Cyclone Aerosol Collector

aTypical fuel values:

Bituminous coal=25.629m x 106 Btu/ton Anthracite coal=25.721 m x 106 Btu/ton Residual fuel oil=149.7m x 106 Btu/106 gal Distillate fuel oil=138.7m x 106 Btu/106 gal Natural gas=1029 Btu/ft3

aTypical fuel values:

Bituminous coal=25.629m x 106 Btu/ton Anthracite coal=25.721 m x 106 Btu/ton Residual fuel oil=149.7m x 106 Btu/106 gal Distillate fuel oil=138.7m x 106 Btu/106 gal Natural gas=1029 Btu/ft3

6 Utility.

cContaminant emission in pounds=0.0630 x (A), where (A) is ash content in percent. dContaminant emission in pounds=1.407 x (S), where (S) is sulfur content in percent. Source: From E. W. Davis, Division of Air Resources, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, personal communication, 1990. An extensive collection of emission factors is available from the EPA AP-42 at

The internal combustion engine is a major producer of air pollutants. A change from gasoline to another fuel or a major improvement in the efficiency of the gasoline engine would attack that problem at the source. Inspection of cars and light trucks for compliance with exhaust emissions standards can significantly reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide levels in the ambient air. Heavy-duty gasoline trucks also add a large percentage of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons; however, their reduction will require phasing out old trucks and catalytic converter installation on new trucks. Reducing the lead content of gasoline and capturing gasoline evaporation during handling from filling stations, petroleum storage tanks, auto tanks, and carburetors are other means of source control. Improved mass transit, use of bus lanes, reduced travel by personal car, better traffic control for faster vehicle travel, and less stop-and-go are other means to reduce emissions.

Significant air pollution control can be achieved by process and material changes, recovery and recycling of waste materials, or product recovery, as by collection of combustion product particles of value.

Proper design of basic equipment, provision of adequate solid waste collection service, elimination of open burning, and the upgrading or elimination of inefficient apartment house, municipal, institutional, and commercial incinerators also attack the problem at the source.

Proper operation and maintenance of production facilities and equipment will often not only reduce air pollution but also save money. For example, air-fuel ratios can determine the amount of unburned fuel going up the stack, combustion temperature can affect the strain placed on equipment when operated beyond rated capacity, and the competency of supervision can determine the quantity and type of pollutants released and the quality of the product.

Emission Control Equipment

Municipal waste incinerators can emit hazardous levels of dioxins and other organic chemicals, metals, and acid gases if not regulated. In view of this, the EPA is requiring strict controls on air emissions from such facilities.45 In addition to dioxins, the organics include furans, chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The metals are arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. The EPA believes that proper incinerator combustion, acid gas scrubber, and partic-ulate removal can achieve 99 percent or greater reduction of dioxins and furans, 95 percent or greater reduction of organics, 90 percent or greater reduction of hydrogen chloride, and 97 to 99 percent reduction of metals.

Emission control equipment is designed to remove or reduce particulates, aerosols (solids and liquid forms), and gaseous byproducts from various sources and, in some instances, emissions resulting from inefficient design and operation. Here are four operating principles of aerosol collection equipment:

1. Inertial entrapment by altering the direction and velocity of the effluent

2. Increasing the size of the particles through conglomeration or liquid mist entrainment to subject the particles to inertial and gravitational forces within the operational range of the control device

3. Impingement of particles on impact surfaces, baffles, or filters

4. Precipitation of contaminants in electrical fields or by thermal convection.46

The collection of gases and vapors is based on the particular physical and chemical properties of the gases to be controlled.

Particulate Collectors and Separators

Some of the more common collectors and separators are identified in this section. These have application in mechanical operations for dust control such as in pulverizing, grinding, blending, woodworking, and handling flour as well as at power stations, incinerators, cement plants, heavy metallurgical operations, and other dusty operations. In general, collector efficiencies increase with particle size and from a low efficiency with baffled settling chambers, increasing with cyclones, electrostatic precipitators, spray towers, scrubbers, and baghouses, depending also on design, operation, and combinations of collectors used.

