (2) intermunicipal cooperation, (3) social and political factors, and (4) long-term planning issues. Landfill design considerations are considered in the section following the description of the types of landfills. Legal Requirements State environmental protection agency regulations and local sanitary codes or laws usually build on federal regulatory requirements. A new solid waste disposal location...

Hydropneumatic Systems

Hydropneumatic or pressure-tank water systems are suitable for small communities, housing developments, private homes and estates, camps, restaurants, hotels, resorts, country clubs, factories, and institutions and as booster installations. In general, only about 10 to 20 percent of the total volume of a pressure tank is actually available. Hydropneumatic tanks are usually made of 3 16-inch or thicker steel and are available in capacities up to 10,000 or 20,000 gal. Tanks should meet American...

Bacterial Examinations

The bacterial examinations for drinking water quality should always include, as a minimum, tests for total organisms of the coliform group, which are indicative of fecal contamination or sewage pollution. They are a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of humans and other animals. The goal is no coliform organisms in drinking water. In the past, the coliform group was referred to as the B. coli group and the coli-aerogenes group. The count for the total coliform group of organisms may...

Ports and Harbors

A common problem in DCs is that design of ports and harbors generally pays little attention to furnishing adequate provisions for sanitation water pollution control. Guidelines for helping resolve this problem were prepared for use in Thailand in 19 8050. One of the findings of the major programs in water pollution control in the industrialized countries over the past two decades is that ports harbors, as conventionally designed, built, and operated, tend to become sanitation messes, with much...

Cleaner Production CP

In the 1990s, the IAAs initiated a program for getting DC industries to utilize cleaner production technologies developed in the ICs for minimizing production of wastewater pollutants by modifying the various process steps utilized by industries, thus not only simplifying treatment needs but also saving raw materials, making the industrial operation more economic. The experience thus far in DCs108 indicates three things 1. The NEnPAs industry ministries have not established sufficient...

Prevention and Control

Prevention of the major causes of death, such as diseases of the heart, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular disease, accidents, and other noninfectious chronic and degenerative diseases, should now receive high priority. Prevention calls for control of the source, mode of transmission, and or susceptibles as appropriate. The prevention and control of environmental pollutants generally involves the following 1. Eliminate or control the pollutant at the source. Minimize or prevent production and...

Iron And Steel Industry

The iron and steel industry is considered one of the most important industries for the sustainable development. It is considered the base for numerous industries that could not have been established without the steel industry, such as construction, automotive, and steel structure industries. There are three basic routes to obtain finished steel products Integrated steel production involves transforming coal to coke in coke ovens, while iron ore is sintered or belletized prior to being fed into...

Air Pollution Surveys

An air pollution survey of a region having common topographical and meteorological characteristics is a necessary first step before a meaningful air resources management plan and program can be established. The survey includes an inventory of source emissions and a contaminant and meteorological sampling network, supplemented by study of basic demographic, economic, land-use, and social factors. The inventory includes the location, height, exit velocity, and temperature of emission sources and...

Source And Protection Of Water Supply General

The sources of water supply are divided into two major classifications ground-water and surface water. To these should be added rainwater and demineralized water. The groundwater supplies include dug, bored, driven and drilled wells, rock and sand or earth springs, and infiltration galleries. The surface-water supplies include lake, reservoir, stream, pond, river, and creek supplies. The location of groundwater supplies should take into consideration the recharge tributary wellhead area,138 the...

Introduction

A primary requisite for good health is an adequate supply of water that is of satisfactory sanitary quality. It is also important that the water be attractive and palatable to induce its use otherwise, consumers may decide to use water of doubtful quality from a nearby unprotected stream, well, or spring. Where a municipal water supply passes near a property, the owner of the property should be urged to connect to it because such supplies are usually under competent supervision. When a...

Slow Sand Filter

A slow sand filter consists of a watertight basin, usually covered, built of concrete, and equipped with a rate controller and loss-of-head gauge. The basin holds a special sand 30 to 48 inches deep that is supported on a 12- to 18-inch layer of graded gravel placed over an underdrain system that may consist of open-joint, porous, or perforated 2- to 4-inch-diameter pipe or conduit spaced no greater than 3 feet. The velocity in the underdrain system should not exceed 0.75 fps. The sand should...

