Disease Reporting

Philippines Reporting of disease cases is usually poorly managed in the DCs due to low budgets for this function. A study of this problem in the Philippines57 in 1983 showed that the data reported by provinces varied a lot from the information in the annual reports of the Ministry of Health, and discussions with the responsible reporting doctors in the provinces showed they were employed only on a part-time basis with inadequate time for this task.

Resettlement Villages in China It was found, as part of the resettlement program for China's Yellow River Xiaolangdi dam, in most Chinese rural villages

30 40 50 60 70

Percent of Municipal Excreta Managed

FIGURE 4.21 Estimate of protection against enteric disease furnished by excreta management in urban areas in developing countries.

Notes:

1. Even if only 10% of excreta is left unmanaged, the overall hazard is not much reduced.

2. Most municipal sewerage projects pronoted by World Bank. ADB. USAID, UNEP, etc. manage sewage only for affluent city areas. Hence, they provide little public health protection, yet these projects are often justified as overall community health protection projects.

3. In U.S.. e\'etybody in service area is sewererd.

4. In DC cities, only the affluent areas are sewered. Other areas use individual building on-site subsurface disposal units, which often function very inadequately.

5. To get real public health protection, need 100% excreta management = sewers for affluent areas plus effective sub surface disposal systems individual systems for each nonsewered areas.

30 40 50 60 70

Percent of Municipal Excreta Managed

FIGURE 4.21 Estimate of protection against enteric disease furnished by excreta management in urban areas in developing countries.

in the Yellow River basin the local pharmacies not only sell medicines but keep a careful record of the names/addresses of the villagers who buy them160. Every village had at least one pharmacy, all with competent pharmacists, who kept detailed daily records of names/addresses of all persons who purchased pills/drugs, including which kinds were bought and how much. These pharmacists' records clearly showed that the sale of pills/drugs relating to various diseases sometimes increased to much higher levels for a period of time, indicating an outbreak of a related disease. However, most of these illnesses were never reported to the local health offices. The project recommended that these data could be utilized as a very valuable supplement to the health officer's official records on disease morbidities, so the health officers could be on the alert whenever they notice any marked increase in the use of pills/drugs.

Jordan: Cholera Outbreak During the author's assignment on a USAID project in Jordan in 198460, the water resources ministry noted that, when a cholera outbreak had occurred in one of the country's cities, the government responded by putting the city's sewage treatment plant operator in jail—an indication of their level of knowledge on enteric disease epidemiology at the time.

Syria: Endemic Cholera at Damascus A WHO-sponsored project for planning of sewage treatment at Damascus in 1980 had the target of solving the existing problem of endemic cholera due to discharge of raw sewage into the river running through the city which was subsequently used for irrigating vegetable crops below the city, with the vegetables (with the cholera virus) then sold for consumption in the city149. The study proposed intercepting the raw sewage discharges on both sides of the river, treating the intercepting flows at a station below the city, then pumping the treated flow back for return to the river at a point above the city (to maintain steady river flow).

India: Enteric Cholera at Calcutta A WHO-sponsored project for improving water supply waste management, and drainage at Calcutta in the 1960s146 included provision for chlorinating the river water that was used, separately from the city's drinking water system, for the city's firefighting mains, but this river water was also used as drinking water by about one million illegal squatters living in the city, as the logical and practical step to resolving the endemic cholera problem. However, after several years of such chlorination, the city council discontinued this chlorination with the argument that public health savings applied mostly to the illegal squatters who were not entitled to this expenditure.

Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable.

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