Settling chambers cause velocity reduction, usually to slower than 10 fps, and the settling of particles larger than 40 |xm in diameter in trays that can be removed for cleaning. Special designs can intercept particles as small as 10 |xm.

Cyclones impose a downward spiraling movement on the tangentially directed incoming dust-laden gas, causing separation of particles by centrifugal force and collection at the bottom of the cone. Particle sizes collected range from 5 to 200 |xm at gas flows of 30 to 25,000 ft3/min. Removal efficiency below 10 |xm particle size is low. Cyclones can be placed in series or combined with other devices to increase removal efficiency. See Figures 4.4 and 4.5.

Sonic collectors can be used to facilitate separation of liquid or solid particles in settling chambers or cyclones. High-frequency sound pressure waves cause particles to vigorously vibrate, collide, and coalesce. Collectors can be designed to remove particles smaller than 10 |xm.

Filters are of two general types: the baghouse and cloth screen. The filter medium governs the temperature of the gas to be filtered, particle size removed, capacity and loading, and durability of the filter. Filter operating temperatures

Clean air

Clean air

Images Cyclone Air Flow Patterns
FIGURE 4.4 Flow of dust through cyclone. (Source: Adapted from Air Pollution Control Field Operations Manual, PHS Pub. No. 937, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC, 1962.)
Cyclone Aerosol Collector
FIGURE 4.5 Diagram of cyclone separator. (Source: Air Pollution Control Field Operations Manual, PHS Pub. No. 937, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC, 1962.)

vary from about 200°F (93°C) for wool or cotton to 450° to 500°F (232°-260°C) for glass fiber.

A baghouse filter is shown in Figure 4.6. The tubular bags are 5 to 18 inches in diameter and from 2 to 30 feet in length. The dust-laden gas stream to be filtered passes through the bags where the particles build up on the inside and, in so doing, increase the filtering efficiency. Periodic shaking of the bags (tubes) causes the collected dust to fall off and restore the filtering capacity. The baghouse filter has particular application in cement plants, heavy metallurgical operations, and other dusty operations. Efficiencies exceeding 99 percent and particle removal below 10 |xm in size are reported, depending on the major form and buildup. Baghouses are usually supplemented by scrubber systems.

Cloth-screen filters are used in the smaller grinding, tumbling, and abrasive cleaning operations. Dust-laden air passes through one or more cloth screens in series. The screens are replaced as needed. Other types of filters use packed fibers, filter beds, granules, and oil baths.

War Memorial Colouring Pics Kids
FIGURE 4.6 Simplified diagram of a baghouse. (Source: Air Pollution Control Field Operations Manual, PHS Pub. 937, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC, 1962.)

Electrostatic precipitators have application in power plants, cement plants, and incinerators as well as in metallurgical, refining, and heavy chemical industries for the collection of fumes, dusts, and acid mists. Particles, in passing through a high-voltage electrical field, are charged and then attracted to a plate of the opposite charge where they collect. The accumulated material falls into a hopper when vibrated. See Figure 4.7.

The gases treated may be cold or at a temperature as high as 1,100° F (593°C), but 600°F (316°C) or less is more common, typically 280° to 300°F (138°-149°C). Precipitators are efficient for the collection of particles less than 0.5 |xm in size; hence, cyclones and settling chambers, which are better for the removal of larger particles, are sometimes used ahead of precipitators. Single-stage units operate at voltages of 25,000 V or higher; two-stage units (used in air conditioning) operate at 12,000 V in the first or ionizing unit and at 6,000 V in the second collection unit.

Upgrading Door Lining Fire Rated

Reclaimed dust (shaken from plates)

FIGURE 4.7 Diagram of plate-type electrostatic precipitator used to collect catalyst dust. (Source: Adapted from Air Pollution Control Field Operations Manual, PHS Pub. 937, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Washington, DC, 1962.)

Electrostatic precipitators are commonly used at large power stations and incinerators to remove particulates from flue gases. Particulate removal of at least 98 to 99 percent can be achieved. They are considered one of the most effective devices for this purpose. Flue gases may be cooled by water spray, air cooling, or passage through a boiler.