Gas Chlorinator

When a dry feed gas chlorinator or a solution feed gas chlorinator is used, the chlorinator and liquid chlorine cylinders should be located in a separate gas-tight room that is mechanically ventilated to provide one air change per minute, with outside switch and the exhaust openings at floor level opposite the air inlets at ceiling level. Exhaust ducts must be separate from any other ventilating system of ducts and extend to a height and location that will not endanger the public, personnel, or...

Prevention and Removal of Organic Chemicals

As noted for inorganic chemicals, the control of organic chemicals in drinking water should start with a sanitary survey to identify the sources, types, and amounts of pollutants, followed by their phased elimination as indicated by the associated hazard. Included would be watershed use regulation and protection, watershed management to minimize turbidity and organic and inorganic runoff, vigorous compliance with the national and state water and air pollution elimination objectives, enforcement...

Conclusion

Industrial emergencies are a byproduct of many of the technologies that permeate any industrialized society. Since the risk associated with them, like the risk associated with any other human activity, can never be completely reduced to zero, society has to learn to live with the finite possibility that industrial emergency situations can occur if it wants to benefit from the technologies that can generate them. What one can do, however, is to learn how to reduce the frequency with which such...

Industrial Solid Wastes Utilization

Life Cycle Assessment and Cradle-To-Cradle Concept 4 Industrial Waste 7 Plastics Industry 7 Thermo Plastics 9 Thermosets 12 Mixed Plastic Wastes 13 Plastic and Cork Industry 22 Food Industry 25 Aerobic Fermentation Process 25 Anaerobic Fermentation Process 29 Cement Industry 31 Utilization through Cleaner Production Techniques 33 Industrial Ecology Approach 34 Recycling Opportunities 36 Final Remarks 39 Marble and Granite Industry 40 Marble and Granite Waste 42 Physical and Chemical Properties...

Appropriate Technology

Abbreviations 213 Introduction 215 Background 215 History 215 Problem of Developing Countries 216 Summary of DC Problem 217 Purpose of This Chapter 219 Specific Subjects Included in This Chapter 220 Environmental Governance 223 Introduction 223 Situation in DCs versus United States ICs 223 What DC and IAA Practitioners Can Do to Correct This Problem 224 Role of the Private Sector 225 Urban Water Supply 225 Situation in United States ICs 225 Situation in Typical DCs 226 Suggested Approach for...

Lcrs In Environmental Engineering

LCRS Leachate collection and removal system Composite Synthetic liner + Low permeability soil *Based on volume and the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the solid waste. FIGURE 3.29 Industrial commercial and ash monofill waste landfill liner configuration. (New York State, 6 NYCRR Part 360, Solid Waste Management Facilities, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Solid Waste, Albany, 1990a.) recirculation. Controlled leachate recirculation,...

Drilled Well

Vented Well Cap Connection

Studies have shown that, in general, drilled wells are superior to dug, bored, or driven wells and springs. But there are some exceptions. Drilled wells are less likely to become contaminated and are usually more dependable sources of water. When a well is drilled, a hole is made in the ground, usually with a percussion (cable tool) or rotary (air or mud) drilling machine. Drilled wells are usually 4 to 12 inches in diameter or larger and may reach 750 to 1,000 feet in depth or more. Test wells...

Definition Of Terms

To understand the elements and technologies involved in integrated solid waste management it is useful to define some of the more commonly used terms. Ash residue All the solid residue and any entrained liquids resulting from the combustion of solid waste or solid waste in combination with fossil fuel at a solid waste incinerator, including bottom ash, boiler ash, fly ash, and the solid residue of any air pollution control device used at a solid waste incinerator. Biodegradable material Waste...

Chlorine Treatment for Operation and Microbiological Control

To ensure that only properly treated water is distributed, it is important to have a competent and trustworthy person in charge of the chlorination plant. He or she should keep daily records showing the gallons of water treated, the pounds of chlorine or quarts of chlorine solution used and its strength, the gross weight of chlorine cylinders if used, the setting of the chlorinator, the time residual chlorine tests made, the results of such tests, and any repairs or maintenance, power failures,...

Xiaolangdi Resettlement

Sanitation Improvements The World Bank project for resettlement of families displaced by the major Xiaolangdi dam on the Yellow River completed in year 2001160 gave careful attention to provisions of (1) use of wells for water supply, with protection from surface contamination, for all homes in the more than 60 resettlement villages, together with use of elevated water storage tanks, which served the very useful purpose of enabling ready disinfection of the supply using hypochlorite powder,...

