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IC affluence. These criteria/standards are simply not affordable or appropriate for use in DCs; hence, the criteria/standards that are appropriate represent lesser levels as shown in the figures. However, as shown in Figure 4.2, even at a much lower percentage of cost, the bulk of the environmental protection can still be achieved. The problem is in modifying IC criteria/standards to reduce them to appropriate DC levels, which takes truly expert judgment. This is another reason for the need for "cookbook" textbooks/manuals.

(a) Figure 4.3 also illustrates the influence of costs in differentiating between IC and DC design criteria. While Point C represents the target in current U.S. practice, Point B is the appropriate target for DCs.

Years

FIGURE 4.3 Levels of U.S. requirements for treatment of water supply and sewage. Source: H. Ludwig/2007.

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Years

FIGURE 4.3 Levels of U.S. requirements for treatment of water supply and sewage. Source: H. Ludwig/2007.

Lack of Enforcement of Environmental Laws/Regulations This problem is illustrated in Figure 4.4. The ICs clearly understand that laws/regulations are not meaningful unless their requirements are enforced using monitoring to detect noncompliance with penalties for noncompliance sufficient to encourage compliance. Sad to say, no DC has as yet have applied this principle so that, while the DCs do often have excellent laws/regulations for environmental protection, including use of the EIA process, generally the monitoring of performance and use of serious penalties is low, which, of course, encourages evasion rather than compliance82. However, as noted earlier, experience in the DCs shows that if an EE facility is properly designed so it can be feasibly operated within the DC system, there is a good chance that the plant will be made to perform by its management despite the lack of monitoring/enforcement.

Use of Private Sector As already noted, much more effective use of the private sector is recommended, especially for water and sanitation systems. How to achieve this is discussed in the section on "Urban Water Supply."

Protection of Precious Ecosystems A serious deficiency in conventional economic analyses of proposed development project is to ignore the real value of precious ecosystems that will be impaired by the project simply because of lack of mechanics for expressing this value in the money terms used for such analyses. This issue is discussed in the section on "Development Planning."

Environmental Protection Action (EPA)

Enforcement

Laws/Regulations (L/Rs)

Effective Monitoring (EM)

Enforcement (E)

Stiff Penalties (SPs)

Enforcement

Effective Monitoring (EM)

Stiff Penalties (SPs)

FIGURE 4.4 Environmental protection action versus enforcement.120.
Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable.

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