Scrubbers are of different types, selected for specific applications. They include spray towers, ejector venturis, venturi scrubbers, and packed-bed, plate, moving-bed, centrifugal, impingement, and entrainment types. See Figures 4.8 and 4.9.

Wet collectors are generally used to remove gases such as hydrogen chloride, nitrous oxides, and sulfur dioxide and particles that form as a dust, fog, or mist. A high-pressure liquid spray is applied to the gas passing through the washer, filter, venturi, or other device. In so doing, the gas is cooled and cleaned. Although

Wash Tower Ejectors
FIGURE 4.8 Centrifugal wash collector. (Source: Air Pollution Control Field Operations Manual, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC, 1962.)

water is usually used as the spray, a caustic may be added if the gas stream is acidic. Where the spray water is recirculated, corrosion of the scrubber, fan, and pump impeller can be a serious problem. Particle size collected may range from 40 |xm to as low as 1 |xm with efficiency as high as 98 to 99 percent, depending on the collector design. Required removal efficiencies for hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen fluoride can usually be met.

Controls for sulfur dioxide emissions include wet and dry flue gas desulfuriza-tion and fuel switching and physically cleaning coal. Nitrogen oxide emissions can be controlled by special burners or by catalytic or selective noncatalytic reduction. A duct injection technology (dry scrubber) is being emphasized by the Department of Energy (DOE) to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions from existing coal-fired power plants: "Lime is sprayed into existing ductwork located just after the combustion chamber. Fly ash in the exhaust stream reacts with the small pieces of lime, then with sulfur oxides and is finally captured by a filter fabric."47

For every ton of sulfur removed, 3 to 6 tons of sludge from wet scrubbers will require safe disposal.

Venturi Educator
FIGURE 4.9 Venturi scrubber. (Source: Air Pollution Control Field Operations Manual , PHS Pub. 937, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC, 1962.)

Gaseous Collectors and Treatment Devices

The release of gases and vapors to the atmosphere can be controlled by combustion, condensation, absorption, and adsorption. Combustion devices include thermal afterburners, catalytic afterburners, furnaces, and flares.

Thermal afterburners are used to complete the combustion of unburned fuel, such as smoke and particulate matter, and to burn gaseous hydrocarbons and odorous combustible gases. Apartment house and commercial incinerators and meat-packing plant smokehouses are examples of smoke and particulate emitters. Rendering, packing house, refinery, and paint and varnish operations; fish processing; and coffee roasting are examples of odor-producing operations. Afterburners usually operate at around 1200oF (649oC) but may range from 900° to 1600oF (482°-871°C), depending on the ignition temperature of the contaminant to be burned.

Catalytic afterburners may be used for the burning of lean mixtures of combustible gaseous air contaminants. They are also used to reduce nitrous oxides, with ammonia injection.

Condensers are best used to remove vapors by condensation, generally prior to passage to other air pollution control equipment, thus reducing the load on this equipment. Condensers are of the surface and contact types. In the surface condenser, the vapor comes into contact with a horizontal cool surface and condenses to form liquid droplets with a pure saturated vapor or, more commonly, a film. In the contact condenser, the coolant, vapors, and condensate are all in intimate direct contact.

Adsorbers are of the fixed-bed stationary or rotating type, in horizontal or vertical cylinders, usually with activated-carbon beds or supported screens, through which the gas stream passes. In adsorption, the molecules of a fluid such as a gas, liquid, or dissolved substance to be treated are brought into contact with the adsorbent, such as activated carbon, aluminas, silicates, char, or gels that collect the contaminant in the pores or capillaries. The material adsorbed is called the adsorbate. In some cases, the adsorbent, such as activated carbon, is regenerated by superheated steam at about 650°F (343°C); the contaminant is condensed and collected for proper disposal. In other cases, the adsorbent and adsorbate are separated from the fluid and discarded. Solid adsorbents have very large surface-to-volume ratios and different adsorptive abilities, depending on the particular adsorbate. The life of an activated-carbon adsorption bed is reduced if particulate matter is not first removed.