Additive To Increase Hardness Of Recycling Plastic Brick

Recycling Process Flow Chart

It is considered the last step in polymerization. The structure of all thermo sets looks like a network. All the molecules are permanently cross-linked together in a 3D network. This structure makes all thermo sets products maintain their high strength and hardness in relatively high temperatures. In addition, they have high chemical and creep resistance. Table 1.1 shows some of the mechanical properties of thermo sets materials. The unrecyclable mixed different types plastic waste plastic...

O

Parasitic fungus and (Claviceps occasionally purpurea) other grains poisons in other Amanita mushroom Viciafaba Plant and bean bean, pollen Ergot-fungus contaminated meal or bread The bean when eaten raw, also pollen testes, roe (heat roe in breeding pickerel eggs. Gangrene involving extremities, fingers, and toes or weakness and drowsiness, headache, giddiness, painful cramps in limbs Intermittent cramplike pains, vomiting, convulsions, coma Severe abdominal pain, intense thirst, retching,...

Environmental Tests

Chemical Resistance Test To determine the properties of chemical resistance of the specimens, tests were done in accordance with ASTM D543-95.58 Thus, the specimens were tested toward their resistance to an acidic solution. Sulfuric acid with a pH of 3 was chosen, due to the fact that it plays a dual role of examining the effect of its high acidity and its sulfates content. Sulfates may also be corrosive and thus must be investigated. The specimens were measured for dimensions and weight prior...

Coagulation Flocculation and Settling

Adding a coagulant such as alum (aluminum sulfate) to water permits particles to come together and results in the formation of a flocculent mass, or floc, which enmeshes and agglomerates microorganisms, suspended particles, and colloidal matter, removing and attracting these materials in settling out. Removal of 90 to 99 percent of the bacteria and viruses and more than 90 percent of the protozoa and phosphate can be expected.46 Total organic carbon and THM precursors and around 80 percent of...

Cross Connection Control

There have been numerous instances of illness caused by cross-connections.178 A discussion of water system design would not be complete without reference to cross-connection control and backflow prevention. The goal is to have no connection between a water of drinking water quality (potable) and an unsafe or questionable (nonpotable) water system or between a potable system and any plumbing, fixture, or device whereby nonpotable water might flow into the potable water system. A cross-connection...

Indonesia Kampung Improvement Projects KIPs

New Approach to Slum Management In the 1990s, the governor of Jakarta invented a new approach to handling the urban slum problem in which abandoned than the conventional approach of tearing down slum housing and moving the families to new housing outside the city, which hardly solved the problem because of lack of employment in the new housing areas, requiring the workers to travel back to the city to be employed, through wasting both time and travel costs. In the new approach the city...

Filter Underdrain Homemade Laterals

Declining Rate Filtration

Minutes for water in filter to rise 1 ft Lower water level to sand, slowly open backwash valve, 20 to 25 gpm ft2 minimum (32 to 40 in. rise min). Orifice area 0.25 to 0.30 of filter area Manifold area 1.5 to 2 x Total area of laterals The rate controller is omitted in a declining-rate filter. A gate valve or orifice is used in its place. An acceptable rate of flow (filtration) is set at the start of a run but decreases as the head loss increases. The use of this concept is recommended in...

Bibliography Of Wastewater Management

Alternatives for Small Wastewater Treatment Systems, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA-625 4-77-011, October 1977, 90 pp. Alternative Systems for Small Communities and Rural Areas, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, FRD-10, January 1980. Anderson, Damon L., Robert L. Siegrist, and Richard J. Otis, Technology Assessment of Intermittent Sand Filters, Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio, April 1985. Barnes, D., and F....

Disease Hazard

Improper disposal of human excreta and sewage is one of the major causes of disease in areas where satisfactory sewage treatment is not available. Because many pathogenic microorganisms are found in sewage, all sewage should be considered contaminated. The work of investigators who have studied the survival of enteric pathogens in soil, water, and wastewater has been summarized in a number of publications.1 As an example, it is known that some pathogens can survive from less than a day in peat...

Appraisal Of Quality Of Living Apha Appraisal Method

The American Public Health Association (APHA) appraisal method for measuring the quality of housing was developed by the Committee on the Hygiene of Housing between 1944 and 1950. This method attempts to eliminate or minimize individual opinion to arrive at a numerical value of the quality of housing that may be compared with results in other cities and may be reproduced in the same city by different evaluators using the same system. It is also of value to measure the quality of housing in a...

