Experience in Asian DCs

Thailand Most Thailand cities are located in the flat lowland regions where the major groundwater resources are at deep depths covered by deep layers of impermeable clays, so it is feasible to find sites where use of expensive liners is not necessary. In about 1990, there were only a few municipal sanitary landfills (MSLs) in the country, and these came about at local initiative (usually by city officials who happened to observe SLF operations in the United States). Beginning in the 1990s, Thailand's Pollution Control Department (branch of the country's environmental ministry), in response to development of serious SWM problems in several municipal areas, undertook studies to plan SLF operations on a provincial basis so that a single MSL could provide economic service to several municipalities in its region. However, while these plans appear excellent from the technical/economic points of view, progress in implementing these schemes has been slow because it has been difficult to obtain political approval from the municipalities involved134.

Malaysia Solid waste disposal problems in cities in the Klang Valley region the country's primary population/industrial region with a number of cities (including the capital city of Kuala Lumpur) had become especially serious by about 1970, due to the legal situation where each city is responsible for managing its own disposal, but usable disposal sites within the city boundaries had become all used up, and the cities had no authority to utilize areas outside their boundaries. As part of an ADB-sponsored project for improving economic-cum-environmental development in the region, called the "Klang Valley Environmental Improvement Project"5, a plan was prepared in 1987 for a single regional SWL system serving all these cities, including trucks for picking up the wastes collected by each city, hauling these to the SWL site (using transfer stations as needed along the way), with the SLF well located for economic hauling form the cities to be serviced. The essence of this plan is shown in Figure 4.16. At the same time, the capital city of Kuala Lumpur had proposed to proceed with an incineration plan that would cost seven times as much per ton of solid waste incinerated, compared to the regional plan, and even the incineration scheme would dispose of only 80 percent of the waste with 20 percent remaining as residue to be disposed of by hauling to a landfill.

Philippines In most DCs, a serious public health hazard is the practice of the urban poor to find employment by visiting SLF sites to pick them over to recover plastics and other resalable. In the Philippines, the Ministry of Human




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