In absorption, the gaseous emission to be treated is passed through a packed tower, spray or plate tower, and venturi absorbers, where it comes in contact with a liquid absorbing medium or spray that selectively dissolves or reacts with the air contaminants to be removed. For example, oxides of nitrogen can be absorbed by water; hydrogen fluoride, by water or an alkaline water solution. Absorption is generally also used to control emissions of sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen chloride, chlorine, and some hydrocarbons. Lime injection controls acid gas emissions from incinerators.

Vapor conservation equipment is used to prevent vapors escaping from the storage of volatile organic compounds such as gasoline. A storage tank with a sealed floating roof cover or a vapor recovery system connected to a storage tank is used. Vapors that can be condensed are returned to the storage tank.

Dilution by Stack Height

Since wind speed increases with height in the lower layer of the atmosphere, the release of pollutants through a tall stack enhances the transport and diffusion of the material. The elevated plume is rapidly transported and diffused downwind. This generally occurs at a rate faster than that of the diffusion toward the ground. The resulting downwind distribution of pollutant concentrations at the ground level is such that concentrations are virtually zero at the base of the stack, increase to a maximum at some downwind distance, and then decrease to negligible concentrations thereafter. This distribution and the difference due to stack height are shown schematically in Figure 4.10. This applies to uncomplicated weather and level terrain. Obviously, if the plume is transported to hill areas, the surfaces will be closer to the center of the plume and hence will experience higher concentrations.

Meteorological conditions will determine the type of diffusion the pollutant plume will follow. See Figure 4.3. With heavy atmospheric turbulence associated with an unstable lapse rate, the plume will "loop" as it travels downwind. With


FIGURE 4.10 Variation of ground-level pollutant concentration with downwind distance. (The distance may be hundreds of miles.)


FIGURE 4.10 Variation of ground-level pollutant concentration with downwind distance. (The distance may be hundreds of miles.)

lesser turbulence associated with a neutral lapse rate, the plume will form a series of extended, overlapping cones called coning. With stable air conditions and little turbulence associated with an inversion, the plume will "fan" out gradually. With the discharge of a plume below an inversion, the plume will be dispersed rapidly downward to the ground surface, causing fumigation. With the discharge of a plume within the inversion layer, the plume will spread out horizontally as it moves downwind with little dispersion toward the ground. Erratic weather conditions can cause high concentrations of pollutants at ground level if the plume is transported to the ground.

It has been general practice to use high stacks for the emission of large quantities of pollutants, such as in fossil-fueled power production, to reduce the relatively close-in ground-level effects of the pollutants. Stacks of 250 to 350 feet in height are not unusual, and some are as high as 800 to 1,250 feet. It should be recognized, however, that there is a practical limit to height beyond which cost becomes excessive and the additional dilution obtained is not significant. There may also be legal permitting restrictions on the maximum stack height.

Although local conditions are improved where a tall stack is used, adverse environmental effects continue to be associated with the distant (long-range) transport of pollutants. For example, the pollutants contribute to acid rain, heavy-metal particle deposition, and toxic metal dissolution from surrounding or downwind soils and rocks into surface and groundwaters, which adversely affect the flora and fauna hundreds or more miles away (as previously noted). Therefore, emphasis should be placed on reduction of emission concentrations, rather than on dispersion from a tall stack, to improve ambient air quality. The EPA is also considering requiring pollution control devices on tall stacks and limiting tall stacks for emission dispersion by requiring removal instead.

Planning and Zoning

The implementation of planning and zoning controls requires professional analysis and the cooperation of the state and regional planning agencies and the local county, city, village, and town units of government.

The local economic, social, and political factors may limit what can realistically be achieved in many instances. For example, a combination of factors, including planning and zoning means, should be considered in locating a new plant. These means could include plant siting downwind from residential, work, and recreational areas, with consideration given to climate and meteorological factors, frequency of inversions, topography, air movement, stack height, and adjacent land uses. Additional factors are distance separation, open-space buffers, designation of industrial areas, traffic and transportation control, and possible regulation of plant raw materials and processes. All these controls must recognize the present and future land use and especially the air quality needed for health and comfort, regardless of the land ownership.