Plastics Industry

Plastics have played a very significant role in industrial development since their invention. If we take a look around us, we will discover that most tools, accessories, packaging, and equipment are made out of plastic, as shown in Figure 1.3. Some of these products have a very short life cycle and are highly consumable. Others might have longer life cycle. These products are used frequently and, in most cases, are then discarded and turned to wastes. Recycling of plastics has become a great...

Life Cycle Assessment And Cradletocradle Concept

The initial gathering of raw materials from the earth to the point at which all residuals are returned back to the earth, or cradle-to-grave. LCA results will not be promising for industrial activities that are based on a cradle-to-grave flow of materials. Unfortunately, most manufacturing processes since the Industrial Revolution began are based on a one way, cradle-to-grave flow of materials starting with the extraction of raw materials, followed by processing, producing, and marketing of the...

Solid Waste Collection

Collection cost has been estimated to represent about 60 to 75 percent of the total cost of solid waste management, depending on the disposal method. Because the cost of collection represents such a large percentage of the total cost, the design of collection systems must be considered carefully. The type of service provided, the frequency of service, and the equipment used for collection are considered in the following discussion. The type of collection service provided will depend on the...

Travel Of Pollution Through The Ground

Identification of the source of well pollution and tracing the migration of the incriminating contaminant are usually not simple operations. The identification of a contaminant plume and its extent can be truly complex. Comprehensive hydrogeological studies and proper placement and construction of an adequate number of monitoring wells are necessary. Geophysical methods to identify and investigate the extent and characteristics of groundwater pollution include geomagnetics, electromagnetics,...

Ma Soela Para

The 1992 Information Please Environmental Almanac, World Resources Institute, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1992. 2. C. Gleeson and N. Gray, The Coliform Index and Waterborne Disease, E & F Spon, London, 1997. 3. F. R. Lashley, Cyclospora cayetanensis Arriving via Guatemalan Raspberries, in F. R. Lashley and J. D. Durham (Eds,), Emerging Infectious Diseases Trends and Issues, Springer Publishing Company, New York, 2007, pp. 111-121. 4. B. B. Gerstman, Epidemiology Kept Simple An...

Epidemic Control At The Individual Level

Control of infections at the individual level is achieved primarily through three different measures behavior modification, treatment with antibiotics and antivi-rals, and prevention through vaccination. We will describe these interventions at these three levels, followed by descriptions of environmental and infectious agent control. First, some basic terminology will be elaborated. An infected individual goes through four basic stages incubation period, carrier state, fulminate infection, and...

Environmental Energy Ailment

Water is traditionally viewed as the universal solvent which accounts for its vital support of all living things. The property of solvency is also responsible, in the main, for the chemical quality of natural water as pertains to the dissolution of naturally occurring minerals, atmospheric gases, and organic molecules present in plant and animal residues. Natural waters are also a vehicle for suspended matter, including microbial cells. Fresh surface waters are collectively represented by...

Sanitary Survey and Water Sampling

A sanitary survey is necessary to determine the reliability of a water system to continuously supply safe and adequate water to the consumer.28 It is also necessary to properly interpret the results of water analyses and evaluate the effects of actual and potential sources of pollution on water quality. The value of the survey is dependent on the training and experience of the investigator. When available, one should seek the advice of the regulatory agency sanitary engineer or sanitarian....

Generation of Hazardous Waste

The major generators of hazardous waste among 15 industries studied by the EPA are as follows, more or less in order of the quantities produced Examples of hazardous waste types generated by businesses and industries are given in Table 3.28. Hazardous wastes that are characterized as ignitable, TABLE 3.27 Original 129 Priority Toxic Pollutants Identified by Council on Environmental Quality Pesticides Generally chlorinated hydrocarbons Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) used in electrical...

Design Of Large Treatment Plants

Although the design details for large sewage treatment plants are beyond the scope of this text, some of the major design elements are presented in the following sections for general information. Also, state and federal regulatory agencies have recommended standards and guidelines and should be consulted.64 Treatment processes and bases of design are summarized in Figure 3.15 and Table 3.21, while process efficiencies are given in Table 3.22. Typical flow diagrams are shown in Figures 3.12 and...

Active Recreation Area

Urban Active Recreation

FIGURE 6.5 The open space system should be connected and contiguous active and passive recreation areas should be designed. FIGURE 6.5 The open space system should be connected and contiguous active and passive recreation areas should be designed. an area served by public centralized sanitary sewer and water supply services. The common sewer and water supply facilities could be owned and operated by a homeowners association. In such an arrangement, however, it is important that public oversight...

