Prevention of Foodborne Diseases

The application of known and well-established microbiological and sanitary principles has been effective in keeping foodborne diseases under control, but it is apparent that more effective measures are needed. Refrigeration, hygienic practices including prevention of cross-contamination with raw foods or contaminated surfaces, food preparation planning, hot or cold holding of potentially hazardous food, identification and assurance of critical temperatures for proper cooking and reheating, and general sanitation are most important. These precautions apply also to prepared frozen dinners, reconstituted foods, and drinks. Leaving food at room temperature, inadequate cooking, and storing food in a large container account for many outbreaks. Continuous and competent surveillance is necessary to identify and eliminate procedures that might permit contamination of food or the growth of microorganisms or the accidental addition of toxic substances

FIGURE 3.1 Food sanitation temperature chart.

from the point of preparation to the point of consumption to prevent foodborne illnesses.

The approximate optimal temperature for growth of the principal organisms associated with foodborne illnesses are salmonella 99°F (37°C) (maximal 114oF), Staphyhcoccus aureus 99°F (maximal 114°F), Clostridium perfringens 115°F (46°C) (maximal 112°F), and enterococci (maximal 126°F). Listeria, in contrast, can grow at lower temperatures and is thus often associated with contaminated of refrigerated deli meats and soft cheeses.63

Salmonellae are widely distributed in nature and found in many raw food products, especially poultry, beef, and swine. Pets are also reservoirs of salmonellae, and outbreaks of Salmonella have also been associated with pet food.64 Tables and surfaces used in preparing raw poultry and other meats can serve as vehicles for the spread of Salmonella and other pathogens unless they are thoroughly cleaned and sanitized between each use. Clostridium perfringens, Campylobacter jejuni, and Staphylococcus aureus are also frequently found in samples of raw beef and on workers' hands, knives, and cutting boards, as well as in soil, dust, and the intestinal tracts of humans and other warm-blooded animals. Raw meat and seafood should be separated from other food in the grocery cart or refrigerator; persons should always wash hands, cutting boards, and dishes with hot soapy water after coming in contact with raw meat, poultry, or seafood; one cutting board should be used for raw meat, poultry, and seafood and another for foods that are ready to eat; cooked food should never be place on a plate that previously held raw meat, poultry, or seafood.63

Salmonellae may survive up to 10 months in cheddar cheese. Aging of salmonella-infected cheese 60 days, manufactured from heat-treated (nonpas-teurized) milk, is therefore ineffective to prevent human illness. The use of pasteurized milk can ensure the marketing of safe milk and milk products, including elimination of Salmonella spp., Listeria, Yersinia, Campylobacter, enterohemorrhagic E. coli, and other pathogens.65 Thorough cooking 165°F (74°C) of raw shell eggs, raw meat and poultry, raw clams, and other foods of animal origin before consumption will prevent salmonellae infections, as will the use of pasteurized egg products in preparing eggnog, Caesar salad, hollandaise sauce, and homemade mayonnaise and ice cream. Eggs should not be used raw and should be cooked thoroughly before service. Flocks and eggs have been found infected.66 Cross-contamination during food preparation should be avoided.

Fish that has been fried, baked, or broiled until it flakes when pried with a fork can be assumed to be free of viable parasites. Freezing fish at —4°F (-20°C) for three to five days will also kill most pathogens. Cooking fish to a temperature of 145°F (63°C) will kill parasites.63

Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for numerous foodborne outbreaks, many of which are not recognized. Campylobacter contamination of food products may begin during animal slaughtering and processing and may be increased by overconcentration of animals in feedlots and brooding houses. Poor food handling, storage, and sanitation facilitate Campylobacter transmission.

CONTROL AND PREVENTION OF FOODBORNE DISEASES 191 TABLE 3.3 Pathogen Time-Temperature Inactivation"

Temperature

CONTROL AND PREVENTION OF FOODBORNE DISEASES 191 TABLE 3.3 Pathogen Time-Temperature Inactivation"

Temperature

Organism

°C

°F

Time

Source

Ascaris lumbricoides eggs

Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable.

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