The maintenance of air quality that meets established criteria requires regulation of the location, density, and/or type of plants and plant emissions that could cause contravention of air quality standards. This calls for local and regional land-use control and cooperation to ensure that the permitted construction of plants would incorporate practices and control equipment that would not emit pollution that could adversely influence the air quality of the community in the airshed. See Tables 4.6 and 4.7 and "Ambient Air Quality Standards," later in this chapter.

Monitoring of the air at carefully selected locations would continually inform and alert the regulatory agency of the need for additional source control and enforcement of emission standards. Conceivably, under certain unusually adverse weather conditions, a plant may have to take previously planned emergency actions to reduce or practically eliminate emissions for a period of time.

Air zoning establishes different air quality standards for different areas based on the most desirable and feasible use of land. As discussed earlier in this chapter, the 1977 amendments to the Clean Air Act allow each state to classify air areas as either class I, II, or III. Class I areas would remain virtually unchanged and class III could permit intensive industrial activity. Specific standards are established for each classification level. In all levels, however, protection of the public health is paramount. Insofar as air zoning is concerned, an industry should be able to choose its location and types of emission controls provided the air quality standards are not violated.

Although air zoning provides a system or basis for land use and development, sound planning can assist in greatly minimizing the effects of air pollution. A WHO Expert Committee suggests seven steps:48

1. The siting of new towns should be undertaken only after a thorough study of local topography and meteorology.

2. New industries using materials or processes likely to produce air contaminants should be so located as to minimize the effects of air pollution.

3. Satellite (dormitory) towns should restrict the use of pollution-producing fuels.

4. Provision should be made for greenbelts and open spaces to facilitate the dilution and dispersion of unavoidable pollution.

5. Greater use should be made of hydroelectric and atomic power and of natural gas for industrial processes and domestic purposes, thereby reducing the pollution resulting from the use of conventional fossil fuels.

6. Greater use should be made of central plants for the provision of both heat and hot water for entire (commercial or industrial) districts.

7. As motor transport is a major source of pollution, traffic planning can materially affect the level of pollution in residential areas.

It is apparent that more needs to be learned and applied concerning open spaces, bodies of water, and trees and other vegetation to assist in air pollution control. For example, parks and greenbelts appear to be desirable locations for expressways because vegetation, in the presence of light, will utilize the carbon dioxide given off by automobiles and release oxygen. In addition, highway designers must give consideration to such factors as road grades, speeds and elevations, natural and artificial barriers, interchange locations, and adjacent land uses as means of reducing the amounts and effects of automobile noise and emissions.

Air Quality Modeling

It is possible to calculate and predict, within limits, the approximate effects of existing and proposed air pollution sources on the ambient air quality.49 A wide variety of models are used to estimate the air quality impacts of sources on receptors, to prepare or review new industrial and other source applications, and to develop air quality management plans for an area or region.

Air quality models can be categorized into four classes:

1. Gaussian: Most often used for estimating the ground-level impact of non-reactive pollutants from stationary sources in a smooth terrain.

2. Numerical: Most often used for estimating the impact of reactive and non-reactive pollutants in complex terrain.

3. Statistical: Employed in situations where physical or chemical processes are not well understood.

4. Physical: Involves experimental investigation of source impact in a wind tunnel facility.

Because of the almost limitless variety of situations for which modeling may be employed, no single model can be considered "best." Instead, the user is encouraged to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the various models available and select the one best suited to the particular job at hand.

The EPA has made a number of models available to the general public through its User's Network for Applied Modeling of Air Pollution (UNAMAP). These models can be obtained from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS).

The information needed to use an air quality model includes source emission data, meteorological data, and pollutant concentration data.