Grouting

One of the most common reasons for contamination of wells drilled through rock, clay, or hardpan is failure to properly seal the annular space around the well casing. A proper seal is needed to prevent water movement between aquifers, protect the aquifers, and prevent entry of contaminated water from the surface or near the surface. A contaminated well supply causes the homeowner or municipality considerable inconvenience and extra expense, for it is difficult to seal off contamination after...

Chemical Examinations

The significance of selected chemical elements and compounds in drinking water is discussed next. An intake of 2 liters of water per day per person is assumed in determining health effects. The MCL is the National Drinking Water Regulation maximum contaminant level. The maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG) is a desirable one and is nonmandatory unless specifically made so by a state. The WHO level represents a guideline value of a constituent that ensures an aesthetically pleasing water and...

Microscopic Examination

Microscopic and macroscopic organisms that may be found in drinking water sources include bacteria, algae, actinomycetes, protozoa, rotifers, yeasts, molds, small crustacea, worms, and mites. Most algae contain chlorophyll and require sunlight for their growth. The small worms are usually insect larvae. Larvae, crustacea, worms, molds or fungi, large numbers of algae, or filamentous growths in the drinking water would make the water aesthetically unacceptable and affect taste and odor....

Plain Sedimentation

Plain sedimentation is the quiescent settling or storage of water, such as would take place in a reservoir, lake, or basin, without the aid of chemicals, preferably for a month or longer, particularly if the source water is a sewage-polluted river water. This natural treatment results in the settling out of suspended solids reduction of hardness, ammonia, lead, cadmium, and other heavy metals breakdown of organic chemicals and fecal coliform removal of color (due to the action of sunlight) and...

Methods to Remove or Reduce Objectionable Tastes and Odors

Some of the common methods used to remove or reduce objectionable tastes and odors in drinking water supplies, not in order of their effectiveness, are as follows Free residual chlorination or superchlorination Aeration or forced-draft degasifier Application of activated carbon Filtration through granular activated-carbon or charcoal filters Coagulation and filtration of water (also using an excess of coagulant) Control of reservoir intake level Elimination or control of source of trouble...

Basic Health Principles of Housing and Its Environment

Living Unit and Structure Housing includes the living unit for man and family, the immediate surroundings, and the related community services *From Housing Basic Health Principles & Recommended Ordinance (ref. 10). Copyright by the American Public Health Association. Reprinted with permission. and facilities the total is referred to as the residential environment. The following are basic health principles for the residential environment, together with summaries of factors that relate to...

Cyclone Aerosol Collector

Upgrading Door Lining Fire Rated

Bituminous coal 25.629m x 106 Btu ton Anthracite coal 25.721 m x 106 Btu ton Residual fuel oil 149.7m x 106 Btu 106 gal Distillate fuel oil 138.7m x 106 Btu 106 gal Natural gas 1029 Btu ft3 Bituminous coal 25.629m x 106 Btu ton Anthracite coal 25.721 m x 106 Btu ton Residual fuel oil 149.7m x 106 Btu 106 gal Distillate fuel oil 138.7m x 106 Btu 106 gal Natural gas 1029 Btu ft3 cContaminant emission in pounds 0.0630 x (A), where (A) is ash content in percent. dContaminant emission in pounds...

Distribution Storage Requirements

Water storage requirements should take into consideration the peak daily water use, the maximum-day demand plus the required fire flow, the capacity of the normal and standby pumping equipment, the availability and capacity of auxiliary power, the probable duration of power failure, and the promptness with which repairs can be made. Additional considerations include land use, topography, pressure needs, distribution system capacity, special demands, and the increased cost of electric power and...

Water Quantity And Quality Water Cycle and Geology

The movement of water can be best illustrated by the hydrologic, or water, cycle shown in Figure 1.2. Using the clouds and atmospheric vapors as a starting point, moisture condenses out under the proper conditions to form rain, snow, sleet, hail, frost, fog, or dew. Part of the precipitation is evaporated while falling some of it reaches vegetation foliage, the ground, and other surfaces. Moisture intercepted by surfaces is evaporated back into the atmosphere. Part of the water reaching the...

Driven and Jetted Well

These types of wells consist of a well point with a screen attached, or a screen with the bottom open, which is driven or jetted into a water-bearing formation found at a comparatively shallow depth. A series of pipe lengths are attached to the point or screen as it is forced into position. The driven well is constructed by driving the well point, preferably through at least 10 to 20 feet of casing, with the aid of a maul or sledge, pneumatic tamper, sheet pile driver, drive monkey,...