Dug Well

A dug well is one usually excavated by hand, although it may be dug by mechanical equipment. It may be 3 to 6 feet in diameter and 15 to 35 feet deep, depending on where the water-bearing formation or groundwater table is encountered. Wider and deeper wells are less common. Hand pumps over wells and pump lines entering wells should form watertight connections, as shown in Figure 1.5 and Figure 1.6. Since dug wells have a relatively large diameter, they have large storage capacity. The level of the water in dug wells will lower at times of

Digging Water Well Hand
FIGURE 1.5 A properly developed dug well.

drought and the well may go dry. Dug wells are not usually dependable sources of water supply, particularly where modern plumbing is provided. In some areas, properly developed dug wells provide an adequate and satisfactory water supply. However, dug wells are susceptible to contamination deposited on or naturally present in the soil when subjected to heavy rains, particularly if improperly constructed. This potential hazard also applies to shallow bored, driven, and jetted wells. Water quality can be expected to change significantly.

Bored Well

A bored well is constructed with a hand- or machine-driven auger. Bored wells vary in diameter from 2 to 30 inches and in depth from 25 to 60 feet. A casing

Sanitary Well Photos
FIGURE 1.6 Sanitary hand pump and well attachment. Place 2 feet of gravel under slab where frost is expected.

of concrete pipe, vitrified clay pipe, metal pipe, or plastic pipe is necessary to prevent the relatively soft formation penetrated from caving into the well. Bored wells have characteristics similar to dug wells in that they have small yields, are easily polluted, and are affected by droughts.

Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable.

Get My Free Ebook


  • bernd
    What is shallow well in environmental engineering?
    1 year ago
  • ranugad
    How do hand dug affect environment?
    1 year ago

Post a comment