Source Emission Data Sources of pollutants can generally be classified as point, line, or area sources. Point sources are individual stacks and are identified by location, type and rate of emission, and stack parameters (stack height, diameter, exit gas velocity, and temperature). Line sources are generally confined to roadways and can be located by the ends of roadway segments. Area sources include all the minor point and line sources that are too small to require individual consideration. These sources are usually treated as a grid network of square areas, with pollutant emissions totaled and distributed uniformly within each grid square.

Meteorological Data The data needed to represent the meteorological characteristics of a given area consist of (as a minimum) wind direction, wind speed, atmospheric stability, and mixing height. The representativeness of the data for a given location will depend on the proximity of the meteorological monitoring site to the area being studied, the period of time during which data are collected, and the complexity of terrain in the area. Local universities, industries, airports, and government agencies can all be used as sources of such data.

Pollutant Concentration Data In order to assess the accuracy of a model for a particular application, predicted concentrations must be compared against observed values. This can be done by obtaining historical pollutant concentration data from air quality monitors located in the study area. Air quality data from monitors located in remote areas should also be obtained to determine if a background concentration should be included in the model. Data should be verified using appropriate statistical procedures.

The accuracy of the model used depends on the following factors:

1. How closely do the assumptions upon which the model is based correspond to the actual conditions for which the model is being used? For example, a model that assumes that the area being modeled is a flat plain of infinite extent may work well in Kansas but not in Wyoming.

2. How accurate is the information being used as input for the model? Of particular importance here is verifying the accuracy of source emission data. Some points to consider are as follows:

a. Should the source emission data be given in terms of potential, actual, or allowable emissions? "Actual" emissions should always be used for model verification.

b. Does emission rate vary by time of day or time of year?

c. What level of production, percent availability, and so on should be assumed for each emission source? The emission rates for industrial sources will often decline significantly during periods of economic recession. Similarly, stationary fuel combustion sources (for space heating) will vary according to the severity of the winter.

d. Are stack parameters correct? Are there nearby structures or terrain features that could influence the dispersion patterns of individual sources?

e. Is the source location correctly identified?

f. How reliable is the pollution control equipment installed on each emission source?

The user will often find that the job of verifying the input data are the most difficult and time-consuming part of the modeling process.

As the cost of computer services continues to decline, it is expected that air quality modeling will become an available technology for smaller agencies such as local health and planning departments. The person who performs this modeling will have to be knowledgeable not only in traditional air pollution control engineering but also in the fields of air pollution meteorology and computer programming.


A program for air resources management should be based on a comprehensive areawide air pollution survey including air sampling, basic studies and analyses, and recommendations for ambient air quality standards. The study should be followed by an immediate and long-term plan to achieve the community air quality goals and objectives, coupled with a surveillance and monitoring system and regulation of emissions.

MacKenzie proposes six conclusions and decisions for the implementation of a study:43

1. Select air quality standard, possibly with variations in various parts of the area.

2. Cooperate with other community planners in allocating land uses.

3. Design remedial measures calculated to bring about the air quality desired. Such measures might include several or all of the following: limitations on pollutant emissions, variable emission limits for certain weather conditions and predictions, special emission limits for certain areas, time schedules for commencing certain control actions, control of fuel composition, control of future sources by requiring plan approvals, prohibition of certain plan approvals, prohibition of certain activities or requirements for certain types of control equipment, and performance standards for new land uses.

4. Outline needs for future studies pertaining to air quality and pollutant emissions and design systems for collection, storage, and retrieval of the resultant data.

5. Establish priorities among program elements and set dates for implementation.

6. Prepare specific recommendations as to administrative organization needed to implement the program, desirable legislative changes, relationships with other agencies and programs in the area and adjoining areas and at higher governmental levels, and funds, facilities, and staff required.

As in most studies, a continual program of education and public information supplemented by periodic updating is necessary. People must learn that air pollution can be a serious hazard and must be motivated to support the need for its control. In addition, surveys and studies must be kept current; otherwise, the air resources management activities may be based on false or outdated premises.

International treaties, interstate compacts or agreements, and regional organizations are sometimes also needed to resolve air pollution problems that cross juris-dictional boundaries. This becomes more important as industrialization increases and as people become more concerned about the quality of their environment.

