Other Survey Methods

These include aerial surveys, external ground-level surveys, and the Public Health Service Neighborhood Environmental Evaluation and Decision System (NEEDS).9 The selection of a small number of significant environmental variables can also provide a basis for a rapid survey if checked against a more comprehensive survey system.

NEEDS This is a five-stage systems technique designed to provide a rapid and reliable measure of neighborhood environmental quality. The data collected are adapted for electronic data processing to reduce the time lapse between data collection, analysis, program planning, and implementation.

FIGURE 2.4 Dwelling survey.

Stage I An exterior sidewalk survey is made of 10 to 20 blocks in each problem neighborhood of a city to determine those in greatest need of upgrading. The conditions analyzed include structural overcrowding, population crowding, premises conditions, structural condition of housing and other buildings, environmental stresses, condition of streets and utilities, natural deficiencies, public transportation, natural hazards and deficiencies, shopping facilities, parks and playgrounds, and airport noise. (Time: 1 person-hour per block.)

Stage II The neighborhood(s) selected are surveyed in some depth to determine the physical and social environmental problems facing the residents. About 300 dwelling units and families are sampled in the study area. This phase includes interviews to determine demographic characteristics, health problems, health services, interior housing conditions, and resident attitudes.

Stage III The data collected in stage II are computer processed and analyzed with local government and community leaders. Problems are identified and priorities for action are established.

Stage IV Programs are developed to carry out the decisions made in stage III. The community participates and is kept aware of the study results and action proposed.

Stage V The decisions made and programs developed are implemented. Federal fiscal assistance is also solicited, and the information and support made possible by this technique are used to strengthen applications for grants.9

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Disaster Survival Guides Collection

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