It becomes apparent that the various levels of government each have important complementary and cooperative roles to play in air pollution control.

The federal government role includes research into the causes and effects of air pollution, as well as the control of international and interstate air pollution on behalf of the affected parties. It should also have responsibility for a national air-sampling network, training, preparation of manuals and dissemination of information, and assisting state and local governments. In the United States, this is done primarily through the EPA. Other federal agencies making major contributions are the U.S. Weather Service; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in relation to the effects of radioactivity; the Department of Agriculture, in relation to the effects of air pollution on livestock and crops; the Department of Interior; the Department of Commerce, including the National Bureau of Standards; and the Civil Aeronautics Administration.

The state role is similar to the federal role. It would include, in addition, the setting of statewide standards and establishment of a sampling network, the authority to declare emergencies and possession of appropriate powers during emergencies, the delegation of powers to local agencies for control programs, and the conducting of surveys, demonstration projects, public hearings, and special investigations.

The role of local government is that delegated to it by the state and could include complete program implementation and enforcement.

Organization and Staffing

Organization and staffing will vary with the level of government, the legislated responsibility, funds provided, government commitment, extent of air pollution, and other factors. Generally, air pollution programs are organized and staffed on the state, county, large-city, and federal levels. In some instances, limited programs of smoke and nuisance abatement are carried out in small cities, towns, and villages as part of a health, building, or fire department program. Because of the complexities involved, competent direction, staff, and laboratory support are needed to carry out an effective and comprehensive program. A small community usually cannot afford—and, in fact, might not have need for—a full staff, but it could play a needed supporting role to the county and state programs. In this way, uniform policy guidance and technical support could be provided and local on-the-spot assistance utilized. The local government should be assigned all the responsibilities it is capable of handling effectively.

An organization chart for an air resources management agency is shown in Figure 4.11. There are many variations.

Regulation and Administration

A combination of methods and techniques is generally used to prevent and control air pollution after a program is developed, air-quality objectives established, and problem areas defined:

• Public information and education

• Source registration

• Plan review and construction operation approval

• Emission standards

• Monitoring and surveillance

• Technical assistance and training

• Inspection and compliance follow-up

• Conference, persuasion, and administrative hearing

• Rescinding or suspension of operation permit

• Legal action—fine, imprisonment, misdemeanor, injunction

Effective administration requires the development and retention of competent staff and the assignment of responsibilities. In a small community, the responsibilities would probably be limited to source location and surveillance, data collection, smoke and other visible particulate detection, complaint investigation, and abatement as an arm of a county, regional, or state enforcement unit.

Regulatory agencies usually develop their own procedures, forms, and techniques to carry out the functions just listed. Staffing, in addition to the director of air pollution control, may include one or more of the following: engineers, scientists, sanitarians, chemists, toxicologists, epidemiologists, public information

Air Resources Management System
FIGURE 4.11 Air resources management functional organization chart.

specialists, technicians, inspectors, attorneys, administrative assistants, statisticians, meteorologists, electronic data processing specialists, and personnel in supporting services.

Important in regulation is the development of working relationships and memoranda of agreements with various public and private agencies. For instance, government construction, equipment, and vehicles could set examples of air pollution prevention. The building department would ensure that new incinerators and heating plants have the proper air pollution control equipment. The police would enforce vehicular air pollution control requirements. The fire department would carry out fire prevention and perhaps boiler inspections. The planning and zoning boards would rely on the director of air pollution control and the director's staff for technical support, guidance, and testimony at hearings. Equipment manufacturers would agree to sell only machinery, equipment, and devices that complied with the emission standards. The education department would incorporate air pollution prevention and control in its environmental health curriculum. Industry, realty, and chain-store management would agree to abide by the rules and police itself. Cooperative training and education programs would be provided for personnel responsible for operating boilers, equipment, and other facilities that may contribute to air pollution. These are but a few examples. With ingenuity, many more voluntary arrangements can be devised to make regulation more acceptable and effective.

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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